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1.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 31: 101282, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35669988

RESUMO

V. fluvialis is an emerging foodborne pathogen and could cause cholera-like gastroenteritis syndrome and poses a potential threat to public health. VflT6SS2 is a functionally active type VI secretion system (T6SS) in V. fluvialis which confers bactericidal activity. VflT6SS2 is composed of one major cluster and three hcp-vgrG orphan clusters. Previously, we identified two quorum sensing (QS) systems CqsA/LuxS-HapR and VfqI-VfqR in V. fluvialis and demonstrated that the former regulates VflT6SS2. However, whether VfqI-VfqR QS regulates VflT6SS2 is unknown. In this study, we showed that the mRNA abundances of VflT6SS2 tssD2 (hcp), tssI2 (vgrG) and tssB2 (vipA) were all significantly decreased in VfqI or/and VfqR deletion mutant(s). Consistently, Hcp expression/secretion was reduced too in these mutants. Complementation assay with VfqR mutant further confirmed that the reduced Hcp expression/secretion and impaired antibacterial virulence are restored by introducing VfqR-expressing plasmid. Reporter fusion analyses revealed that VfqR modulates the promoter activities of VflT6SS2. Bioinformatical prediction and further reporter fusion assay in E. coli supported that VfqR acts as a transcriptional factor to bind and regulate the gene expression of the VflT6SS2 major cluster. However, VfqR seems to promote transcription of hcp (tssD2) in the orphan clusters through elevating the expression of vasH which is encoded by the VflT6SS2 major cluster. Additionally, we found that the regulation intensity of VfqR on VflT6SS2 is weaker than that of HapR. In conclusion, our current study disclosed that in V. fluvialis, VfqI-VfqR circuit upregulates the expression and function of VflT6SS2 by directly or indirectly activating its transcription. These findings will enhance our understanding of the complicated regulatory network between QS and T6SS in V. fluvialis.

2.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2089007, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734810

RESUMO

Some serovars of Salmonella are not or rare found to cause salmonellosis in human. In our clinic-based surveillance, three rare Salmonella 4,5,12:a:- strains were recovered from three patients with diarrhea. To explore their genetic and epidemiological characteristics and pathogenesis, we conducted whole-genome sequencing, in vitro invasion assays in mammalian cells, and in vivo virulence assays in an animal model. The three isolates had indistinguishable molecular patterns and similar genome sequences, and clustered together with an isolate from edible fish traded among countries. The isolates had biochemical reactions identical with those of Salmonella subspecies enterica but belonged to subspecies salamae according to genome phylogeny, revealing a new serovar, S. enterica subsp. II serovar 4,5,12:a:-. The strains contained multiple virulence genes, elicited temporary bacteremia and enteritidis and caused cell damage in the mouse liver and cecum. This study provides evidence that this new Salmonella salamae serovar can infect humans and cause clusters of cases, and whole-genome sequencing detection and surveillance of Salmonella can help to accurately define Salmonella classification and clonality, improve diagnosis, facilitate outbreak detection and aid in the source tracing of salmonellosis epidemics.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Salmonelose Animal , Infecções por Salmonella , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Humanos , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Filogenia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Sorogrupo
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0070422, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35762749

RESUMO

When exposed to adverse conditions, many bacterial pathogens, including Vibrio cholerae, can adapt to the environment by entering the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. Cells in this state cannot grow on conventional media but still survive. The VBNC state is a significant threat to aquatic safety and public health due to the enhanced ability of the bacteria to remain in the environment and escape from monitoring. Detecting and quantifying VBNC cells and distinguishing them from nonviable cells is necessary for microbiological studies and pathogen monitoring. Cell staining and microscopy are used for the observation of VBNC cells, but it is difficult to quantify VBNC cells accurately. In this study, we developed droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) with a chromosomal single-copy gene as an internal reference combined with Propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to enumerate VBNC cells of V. cholerae. In this method, bacterial cells, but not extracted chromosomal DNA, were used directly to form oil-enveloped droplets in the ddPCR procedure. One bacterial cell possesses one copy of the chromosome. Thus, enumeration of a single-copy gene on the chromosome can be used to count VBNC cells. ddPCR showed greater accuracy and sensitivity than qPCR. This study showed that the oil-enveloped bacterial method can reduce the number of steps needed and improve the accuracy of VBNC cells quantification and has the potential to be extended to quantify bacterial VBNC cells and assess pathogen survival in the environment. IMPORTANCE The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of bacteria represents an important life state for their survival in adverse environments. The VBNC cells of the pathogenic bacteria in the environment and food will be a potential threat to public health because these pathogens cannot be found by the detection of culture. We developed a sensitive molecular method to detect and enumerate the VBNC cells of V. cholerae, which can distinguish the VBNC and dead cells, and count the VBNC cells in the sample without the step of DNA extraction from cells. It can be used to improve the sensitivity of pathogen detection in the surveillance, risk assessment of environment and food contamination, and outbreak warning. The accurate identification and numeration of VBNC cells will also facilitate the microbiological and genetic studies on the development, adaptation, resuscitation, and elimination of the VBNC state.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1416-1424, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537043

