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1.
Fitoterapia ; 156: 105072, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728327

RESUMO

Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax. (Taizishen, TZS) contains a variety of natural active cyclic-peptide compounds (CP). In this article, four kinds of CP monomers were isolated by HPLC and the structures were identified by mass spectrometry. The in vivo absorption of CP was detected by UPLC-MS/MS. The interaction between CP and membrane receptor was analyzed by SPR. As a result, the relative absorption rate of CP was Pesudostellarin B > Heterophyllin B > Pesudostellarin C > Pesudostellarin E. The difference in absorption rate of CP in vivo was related to its interaction with membrane receptors. The absorption mechanism of CP might be different. This is the first report that in vivo absorption study of different CP from TZS and explore its absorption mechanism, laying a theoretical foundation for the research and development of its oral drugs, and providing new ideas for the study of the absorption mechanism of CP from traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos
2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 815129, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250913

RESUMO

Sugarcane-legume intercropping systems can effectively control pests and diseases as well as improve the fertility and health of farmland soil. However, little is known about the response of bacterial abundance, diversity, and community composition in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under the sugarcane-peanut farming system. A field experiment was conducted with two treatments: sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-peanut intercropping to examine the response of sugarcane parameters and edaphic factors. We also deciphered bacterial abundance, diversity, and community composition in the root endosphere, rhizosphere, and bulk soil by leveraging Illumina sequencing to conduct the molecular characterization of the 16S rRNA gene and nitrogenase (nifH) gene. We observed that sugarcane-peanut intercropping exhibited the advantages of tremendously increasing cane stalk height, stalk weight, and millable stalk number/20 m, and edaphic factors, namely, pH (1.13 and 1.93), and available phosphorus exhibited a fourfold and sixfold increase (4.66 and 6.56), particularly in the rhizosphere and bulk soils, respectively. Our result also showed that the sugarcane-peanut intercropping system significantly increased the bacterial richness of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing data by 13.80 and 9.28% in the bulk soil and rhizosphere soil relative to those in the monocropping sugarcane system, respectively. At the same time, sugarcane intercropping with peanuts significantly increased the Shannon diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the sugarcane rhizosphere soil. Moreover, most edaphic factors exhibited a positive regularity effect on bacterial community composition under the intercropping system. A linear discriminant analysis with effect size analysis of the 16S rRNA sequencing data revealed that bacteria in the root endosphere of the intercropped cane proliferated profoundly, primarily occupied by Devosia, Rhizobiales, Myxococcales, Allorhizobium-Neorhizobium-Pararhizobium-Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Sphingomonas. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that sugarcane-peanut intercropping can enhance edaphic factors, sugarcane parameters, and bacterial abundance and diversity without causing adverse impacts on crop production and soil.

3.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 22(5): 455-466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749100

RESUMO

Total polysaccharide (i.e., GLP-UCE) was effectively isolated from the crude polysaccharide extract powder of Ganoderma lucidum by ultrasonic-circulating extraction, which was separated into three fractions (i.e., GLP-U40, GLP-U60, and GLP-U80) by ethanol fractional precipitation. The detection of antioxidant enzymes (GSH-Px, SOD) and oxidation metabolites (MDA, LF); liver function test of ALT, AST, and LDH; and western blot for antioxidant proteins of GSH-Px and MMP-2 showed that the GLP-UCE displayed a favorable in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities for reducing the oxidative damage in CCl4-hepatopathy SD rats. The GLP-UCE and its fractions were analyzed and compared by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), high-performance liquid chromatography, high-performance gel permeation chromatography, and antioxidant activity in vitro assay. These studies revealed that the fraction GLP-U80 exhibited stronger antioxidant activities in vitro than that of GLP-UCE and other fractions (p

Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos , Reishi , Agaricales/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Misturas Complexas/química , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Rim/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reishi/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 850, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581806

