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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 160, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Uganda, there are persistent weaknesses in obtaining accurate, reliable and complete data on local and external investments in immunization to guide planning, financing, and resource mobilization. This study aimed to measure and describe the financial envelope for immunization from 2012 to 2016 and analyze expenditures at sub-national level. METHODS: The Systems of Health Accounts (SHA) 2011 methodology was used to quantify and map the resource envelope for immunization. Data was collected at national and sub-national levels from public and external sources of immunization. Data were coded, categorized and disaggregated by expenditure on immunization activities using the SHA 2011. RESULTS: Over the five-year period, funding for immunization increased fourfold from US$20.4 million in 2012 to US$ 85.6 million in 2016. The Ugandan government was the main contributor (55%) to immunization resources from 2012 to 2014 however, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance contributed the majority (59%) of the resources to immunization in 2015 and 2016. Majority (66%) of the funds were managed by the National Medical Stores. Over the five-year period, 80% of the funds allocated to immunization activities were spent on facility based routine immunization (expenditure on human resources and outreaches). At sub-national level, districts allocated 15% of their total annual resources to immunization to support supervision of lower health facilities and distribution of vaccines. Health facilities spent 5.5% of their total annual resources on immunization to support outreaches. CONCLUSION: Development partner support has aided the improvement of vaccine coverage and increased access to vaccines however, there is an increasing dependence on this support for a critical national program raising sustainability concerns alongside other challenges like being off-budget and unpredictable. To ensure financial sustainability, there is need to operationalize the immunization fund, advocate and mobilize additional resources for immunization from the Government of Uganda and the private sector, increase the reliability of resources for immunization as well as leverage on health financing reforms like the National Health Insurance.

2.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 8(4): 771-782, 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361241

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As global health programs have become increasingly complex, corresponding evaluations must be designed to assess the full complexity of these programs. Gavi and the Global Fund have commissioned 2 such evaluations to assess the full spectrum of their investments using a prospective mixed-methods approach. We aim to describe lessons learned from implementing these evaluations. METHODS: This article presents a synthesis of lessons learned based on the Gavi and Global Fund prospective mixed-methods evaluations, with each evaluation considered a case study. The lessons are based on the evaluation team's experience from over 7 years (2013-2020) implementing these evaluations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Framework for Evaluation in Public Health was used to ground the identification of lessons learned. RESULTS: We identified 5 lessons learned that build on existing evaluation best practices and include a mix of practical and conceptual considerations. The lessons cover the importance of (1) including an inception phase to engage stakeholders and inform a relevant, useful evaluation design; (2) aligning on the degree to which the evaluation is embedded in the program implementation; (3) monitoring programmatic, organizational, or contextual changes and adapting the evaluation accordingly; (4) hiring evaluators with mixed-methods expertise and using tools and approaches that facilitate mixing methods; and (5) contextualizing recommendations and clearly communicating their underlying strength of evidence. CONCLUSION: Global health initiatives, particularly those leveraging complex interventions, should consider embedding evaluations to understand how and why the programs are working. These initiatives can learn from the lessons presented here to inform the design and implementation of such evaluations.

3.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 140, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200071

RESUMO

Background: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was founded in 2002 as a public-private partnership between governments, the private sector, civil society, and populations affected by the three diseases. A key principle of the Global Fund is country ownership in accessing funding through "engagement of in-country stakeholders, including key and vulnerable populations, communities, and civil society." Research documenting whether diverse stakeholders are actually engaged and on how stakeholder engagement affects processes and outcomes of grant applications is limited. Objective: To examine representation during the 2017 Global Fund application process in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Uganda and the benefits and drawbacks of partnership to the process. Methods: We developed a mixed-methods social network survey to measure network structure and assess perceptions of how working together in partnership with other individuals/organizations affected perceived effectiveness, efficiency, and country ownership of the application process. Surveys were administered from December 2017-May 2018, initially to a set of central actors, followed by any individuals named during the surveys (up to 10) as collaborators. Network analyses were conducted using R. Findings: Collaborators spanning many organizations and expertise areas contributed to the 2017 applications (DRC: 152 nodes, 237 ties; Uganda: 118 nodes, 241 ties). Participation from NGOs and civil society representatives was relatively strong, with most of their ties being to different organization types, Uganda (63%), and DRC (67%), highlighting their collaborative efforts across the network. Overall, the perceived benefits of partnership were high, including very strong ratings for effectiveness in both countries. Perceived drawbacks of partnership were minimal; however, less than half of respondents thought partnership helped reduce transaction costs or financial costs, suggesting an inclusive and participatory process may come with short-term efficiency tradeoffs. Conclusions: Social network analysis can be useful for identifying who is included and excluded from the process, which can support efforts to ensure stronger, more meaningful engagement in future Global Fund application processes.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 491, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295557