RESUMO

Invasive Salmonella infection, which can cause typhoid/paratyphoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis, is a public health burden in Africa. Accurate diagnosis and etiological characterization are required to conduct prevalence and risk estimations for Salmonella infection; however, the utilization of optimal techniques and surveillance data are still insufficient. In this study, we performed a laboratory-based survey in Freetown, which is the biggest city in Sierra Leone with a high burden of typhoid fever, by using blood culture and molecular methods but not the Widal test, to estimate the prevalence and aetiology of invasive Salmonella infection among fever patients. We found a very low prevalence of typhoid fever in patients with fever during the investigation period, and this prevalence was clearly overestimated by the Widal test. Genome sequencing of the S. Typhi isolate from this work revealed that the strain carried multiple antibiotic resistance genes, and an epidemic clone that has existed in West Africa for years was also detected in Sierra Leone. By using metagenomic sequencing, one patient with invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis was identified as having bacterial co-infections. Our data highlight that Salmonella surveillance based on accurate laboratory diagnosis and genome sequencing needs to be strengthened to provide a better estimation of the real epidemics and enable potential risk assessment by etiological analysis in Africa. Even in a laboratory with only basic equipment, it is possible to conduct next-generation sequencing for pathogen discovery in bloodstream infections and to determine the etiological characteristics of pathogene without complex combinations of laboratory methods.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella , Febre Tifoide , Febre/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Patologia Molecular , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhi , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1261-1264, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608853

RESUMO

In 2020, a new serotype of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O10:K4 emerged and caused several outbreaks and sporadic cases in Guangxi, China. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that those strains are new variants of the sequence type 3 pandemic clone. The new serotype may become dominant, warranting enhanced investigations and surveillance.


Assuntos
Vibrioses , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0195621, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579467

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infectious disease responsible for many infections worldwide. Differences in respiratory microbiota may correlate with disease severity. Samples were collected from 20 severe and 51 mild COVID-19 patients. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to analyze the bacterial community composition of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The indices of diversity were analyzed. When one genus accounted for >50% of reads from a sample, it was defined as a super dominant pathobiontic bacterial genus (SDPG). In the upper respiratory tract, uniformity indices were significantly higher in the mild group than in the severe group (P < 0.001). In the lower respiratory tract, uniformity indices, richness indices, and the abundance-based coverage estimator were significantly higher in the mild group than in the severe group (P < 0.001). In patients with severe COVID-19, SDPGs were detected in 40.7% of upper and 63.2% of lower respiratory tract samples. In patients with mild COVID-19, only 10.8% of upper and 8.5% of lower respiratory tract samples yielded SDPGs. SDPGs were present in both upper and lower tracts in seven patients (35.0%), among which six (30.0%) patients possessed the same SDPG in the upper and lower tracts. However, no patients with mild infections had an SDPG in both tracts. Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Acinetobacter were the main SDPGs. The number of SDPGs identified differed significantly between patients with mild and severe COVID-19 (P < 0.001). SDPGs in nasopharyngeal microbiota cause secondary bacterial infection in COVID-19 patients and aggravate pneumonia. IMPORTANCE The nasopharyngeal microbiota is composed of a variety of not only the true commensal bacterial species but also the two-face pathobionts, which are one a harmless commensal bacterial species and the other a highly invasive and deadly pathogen. In a previous study, we found that the diversity of nasopharyngeal microbiota was lost in severe influenza patients. We named the genus that accounted for over 50% of microbiota abundance as super dominant pathobiontic genus, which could invade to cause severe pneumonia, leading to high fatality. Similar phenomena were found here for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The diversity of nasopharyngeal microbiota was lost in severe COVID-19 infection patients. SDPGs in nasopharyngeal microbiota were frequently detected in severe COVID-19 patients. Therefore, the SDPGs in nasopharynx microbiota might invade into low respiratory and be responsible for secondary bacterial pneumonia in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Nasofaringe , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453259

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) have been detected in human-impacted habitats, especially in densely populated cities. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is located far from the heavily populated regions of China, and Tibetan residents have distinct dietary habits and gut microbes. Antibiotic-resistance monitoring in the Tibetan population is rare. Here, we collected stool samples from Tibetan outpatients with diarrhea. From 59 samples, 48 antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates were obtained, including 19 extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates from 16 patients and 29 polymyxin-resistant isolates from 22 patients. Either ESBL or mcr genes were found in 17 Escherichia coli isolates, approximately 58.8% of which were multidrug-resistant, and ten incompatible plasmid types were found. The gene blaCTX-M was a common genotype in the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Four E. coli isolates contained mcr-1. The same mcr-1-carrying plasmid was found in distinct E. coli isolates obtained from the same sample, thus confirming horizontal transmission of mcr-1 between bacteria. Genomic clustering of E. coli isolates obtained from Lhasa, with strains from other regions providing evidence of clone spreading. Our results reveal a strong presence of ARB and ARGs in Tibetan outpatients with diarrhea, implying that ARB and ARGs should be monitored in the Tibetan population.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 863435, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433512