RESUMO

We have explored the method of extraction and purification of cyclic-peptide extract (CPE) from Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax. (Taizishen, TZS), characterized the structure about cyclic-peptide compounds and investigated the biological activity of CPE attenuating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rats. The CPE from TZS was obtained by ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, hot water extraction, and alcohol-precipitation. Cyclic-peptide structures were distinguished using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Rats were induced by solid combustibles smoke (SCS) for the COPD model, and the anti-COPD activity of CPE was detected using lung airway resistance and dynamic lung compliance, as well as pulmonary tissue hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The relevant inflammatory cytokines were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CPE obtained from TZS contained 12 cyclic-peptide constituents; the purity was up to 92.94%. CPE (200, 400, or 500 mg/kg/day) was given to SCS-induced COPD model rats orally for 15 days. The results showed that in rats given CPE (400 mg/kg/day) there was a sharp fall in lung airway resistance but a rise in dynamic lung compliance. The image analysis of lung tissue sections suggested that CPE could decrease the degree of alveolar destruction (p <0.05), alleviate lung inflammation, increase alveolar space, and improve the infiltration of inflammatory cells. CPE was found to reduce the levels of TNF-α, but increase IL-10, adjusting multiple cytokines in rat serum; the TLR4 mRNA, MyD88 mRNA and AP-1 mRNA levels, the expressing levels of p-JNK, p-p38 and p-TAK1 protein were significantly down regulated in rat alveolar macrophages. CPE intervention could improve the pulmonary ventilation function on COPD rats, which may be related to its effect in inhibiting the abnormal activation of the TLR4-MyD88-JNK/p38 pathway. This is the first report that the CPE of TZS lessens the severity of COPD episodes. The new preparation process of CPEs implements the anticipated goal, which is to refine CPE and actualize quality control.

5.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 20(6): 581-593, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953354

RESUMO

We recently proposed, and successfully applied, a novel and efficient technique-ultrasonic-circulating extraction (UCE) integrating superfine pulverization-to extract and prepare antioxidant crude polysaccharides other natural active substances from Ganoderma lucidum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities and active ingredients in the powder from UCE (UCEP) through comparison with powder from hot water extraction (HWEP). The DPPH radical, ABTS radical, superoxide anion, total antioxidant activity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay results showed that the UCEP exhibited stronger (P < 0.01) in vitro antioxidant activity than the HWEP. The hepatoprotective activity of the extracts was evaluated against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in the liver. Measurements of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in rat liver; measurements of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase in rat blood; and Western blotting for antioxidant proteins of transforming growth factor-ß1, heme-oxygenase 1, and glutathione per-oxidase showed that the UCEP had antioxidant activity in vivo either similar to or slightly stronger than (P < 0.1) the HWEP. Further analysis of the active ingredients revealed that the UCEP and HWEP have similar mean yield and total triterpenoid content, but the former has significantly higher (P < 0.05) mean yield and total polysaccharide content than the latter. Our results suggest that the UCEP displays stronger antioxidant activities because of the larger amount of total polysaccharides; the UCEP may be able to be used as an antioxidant and liver protectant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Glutationa/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Ondas Ultrassônicas
6.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 20(12): 1101-1107, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990798

RESUMO

A new highly oxygenated pregnane steroid, pregn-7-ene-2ß,3α,15α,20-tetrol (1) and two new 5-hydroxymethylfurfural derivatives, (5-formylfuran-2-yl)methyl 2-hydroxypropanoate (2) and (5-formylfuran-2-yl)methyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (3), together with four known compounds, were isolated from the water decoction of Poria cocos. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 showed moderate inhibitory activity and a known compound (3S,6S)-3-[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-6-(phenylmethyl)-2,5-piperazinedione (5) showed weak inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, respectively.


Assuntos
Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pregnanos/química , Wolfiporia/química , Estrutura Molecular
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 106: 456-463, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797815

RESUMO

A water-soluble, pectic polysaccharide named as 0.5MSC-F isolated from Pseudostellaria Heterophylla with a molecular weight of 4.8×104Da that was composed of rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, and galacturonic acid which the major monosaccharide contents range up to 63.20%. Where the main chain was consists of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid and a small amount of 1,2-linked rhamnose was embedded into backbone to connect alternative galacturonic acid in the form of Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) structure. 1, 5-linked arabinose through C-4 of 1, 2-linked rhamnose, another 1, 3 or 1,6-linked galactose through C-4 of 1, 2-linked rhamnose, was interconnected to branch chain. 0.5MSC-F could obviously stimulated insulin secretion of islet cells cultured in high glucose are of potential practical value in the hypoglycemic action. Radioisotopes 99mTc-labeled-0.5MSC-F was analyzed by SPECT/CT image after oral in rats. At 2h post ingestion, above 40% of the radioactivity was observed in the intestine, but no found in the heart, liver, and kidney. Conjecturing absorption of 99mTc-labeled 0.5MSC-F might via intestinal mucosa absorption into the systemic circulation.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Arabinose/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Galactose/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Secreção de Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacocinética , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ramnose/química , Distribuição Tecidual
8.
Molecules ; 21(9)2016 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649122

