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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992253

RESUMO

The role of WT1 protein in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesisis incompletely elucidated. WT1 overexpression is common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, WT1 mutations occur in only about 10% of cases, with increasing incidence in the setting of relapse. In this study, we investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of WT1 mutations in NPM1-mutated AML, to enhance our understanding of the biology and potential therapeutic implications of WT1 mutations. Our study cohort included 67 patients with NPM1 mutated AML and a median follow-up of 13.7 months. WT1 mutations were identified in 7% (n = 5) of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. WT1 mutant clones were presumed to be present as co-dominant clones in 3/5 and in subclonal populations in 2/5 cases based on variant allelic frequency (VAF) when compared with NPM1 mutation VAF. All WT1 mutations became undetectable at time of MRD-negative (NPM1-wild type) remission. None of these patients experienced relapse at the time of last follow-up (median, 15 months; range, 4.5-20.2 months). A total of 15/67 (22%) patients relapsed; among these patient, four (27%) relapsed with WT1 mutant AML. Three of four patients had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). None of these patients had detectable WT1 mutations at the time of initial diagnosis. WT1 mutations were presumed clonal in two cases and subclonal in the other two cases, based on VAF. Our results indicate that WT1 mutations contribute to relapse in NPM1 mutated AML, especially in the setting of HSCT. These findings suggest that emerging WT1 mutations may serve as a conduit for relapse in NPM1-mutated AML, and that sequential molecular profiling to evaluate potential emergent WT1 mutations during surveillance and particularly at relapse likely has prognostic value in patients with NPM1 mutated AML.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898335

RESUMO

ATM deletions and/or mutations are recurrent in lymphoid neoplasms while rearrangements are rare. In this study, we used mate pair sequencing (MPseq) technology to characterize two novel ATM rearrangements in one patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and one patient with T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). Both patients showed chromosome 11q22 aberrations encompassing ATM by conventional karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization: isolated t(11;13)(q22;q14) in CLL and a complex karyotype with apparent 11q deletion and unbalanced der(14)t(11;14)(q22;p11.2) in T-PLL. MPseq identified ATM-LINC00371 fusion in CLL and ATM-USP28 in T-PLL, both of which led to ATM inactivation, confirmed by loss of immunohistochemical protein expression. Next-generation sequencing mutation analysis detected concurrent ATM mutation(s) CLL patient, while T-PLL lacked ATM mutation. ATM rearrangements, not apparently detectable using standard laboratory technologies, represent another mechanism of loss-of-function. Recent high-throughput technologies such as MPseq can uncover novel pathogenic gene fusions and resolve complex chromosomal rearrangements in hematologic malignancies.

6.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 56: 151860, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative option for patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Bone marrow (BM) morphologic evaluation of myelofibrosis following allo-HSCT is known to be challenging in this context because resolution of morphologic changes is a gradual process. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared BM samples of patients with myelofibrosis who underwent first allo-HSCT and achieved molecular remission by day 100 with BM samples of patients who continued to have persistent molecular evidence of disease following allo-HSCT. RESULTS: The study group included 29 patients: 17 primary MF, 7 post-polycythemia vera (PV) MF, and 5 post-essential thrombocythemia (ET) MF. In this cohort there were 18 JAK2 p.V617F, 8 CALR; 1 MPL, and 2 patients had concurrent JAK2 p.V617F and MPL mutations. The control group included 5 patients with primary MF, one with post-PV MF, one with post-ET MF (5 JAK2 p.V617F; 2 CALR). Following allo-HSCT, both groups showed reduction in BM cellularity and number of megakaryocytes. The study cohort also less commonly had dense megakaryocyte clusters and endosteal located megakaryocytes and showed less fibrosis. There was no statistical difference in BM cellularity, presence of erythroid islands, degree of osteosclerosis, or megakaryocyte number, size, nuclear lobation, presence of clusters or intrasinusoidal location. CONCLUSIONS: Following allo-HSCT at 100 days, morphologic evaluation of BM in patients with MF cannot reliably predict persistence versus clearance of molecular evidence of MF. Disappearance of BM MF, dense megakaryocyte clusters, and endosteal localization of megakaryocytes are suggestive of disease response.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101797, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797699