RESUMO

There is a growing demand for rapid, sensitive, field-deployable nucleic acid tests for cholera, which usually occurs in rural areas. In this study, we developed a Cas12a-assisted rapid isothermal detection (CARID) system for the detection of toxigenic V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 by combining recombinase-aided amplification and CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins). The results can be determined by fluorescence signal and visualized by lateral flow dipstick. We identified 154 V. cholerae strains and 129 strains of other intestinal diarrheagenic bacteria with a 100% coincidence rate. The limit of detection of CARID was 20 copies/reaction of V. cholerae genomic DNA, which is comparable to that of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and qPCR. Multiple-CARID was also established for efficiency and economic considerations with an acceptable decrease in sensitivity. Simulated sample tests showed that CARID is suitable for complex samples. In conclusion, CARID is a rapid, sensitive, economically efficient, and portable method for the detection of V. cholerae, which makes it suitable for field responses to cholera.


Assuntos
Cólera , Vibrio cholerae O1 , Cólera/diagnóstico , Cólera/microbiologia , Toxina da Cólera , Humanos , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Vibrio cholerae O1/genética
11.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(12): 242-248, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433080

RESUMO

Background: The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and bacteria is one critical approach to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool in monitoring the emergence and spread of ARGs and resistant bacteria. The horizontal transfer of ARGs across host bacteria mediated by plasmids is a challenge in NGS surveillance for resistance because short-read sequencing can hardly generate the complete plasmid genome sequence, and the correlation between ARGs and plasmids are difficult to determine. Methods: The complete genome sequences of 455 mcr-carrying plasmids (pMCRs), and the data of their host bacteria and isolation regions were collected from the NCBI database. Genes of Inc types and ARGs were searched for each plasmid. The genome similarity of these plasmids was analyzed by pangenome clustering and genome alignment. Results: A total of 52 Inc types, including a variety of fusion plasmids containing 2 or more Inc types were identified in these pMCRs and carried by complex host bacteria. The cooccurrence of ARGs in pMCRs was generally observed, with an average of 3.9 ARGs per plasmid. Twenty-two clusters with consistent or highly similar sequences and gene compositions were identified by the pangenome clustering, which were characterized with distributions in different countries/regions, years or host bacteria in each cluster. Discussion: Based on the complete plasmid sequences, distribution of mcr genes in different Inc type plasmids, their co-existence with other AMRs, and transmission of one pMCR across regions and host bacteria can be revealed definitively. Complete plasmid genomes and comparisons in the laboratory network are necessary for spread tracing of ARG-carrying plasmids and risk assessment in AMR surveillance.

12.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(12): 259-263, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433082

RESUMO

Introduction: Accurate etiological detection is needed to evaluate the risk of zoonotic diseases. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) can be used to monitor pathogens in animal species and identify potential zoonotic threats. The current sampling model for zoonotic pathogen monitoring in wild animals requires samples to be transferred from the field to a laboratory for further detection. Methods: We constructed a zoonotic pathogen survey model using a set of mobile laboratories. Results: The monitoring in this study was preplanned to detect Yersinia pestis, but the mNGS unexpectedly identified Bartonella spp. in the rodent samples, thus exposing the threat of bartonellosis to humans in this region. The co-localization of sampling and sequencing (CLOSS) model we tested required no long-distance transferring of samples and expands the regional coverage of zoonotic surveys by using a mobile laboratory. Discussion: Using this mNGS technique will enable detection of more zoonotic pathogens beyond the preplanned monitoring targets. This may increase the surveillance efficiency compared with that of the previous workflow and expand the application of the mobile laboratories for infectious diseases identification and surveillance in the field.

13.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(12): 238-241, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433084

RESUMO

Introduction: Gastroenteritis caused by non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae exhibited an increasing trend in recent years in China. Whole genome sequence (WGS) data could play an important role both in the identification of the outbreaks and in the determination of the serogroup. Here, we present the employment of WGS data in the investigation of two outbreaks caused by non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in Guangdong, China, 2020-2021. Methods: We obtained the whole genome sequence of 66 V. cholerae strains isolated in two outbreaks with next generation sequencing technology. We retrieved the publicly available WGS data of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae from public database. We used a pipeline integrated in China Pathogen Identification Net (PIN) to complete the phylogenetic analysis. Results: Two outbreaks caused by non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae were identified using WGS data. These V. cholerae strains were determined as serogroup O5. Type 3 and 6 secretion systems were detected in these serogroup O5 strains. These serogroup O5 strains belonged to sequence type (ST) 88. Conclusions: Our analysis indicated the risk of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae leading to outbreaks of diarrheal diseases. The application of genomic data played an important role in the identification of the serogroup of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in the lack of antiserum, which gave an example of the application of genome data in disease surveillance and public health emergency response.