RESUMO

In the original article [1] the first paragraph of the Background section was omitted due to a discrepancy between the metadata of the article and the PDF version.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 171, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women with more than 85% of the burden in developing countries. In Uganda, cervical cancer has shown an increase of 1.8% per annum over the last 20 years. The availability of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine presents an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Understanding how the health system influences uptake of the vaccine is critical to improve it. This study aimed to assess how the health systems is influencing uptake of HPV vaccine so as to inform policy for vaccine implementation and uptake in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study of 407 respondents, selected from 56 villages. Six key informant interviews were conducted with District Health Officials involved in implementation of the HPV vaccine. Quantitative data was analyzed using Stata V.13. Prevalence ratios with their confidence intervals were reported. Qualitative data was audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using MAXQDA V.12, using the six steps of thematic analysis developed by Braun and Clarke. RESULTS: Fifty six (14%) of 407 adolescents self-reported vaccine uptake. 182 (52.3%) of 348 reported lack of awareness about the HPV vaccine as the major reason for not having received it. Receiving vaccines from outreach clinics (p = 0.02), having many options from which to receive the vaccine (p = 0.02), getting an explanation on possible side-effects (p = 0.024), and receiving the vaccine alongside other services (p = 0.024) were positively associated with uptake. Key informants reported inconsistency in vaccine supply, inadequate training on HPV vaccine, and the lack of a clear target for HPV vaccine coverage as the factors that contribute to low uptake. CONCLUSION: We recommend training of health workers to provide adequate information on HPV vaccine, raising awareness of the vaccine in markets, schools, and radio talk shows, and communicating the target to health workers. Uptake of the HPV vaccine was lower than the Ministry of Health target of 80%. We recommend training of health workers to clearly provide adequate information on HPV vaccine, increasing awareness about the vaccine to the adolescents and increasing access for girls in and out of school.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Uganda , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
6.
J Blood Med ; 10: 59-67, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787644

RESUMO

Background: Early identification through newborn screening is the first step in active management of sickle cell disease (SCD). Uganda currently screens newborns and infants under 2 years for SCD in high HIV-burden districts using isoelectric focusing with dried blood spot samples. Our analysis sought to estimate the costs per child screened for SCD using this method in Uganda and then to use those data to estimate the price threshold for screening with a point-of-care (POC) test. Methods: We estimated the financial and economic costs per child screened for SCD using data from health facilities and the Central Public Health Laboratory. These costs included sample collection, transportation, and laboratory processing. Price thresholds for a POC test were estimated using two scenarios. Results: The price threshold of an SCD POC test used for diagnosis would be $3.77 when taking into account only financial costs and $5.14 when taking into account economic costs. Thresholds for a POC test used for screening would be $3.07-$3.51 and $4.38-$5.09, respectively, depending on test specificity. Conclusion: The price threshold of a POC test for SCD will depend on the assumptions on how it will be used - either as a screening or diagnostic test. If used for screening, test specificity will have significant impact. Results from this type of costing study can allow developers to incorporate quantitatively estimated price thresholds for innovative products into target product profiles early in the product development cycle.

7.
Popul Health Metr ; 16(1): 13, 2018 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) is an important metric of child health and survival. Country-level estimates of U5MR are readily available, but efforts to estimate U5MR subnationally have been limited, in part, due to spatial misalignment of available data sources (e.g., use of different administrative levels, or as a result of historical boundary changes). METHODS: We analyzed all available complete and summary birth history data in surveys and censuses in six countries (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Chad, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zambia) at the finest geographic level available in each data source. We then developed small area estimation models capable of incorporating spatially misaligned data. These small area estimation models were applied to the birth history data in order to estimate trends in U5MR from 1980 to 2015 at the second administrative level in Cameroon, Chad, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zambia and at the third administrative level in Bangladesh. RESULTS: We found substantial variation in U5MR in all six countries: there was more than a two-fold difference in U5MR between the area with the highest rate and the area with the lowest rate in every country. All areas in all countries experienced declines in U5MR between 1980 and 2015, but the degree varied both within and between countries. In Cameroon, Chad, Mozambique, and Zambia we found areas with U5MRs in 2015 that were higher than in other parts of the same country in 1980. Comparing subnational U5MR to country-level targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), we find that 12.8% of areas in Bangladesh did not meet the country-level target, although the country as whole did. A minority of areas in Chad, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zambia met the country-level MDG targets while these countries as a whole did not. CONCLUSIONS: Subnational estimates of U5MR reveal significant within-country variation. These estimates could be used for identifying high-need areas and positive deviants, tracking trends in geographic inequalities, and evaluating progress towards international development targets such as the Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade Infantil , Análise Espacial , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Censos , Chade/epidemiologia , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Morte do Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
8.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 6(6): 327-338, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global health partnerships have grown rapidly in number and scope, yet there has been less emphasis on their evaluation. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is one such public-private partnership; in Gavi-eligible countries partnerships are dynamic networks of immunization actors who work together to support all stages and aspects of Gavi support. This paper describes a conceptual framework - the partnership framework - and analytic approach for evaluating the perceptions of partnerships' added value as well as the results from an application to one case in Uganda. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods case study design embedded in the Gavi Full Country Evaluations (FCE) to test the partnership framework on Uganda's human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine application partnership. Data from document review, interviews, and social network surveys enabled the testing of the relationships between partnership framework domains (context, structure, practices, performance, and outcomes). Topic guides were based on the framework domains and network surveys identified working together relationships, professional trust, and perceptions of the effectiveness, efficiency, and legitimacy of the partnership's role in this process. RESULTS: Data from seven in-depth interviews, 11 network surveys and document review were analyzed according to the partnership framework, confirming relationships between the framework domains. Trust was an important contributor to the perceived effectiveness of the process. The network was structured around the EPI program, who was considered the leader of this process. While the structure and composition of the network was largely viewed as supporting an effective and legitimate process, the absence of the Ministry of Education (MoE) may have had downstream consequences if this study's results had not been shared with the Ministry of Health (MoH) and acted upon. The partnership was not perceived to have increased the efficiency of the process, perhaps as a result of unclear or absent guidelines around roles and responsibilities. CONCLUSION: The health and functioning of global health partnerships can be evaluated using the framework and approach presented here. Network theory and methods added value to the conceptual and analytic processes and we recommend applying this approach to other global health partnerships to ensure that they are meeting the complex challenges they were designed to address.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Programas de Imunização/normas , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Parcerias Público-Privadas/normas , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , Uganda
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