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are older. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a chemotherapy-free combination with ibrutinib and rituximab (IR) in previously untreated older patients with MCL (age ≥ 65 years). METHODS: We enrolled 50 patients with MCL in this single-institution, single-arm, phase II clinical trial (NCT01880567). Patients with Ki-67% ≥ 50% and blastoid morphology were excluded. Ibrutinib was administered with rituximab up to 2 years with continuation of ibrutinib alone. The primary objective was to assess the overall response rate and safety of IR. In evaluable samples, whole-exome sequencing and bulk RNA sequencing from baseline tissue samples were performed. RESULTS: The median age was 71 years (interquartile range 69-76 years). Sixteen percent of patients had high-risk simplified MCL international prognostic index. The Ki-67% was low (< 30%) in 38 (76%) and moderately high (≥ 30%-50%) in 12 (24%) patients. The best overall response rate was 96% (71% complete response). After a median follow-up of 45 months (interquartile range 24-56 months), 28 (56%) patients came off study for various reasons (including four progression, 21 toxicities, and three miscellaneous reasons). The median progression-free survival and overall survival were not reached, and 3-year survival was 87% and 94%, respectively. None of the patients died on study therapy. Notably, 11 (22%) patients had grade 3 atrial fibrillation. Grade 3-4 myelosuppression was seen in < 5% of patients. Differential overexpression of CCND1, BIRC3, BANK1, SETBP1, AXIN2, and IL2RA was noted in partial responders compared with patients with complete response. CONCLUSION: IR combination is effective in older patients with MCL. Baseline evaluation for cardiovascular risks is highly recommended. Randomized trial is needed for definitive conclusions.

8.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775472

RESUMO

Classification of myeloid neoplasms with isolated isochromosome i(17q) [17p deletion with inherent monoallelic TP53 loss plus 17q duplication] is controversial. Most cases fall within the WHO unclassifiable myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN-U) category. The uniformly dismal outcomes warrant better understanding of this entity. We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective study of 92 adult MDS/MPN-U cases from eight institutions. Twenty-nine (32%) patients had isolated i(17q) [MDS/MPN-i(17q)]. Compared to MDS/MPN without i(17q), MDS/MPN-i(17q) patients were significantly younger, had lower platelet and absolute neutrophil counts, and higher frequency of splenomegaly and circulating blasts. MDS/MPN-i(17q) cases showed frequent bilobed neutrophils (75% vs. 23%; P = 0.03), hypolobated megakaryocytes (62% vs. 20%; P = 0.06), and a higher frequency of SETBP1 (69% vs. 5%; P = 0.002) and SRSF2 (63% vs. 5%; P = 0.006) mutations that were frequently co-existent (44% vs. 0%; P = 0.01). TP53 mutations were rare. The mutation profile of MDS/MPN-U-i(17q) was similar to other myeloid neoplasms with i(17q) including atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, with frequent concomitant SETBP1/SRSF2 mutations observed across all the diagnostic entities. Over a median follow-up of 52 months, patients with MDS/MPN-i(17q) showed a shorter median overall survival (11 vs. 28 months; P < 0.001). The presence of i(17q) retained independent poor prognostic value in multivariable Cox-regression analysis [HR 3.686 (1.17-11.6); P = 0.026] along with splenomegaly. We suggest that MDS/MPN-i(17q) warrants recognition as a distinct subtype within the MDS/MPN-U category based on its unique clinico-biologic features and uniformly poor prognosis.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 748250, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660311