14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 791799, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401532

RESUMO

Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a newly evolved Gram-negative bacterium. Through the acquisition of the plasminogen activator (Pla), Y. pestis gained the means to rapidly disseminate throughout its mammalian hosts. It was suggested that Y. pestis utilizes Pla to interact with the DEC-205 (CD205) receptor on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to initiate host dissemination and infection. However, the evolutionary origin of Pla has not been fully elucidated. The PgtE enzyme of Salmonella enterica, involved in host dissemination, shows sequence similarity with the Y. pestis Pla. In this study, we demonstrated that both Escherichia coli K-12 and Y. pestis bacteria expressing the PgtE-protein were able to interact with primary alveolar macrophages and DEC-205-transfected CHO cells. The interaction between PgtE-expressing bacteria and DEC-205-expressing transfectants could be inhibited by the application of an anti-DEC-205 antibody. Moreover, PgtE-expressing Y. pestis partially re-gained the ability to promote host dissemination and infection. In conclusion, the DEC-205-PgtE interaction plays a role in promoting the dissemination and infection of Y. pestis, suggesting that Pla and the PgtE of S. enterica might share a common evolutionary origin.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli K12 , Salmonella enterica , Yersinia pestis , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Ativadores de Plasminogênio
15.
Theranostics ; 12(6): 2519-2534, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401825

RESUMO

Rationale: Mutations of SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), could impede drug development and reduce the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we developed a multiplexed Spike-ACE2 Inhibitor Screening (mSAIS) assay that can measure the neutralizing effect of antibodies across numerous variants of the coronavirus's Spike (S) protein simultaneously. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 spike variant protein microarrays were prepared by printing 72 S variants onto a chemically-modified glass slides. The neutralization potential of purified anti-S antibodies and serum from convalescent COVID-19 patients and vaccinees to S variants were assessed with the mSAIS assay. Results: We identified new S mutations that are sensitive and resistant to neutralization. Serum from both infected and vaccinated groups with a high titer of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) displayed a broader capacity to neutralize S variants than serum with low titer NAbs. These data were validated using serum from a large vaccinated cohort (n = 104) with a tiled S peptide microarray. In addition, similar results were obtained using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay specific for wild-type S and five prevalent S variants (D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2), thus demonstrating that high antibody diversity is associated with high NAb titers. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the utility of the mSAIS platform in screening NAbs. Moreover, we show that heterogeneous antibody populations provide a more protective effect against S variants, which may help direct COVID-19 vaccine and drug development.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinação
17.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(12): 249-253, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433083

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic?: The genusAnaplasma contains seven recognized bacterial species, mainly transmitted by tick bites. The two species, A. phagocytophilum and A. capra, are known commonly to cause diseases in humans. What is added by this report?: Anaplasma bovis was initially thought to be only an animal agent until the first patient case was reported in 2019. This study investigated another two patients who became sick within one month in the same township and were infected with A. bovis in Anhui Province. What are the implications for public health practice?: This study suggested that more A. bovis-infected patients may exist in this area and that patients with anaplasmosis require an early and specific diagnosis.

18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 120: 210-216, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assay targeting Salmonella fimY and Shigella ipaH genes. METHODS: The linear range, precision, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity of the ddPCR assay were analyzed. The ddPCR assay was compared with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using 362 stool samples from 187 children with mild diarrhea and 175 children without diarrhea. RESULTS: The duplex ddPCR assay showed good linearity in the range of 5.3 × 100 to 1.24 × 105 copies/reaction for Salmonella and 1.9 × 100 to 1.84 × 105 copies/reaction for Shigella. When analyzed with spiked stool samples, the limit of detection and limit of quantification were 550 and 5500 colony-forming units per mL of stool sample for Shigella, respectively, whereas both were 1.0 × 104 colony-forming units per mL of stool sample for Salmonella. Among 362 stool samples, more samples were detected as positive by ddPCR than by qPCR. Salmonella load was significantly higher in diarrheal samples than in non-diarrheal samples. Determined by receiver-operating characteristic analysis, the optimal cut-off value was 1.25 × 104 copies/mL of stool sample to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic Salmonella infections. CONCLUSION: Salmonella and Shigella prevalence may have been underestimated in the past.


Assuntos
Shigella , Criança , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Salmonella/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Shigella/genética
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