RESUMO

The semi-refined polysaccharide of Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a complex polysaccharide that exhibits significantly hypoglycemic activities. A novel homogeneous polysaccharide, named as H-1-2, was isolated from the semi-refined polysaccharide. The mean molecular weight of H-1-2 was 1.4 × 104 Da and it was only composed of d-glucose monosaccharide. Structure elucidation indicated that H-1-2 contains pyranride, and has the characteristics of the α-iso-head configuration, a non-reducing end (T-), 4-, 1,6-, and 1,4,6-connection, in all four ways to connect glucose. H-1-2 was a type of glucan, where chemical combination exists in the main chain between 1→4 linked glucose, and contains a small amount of 1,6-linked glucose, which was in the branched chain. In vitro HepG2, 3T3-L1, and L6 cells were used to assess cellular glucose consumption and cellular glucose uptake by glucose oxidase, and the transport of 2-NBDG fluorescence probe results showed that H-1-2 could clearly increase glucose uptake and utilization in muscle and adipose cells, which is beneficial to screen for in the discovery of anti-diabetes lead compounds. H-1-2 was labeled with radioisotopes ((99m)Tc-pertechnetate). (99m)Tc-labeled-H-1-2 was performed by SPECT/CT analysis images after oral administration in rats. At 4 h post ingestion, about 50% of the radioactivity was observed in the intestine. No significant radioactivity was found in the heart, liver, and kidney, conjecturing that absorption of (99m)Tc-labeled H-1-2 might, via intestinal mucosa, be absorbed into systemic circulation. This problem, as to whether the polysaccharide is absorbed orally, will need further examination.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos , Células 3T3-L1 , Administração Oral , Animais , Glucose/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ratos
9.
Molecules ; 21(7)2016 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27367654

RESUMO

The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter) the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD) at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration). The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits' vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT1R mRNA, while the AT2R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs' effects. Our data provided references for the rational use of Chinese medicines in the clinic, such as the best oral preparation and decoction concentration.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Pueraria/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/farmacocinética , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Coelhos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/genética , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/genética , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Soluções , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/etiologia
10.
Pharm Biol ; 54(5): 919-29, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26457919

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Ganoderma triterpenoids (GTs) have been recognised as an important bioactive ingredient in Ganoderma Lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. (Polyporaceae), widely used for treating and preventing chronic hepatopathy of various etiologies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to better understand the hepatoprotective effect of GTs and to enhance their use in food supplement pharmaceutical and medical industries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HepG2 cells were pretreated in the presence or absence of GTs (50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) for 4 h, then exposed with 60 µmol/L of t-BHP for an additional 4 h. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT method. ALT, AST and LDH production in culture medium and intracellular MDA, GSH and SOD levels were determined. Moreover, the total triterpenoid content and chemical constituents in GTs were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and HPLC/Q-TOF-MS, respectively. RESULTS: GTs (50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) significantly increased the relative cell viability by 4.66, 7.78 and 13.46%, respectively, and reduced the level of ALT by 11.44%, 33.41% and 51.24%, AST by 10.05%, 15.63% and 33.64%, and LDH by 16.03%, 23.4% and 24.07% in culture medium, respectively. GTs could also remarkably decrease the level of MDA and increase the content of GSH and SOD in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the total triterpenoid content in GTs was 438 mg GAAEs/g GTs. And 16 triterpenoids in GTs were identified or tentatively characterised. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results showed that GTs had potent cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage induced by t-BHP in HepG2 cells, thus suggesting their potential use as liver protectant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ganoderma , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , terc-Butil Hidroperóxido/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 72: 151-7, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25149043

RESUMO

Superfine grinding technology was applied for polysaccharide extraction from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of processing parameters on polysaccharide extraction yield. Results showed that the maximum yield of G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) was obtained at an optimum condition: extraction time 137 min, extraction temperature 66 ̊C, the ratio of water to material 35 mL/g, and the GLP extracting yield reached 2.44% under this condition. GLP were precipitated into three crude polysaccharides, viz. GLP40, GLP60 and GLP80. The basic characterization of polysaccharides was determined by using HPLC and FT-IR methods. GLP, GLP80, GLP60, and GLP40 were composed of Man, Rib, Glc, Gal and Fuc with the molar ratios of 1.27:0.36:22.89:1.61:0.33, 1.40:0.31:23.02:3.46:0.91, 0.96:0.34:25.76:2.47:0.46, and 2.81:1.42:23.83:1.61:0.33, respectively. The result of FT-IR suggested that the monosaccharide residue of the four polysaccharides was ß-pyranoid ring. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of these four polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that GLP80 had the best reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging ability and oxygen radical scavenging ability followed by GLP, GLP60 and GLP40. Our results demonstrated that RSM might be a valuable technique for optimizing the efficient extraction of GLP, and G. lucidum could be considered as sources of natural antioxidants and preservatives of food industry. Moreover, polysaccharides, especially GLP80, extracted from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, exhibited promising antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredução , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacocinética , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reishi/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química
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