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) is routinely used for mutation profiling of acute myeloid leukemia. The extensive application of NGS in hematologic malignancies, and its significant association with the outcomes in multiple large cohorts constituted a proof of concept that AML phenotype is driven by underlying mutational signature and is amenable for targeted therapies. These findings urged incorporation of molecular results into the latest World Health Organization (WHO) sub-classification and integration into risk-stratification and treatment guidelines by the European Leukemia Net. NGS mutation profiling provides a large amount of information that guides diagnosis and management, dependent on the type and number of gene mutations, variant allele frequency and amenability to targeted therapeutics. Hence, molecular mutational profiling is an integral component for work-up of AML and multiple leukemic entities. In addition, there is a vast amount of informative data that can be obtained from routine clinical NGS sequencing beyond diagnosis, prognostication and therapeutic targeting. These include identification of evidence regarding the ontogeny of the disease, underlying germline predisposition and clonal hematopoiesis, serial monitoring to assess the effectiveness of therapy and resistance mutations, which have broader implications for management. In this review, using a few prototypic genes in AML, we will summarize the clinical applications of NGS generated data for optimal AML management, with emphasis on the recently described entities and Food and Drug Administration approved target therapies.

10.
Hum Pathol ; 118: 60-68, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655612

RESUMO

We report 83 cases of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) involving the tonsil as initial manifestation (IM). The median age at the time of tonsillar involvement was 58 years (range, 35-79 years). Most (85%) patients presented similar to acute tonsillitis. Lymphadenopathy (84%) and advanced stage of disease (81%) were frequent. With a median follow-up of 6.1 years (range, 0.5-18.4 years), the median overall survival (OS) was 11.3 years for all patients. Cases with classic MCL morphology demonstrated a superior OS (median OS: 11.7 years versus 7.8 years for aggressive morphology, P = 0.0361). Approximately 20% of patients had limited stage of disease, and they had excellent outcomes (median OS: not reached versus 11.3 years for advanced-stage MCL, P = 0.0479). All the patients were alive after a median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 1-16.2 years). There were no differences in relapse-free survival in morphology and stage (P > 0.05). When tonsils were involved by relapsed MCL, patients less commonly had acute tonsillitis-like symptoms, lymphadenopathy, and advanced stage of disease compared to MCL as IM. Patients in the relapse group had poorer OS than patients in the IM group from the time of tonsillar involvement by MCL to the date of death or last follow-up (7.8 versus 11.7 years, P = 0.003). Compared with a group of 93 patients whose initial biopsy specimen was a lymph node, patients whose initial biopsy specimen was tonsil had similar OS (11.7 versus 8.8 years, P = 0.1764). However, patients with tonsillar MCL more commonly had limited stage disease (19% versus 8%, P = 0.0385) and a low-risk Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score (71% versus 47%, P = 0.0025).

12.
Am J Hematol ; 96(11): 1420-1428, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351647

RESUMO

TP53 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with resistance to standard treatments and dismal outcomes. The incidence and prognostic impact of the emergence of newly detectable TP53 mutations over the course of AML therapy has not been well described. We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with newly diagnosed TP53 wild type AML who relapsed after or were refractory to frontline therapy. Twenty-nine patients (15%) developed a newly detectable TP53 mutation in the context of relapsed/refractory disease. The median variant allelic frequency (VAF) was 15% (range, 1.1%-95.6%). TP53 mutations were more common after intensive therapy versus lower-intensity therapy (23% vs. 10%, respectively; p = 0.02) and in patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant versus those who had not (36% vs. 12%, respectively; p = 0.005). Lower TP53 VAF was associated with an increased likelihood of complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) compared to higher TP53 VAF (CR/CRi rate of 41% for VAF < 20% vs. 13% for VAF ≥ 20%, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) after acquisition of TP53 mutation was 4.6 months, with a 1-year OS rate of 19%. TP53 VAF at relapse was significantly associated with OS; the median OS of patients with TP53 VAF ≥ 20% was 3.5 months versus 6.1 months for those with TP53 VAF < 20% (p < 0.05). In summary, new TP53 mutations may be acquired throughout the course of AML therapy. Sequential monitoring for TP53 mutations is likely to be increasingly relevant in the era of emerging TP53-targeting therapies for AML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Frequência do Gene , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mod Pathol ; 34(12): 2183-2191, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376807

RESUMO

Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a catalytic component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) which reduces gene expression via trimethylation of a lysine residue of histone 3 (H3K27me3). Expression of EZH2 has not been assessed systematically in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Expression of EZH2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 166 patients with MCL. We also assessed other PRC2 components and H3K27me3. Fifty-seven (38%) of MCL patients were positive for EZH2 using 40% cutoff. EZH2 expression was associated with aggressive histologic variants (65% vs. 29%, p < 0.001), high Ki-67 proliferation rate (median, 72% vs. 19%, p < 0.001), and p53 overexpression (43% vs. 2%, p < 0.001). EZH2 expression did not correlate with expression of other PRC2 components (EED and SUZ12), H3K27me3, MHC-I, and MHC-II. Patients with EZH2 expression (EZH2+) had a poorer overall survival (OS) compared with patients without EZH2 expression (EZH2-) (median OS: 3.9 years versus 9.4 years, respectively, p < 0.001). EZH2 expression also predicted a poorer prognosis in MCL patients with classic histology (median OS, 4.6 years for EZH2+ and 9.6 years for EZH2-negative, respectively, p < 0.001) as well as aggressive histology (median OS, 3.7 years for EZH2+ and 7.9 years for EZH2-negative, respectively, p = 0.046). However, EZH2 expression did not independently correlate with overall survival in a multivariate analysis. Gene expression analysis and pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated a significant enrichment in cell cycle and mitotic transition pathways in MCL with EZH2 expression. EZH2 expression detected by immunohistochemistry is present in 38% of MCL cases and it is associated with high proliferation rate, p53 overexpression, aggressive histologic variants, and poorer OS. Based on gene expression profiling data, EZH2 expression could potentiate cell cycle machinery in MCL. These data suggest that assessment of EZH2 expression could be useful to stratify MCL patients into low- and high-risk groups.

14.
Cancer ; 127(19): 3541-3551, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax (VEN) in combination with a hypomethylating agent (HMA) has become the standard of care for patients aged >75 years and for those not eligible for intensive chemotherapy who have newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The benefit of VEN-based therapy in patients who have newly diagnosed AML with mutations in the TP53 gene (TP53mut ) over standard therapy is undefined. METHODS: In this single-institutional, retrospective analysis, the authors assessed the clinical outcomes of 238 patients with newly diagnosed TP53mut AML and compared the clinical characteristics, response to different therapies, and outcomes of those who received VEN-based (n = 58) and non-VEN-based (n = 180) regimens. RESULTS: Patients who received VEN-based regimens were older (aged >65 years: 81% vs 65%; P = .02) and had higher response rates (complete remission, 43% vs 32%; P = .06) than those who received non-VEN-based regimens. Compared with patients who received non-VEN-based regimens, no difference in overall survival (median, 6.6 vs 5.7 months; P = .4) or relapse-free survival (median, 4.7 vs 3.5 months; P = .43) was observed in those who received VEN-based regimens, regardless of age or intensity of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of VEN to standard treatment regimens did not improve outcomes in younger or older patients who had TP53mut AML. These data highlight the need for novel therapies beyond VEN to improve the outcome of patients with TP53mut AML.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117074

RESUMO

A 52-yr-old woman presented with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia. A bone marrow biopsy showed 21% blasts with a myeloid phenotype and no other notable features such as abnormal eosinophils. Routine nanofluidics-based reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) leukemia translocation panel designed to screen for recurrent genetic abnormalities in acute leukemia detected an inversion 16 transcript variant E. This prompted rereview of karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies, which confirmed inv(16), leading to appropriate prognostication and modification of treatment. This case underscores the utility of a powerful molecular screening method for the routine detection of recurrent genetic abnormalities of acute myeloid leukemia. It was especially useful in this case because of the lack of characteristic morphologic findings seen in inversion 16 and the difficulty in its detection by conventional karyotype analysis.

16.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(8): 1213-1219, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110383

RESUMO

Importance: Oral targeted therapies have advanced the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These therapies include Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, used as monotherapy, and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax, typically combined with the CD20 monoclonal antibody. Preclinical studies have shown synergy between Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax. Objective: To examine the rate of complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow-undetectable measurable residual disease (U-MRD) after treatment with the combination of ibrutinib and venetoclax. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center, phase 2 nonrandomized trial enrolled patients from August 17, 2016, to June 5, 2018. Participants included previously untreated patients with CLL who met International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria for treatment indication. Patients were required to have at least 1 of the following features: del(17p), TP53-mutated CLL, del(11q), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene, or age 65 years or older. Interventions: Therapy consisted of ibrutinib, 420 mg/d, monotherapy for 3 cycles, thereafter combined with venetoclax (standard weekly dose ramp-up to 400 mg/d) for a total of 24 cycles of combination treatment. Responses were assessed at serial points according to International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria. Measurable residual disease (MRD) was assessed by multicolor flow cytometry with a sensitivity of 10-4. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes included complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow U-MRD rate. Results: Eighty patients (57 [71%] men) were treated; median age was 65 years (range, 26-83 years). The median follow-up for all 80 patients was 38.5 months (range, 5.6-51.1 months). Five patients discontinued the study during the ibrutinib monotherapy phase; the remaining 75 patients received combination therapy. On an intent-to-treat analysis of combined treatment, 45 (56%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 12 cycles and 53 (66%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 24 cycles. Overall, 60 (75%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission as their best response. Responses were seen across all high-risk subgroups, independent of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene mutation status, fluorescence in situ hybridization category, or TP53 mutation. The 3-year progression-free survival was 93%, and 3-year overall survival was 96%. No patient had CLL progression; 2 patients developed Richter transformation. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that combination therapy with ibrutinib and venetoclax might be beneficial for previously untreated patients with CLL. Remissions appeared to be durable during a follow-up of more than 3 years, with activity seen across high-risk disease subgroups, including those with del(17p)/TP53-mutated CLL. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02756897.

17.
Cancer ; 127(19): 3552-3565, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SF3B1 mutations (SF3B1mut ) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) frequently involve codon K700E and have a favorable prognosis. The prognostic effect of non-K700E SF3B1mut is uncertain. METHODS: The authors analyzed the clinicopathological features and outcomes of a single-institution series of 94 treatment-naive SF3B1mut MDS patients (18%) and 415 treatment-naive SF3B1wt MDS patients and explored the differences between K700E and non-K700E SF3B1mut MDS. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients (59%) carried K700E. Recurrent non-K700E mutations (39 [41%]) included R625, H662, and K666. Compared with SF3B1mut K700E patients, non-K700E patients had a lower median absolute neutrophil count (1.8 vs 2.4; P = .005) and were frequently "high" according to the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (19% vs 4%; P = .031). Non-K700E MDS was associated frequently with RUNX1 (26% vs 7%; P = .012) and exclusively with BCOR, IDH2, and SRSF2 mutations. A splicing analysis showed the differential distribution of alternatively spliced events and gene expression profiles between K700 and non-K700E MDS patients. The majority (at least 80%) of SF3B1mut K700E, SF3B1mut non-K700E, and SF3B1wt patients were treated with hypomethylating agents. Over a median follow-up of 16 months, SF3B1mut had superior overall survival (OS) in comparison with SF3B1wt in all MDS patients (not reached vs 25.2 months; P = .0003), in patients with low-grade MDS, and in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS). Compared with SF3B1wt , SF3B1mut K700E had superior outcomes in all MDS (median OS, 25 months vs not reached; P = .0001), in low-grade MDS (median OS, 41.3 months vs not reached; P = .0015), and in MDS-RS (median OS, 22.3 months vs not reached; P = .0001), but no significant difference was seen between non-K700E and SF3B1wt MDS. By multivariable analysis, the absence of SF3B1mut K700E mutations was independently associated with the prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of the SF3B1 mutation subtype in MDS risk assessment. LAY SUMMARY: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with SF3B1 mutations are regarded as having a favorable prognosis by both the World Health Organization and the International Working Group for the Prognosis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes. However, this article shows that only MDS patients with SF3B1 K700E mutations have a favorable prognosis (and not MDS patients with SF3B1 mutations involving other codons). This has important implications for refining future MDS subclassification and risk assessment criteria.

18.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep ; 16(4): 336-344, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028637

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Awareness, widespread availability, and routine use of sequencing techniques in work-up of myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia have facilitated increased recognition of these entities arising in a background of germline predisposition disorders (GPD). RECENT FINDINGS: The latest revisions to the WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms incorporate "myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition" as a separate entity due to the therapeutic implications of this diagnosis. It has become apparent that some of these entities have unique recognizable morphologic findings that can be challenging to interpret at time. Hence, much needs to be studied, posing a new layer of complexity to hematopathologists and oncologists. A thorough understanding of cytogenetic and molecular findings during disease evolution is essential. Consequently, hematopathologists and molecular pathologists play an increasing role in recognition of bone marrow morphologic features that help in recognition of underlying GPD, monitoring, and prompt identification of progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/terapia , Patologistas/normas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas , Humanos
19.
Leukemia ; 35(12): 3421-3429, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34007049

RESUMO

Chemoimmunotherapy with combined fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR) has been an effective treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We initiated a phase II trial for previously untreated patients with CLL with mutated IGHV and absence of del(17p)/TP53 mutation. Patients received ibrutinib, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and obinutuzumab (iFCG) for three cycles. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete count recvoery (CRi) with marrow undetectable measurable residual disease (U-MRD) received additional nine cycles of ibrutinib with three cycles of obinutuzumab; all others received nine additional cycles of ibrutinib and obinutuzumab. Patients in marrow U-MRD remission after cycle 12 discontinued all treatment, including ibrutinib. Forty-five patients were treated. The median follow-up is 41.3 months. Among the total 45 treated patients, after three cycles, 38% achieved CR/CRi and 87% achieved marrow U-MRD. After cycle 12, the corresponding numbers were 67% and 91%, respectively. Overall, 44/45 (98%) patients achieved marrow U-MRD as best response. No patient had CLL progression. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 98% and 98%, respectively. Per trial design, all patients who completed cycle 12 discontinued ibrutinib, providing for a time-limited therapy. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 58% and 40% patients, respectively. The iFCG regimen with only 3 cycles of chemotherapy is an effective, time-limited regimen for patients with CLL with mutated IGHV and without del(17p)/TP53 mutation.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2877, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001881

RESUMO

The mechanisms driving therapeutic resistance and poor outcomes of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are incompletely understood. We characterize the cellular and molecular heterogeneity within and across patients and delineate the dynamic evolution of tumor and immune cell compartments at single cell resolution in longitudinal specimens from ibrutinib-sensitive patients and non-responders. Temporal activation of multiple cancer hallmark pathways and acquisition of 17q are observed in a refractory MCL. Multi-platform validation is performed at genomic and cellular levels in PDX models and larger patient cohorts. We demonstrate that due to 17q gain, BIRC5/survivin expression is upregulated in resistant MCL tumor cells and targeting BIRC5 results in marked tumor inhibition in preclinical models. In addition, we discover notable differences in the tumor microenvironment including progressive dampening of CD8+ T cells and aberrant cell-to-cell communication networks in refractory MCLs. This study reveals diverse and dynamic tumor and immune programs underlying therapy resistance in MCL.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Heterogeneidade Genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
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