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1.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(8): 989-996, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to define the association between conduction recovery across the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) and typical atrial flutter (AFL) recurrence when CTI ablation is performed with pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) compared with a stand-alone procedure. BACKGROUND: CTI ablation is commonly performed at the same time as PVI to treat AFL or as an empiric therapy. Conduction recovery is a recognized problem after linear ablation in the left atrium (e.g., mitral isthmus ablation) and is proarrhythmic. Less is known about conduction recovery after CTI ablation and possible differences in outcomes when performed at the time of PVI compared with at the time of a stand-alone procedure. METHODS: Eligible participants who underwent stand-alone CTI ablation were compared with those who underwent a combined (CTI+PVI) procedure. CTI conduction recovery was assessed at the time of a second ablation. Conduction recovery across the CTI (primary outcome) and recurrence of typical AFL (secondary outcome) were studied using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 295 eligible participants (median age: 64 years [interquartile range: 55 to 69 years]; 33% women), recovery was assessed in 232 and was more common after combined versus stand-alone CTI ablation (52% [72 of 139] vs. 13% [12 of 93]; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, CTI ablation performed as a combined procedure increased odds of CTI conduction recovery 7.8-fold (odds ratio: 7.8; 95% confidence interval: 3.3 to 18.3; p < 0.001) and clinical AFL recurrence 4.1-fold (odds ratio: 4.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.0 to 16.9; p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: CTI ablation performed at the time of atrial fibrillation ablation is associated with higher rates of conduction recovery and typical flutter recurrence.

2.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 12(3): 313-319, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771185

RESUMO

Catheter ablation can effectively reduce the frequency of ventricular tachycardia in ischemic cardiomyopathy by ablating sites of reentry within complex regions of myocardial scar. In cases of near transmural infarction, this arrhythmia substrate may be nearer the epicardium than the endocardium, and epicardial ablation may be necessary. An epicardial substrate location can potentially be predicted by imaging that suggests transmural infarction. Percutaneous epicardial ablation improves outcomes in selected patients, but is higher risk and avoided in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(8): 898-900, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130925
5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(11): e007312, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661970

RESUMO

As the population of patients with implanted defibrillators has grown, an increasing number of patients nonischemic cardiomyopathies are requiring therapy to reduce ventricular arrhythmias. Most of these arrhythmias are related to areas of ventricular scar. Although the pathophysiology of scar development is not well understood in these diseases, advances in cardiac imaging and mapping are better characterizing the scar locations that give rise to the arrhythmias. Here, we review the pathophysiologic and electrocardiographic correlations that inform ablation strategies for ventricular tachycardia in these diseases.

6.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(10): 1994-2001, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Subclinical atrial fibrillation (AF), in the form of cardiac implantable device-detected atrial high rate episodes (AHREs), has been associated with increased thromboembolism. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead with a floating atrial dipole may permit a single lead (DX) ICD system to detect AHREs. We sought to assess the utility of the DX ICD system for subclinical AF detection in patients, with a prospective multicenter, cohort-controlled trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred fifty patients without prior history of AF (age 59 ± 13 years; 108 [72%] male) were enrolled into the DX cohort and implanted with a Biotronik DX ICD system at eight centers. Age-, sex-, and left ventricular ejection fraction-matched single- and dual-chamber ICD cohorts were derived from a Cornell database and from the IMPACT trial, respectively. The primary endpoint were AHRE detection at 12 months. During median 12 months follow-up, AHREs were detected in 19 (13%) patients in the DX, 8 (5.3%) in the single-chamber, and 19 (13%) in the dual-chamber cohorts. The rate of AHRE detection was significantly higher in the DX cohort compared to the single-chamber cohort (P = .026), but not significantly different compared to the dual-chamber cohort. There were no inappropriate ICD therapies in the DX cohort. At 12 months, only 3.0% of patients in the DX cohort had sensed atrial amplitudes less than 1.0 mV. CONCLUSION: Use of a DX ICD lead allows subclinical AF detection with a single lead DX system that is superior to that of a conventional single-chamber ICD system.

7.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(7): 965-969, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Boston Scientific (Marlborough, MA, USA) implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-Ds) manufactured between 2008 and 2014 are potentially subject to premature battery depletion through a low-voltage capacitor malfunction occurring as a result of hydrogen buildup within the device. Although some of these devices are currently under advisory, other devices manufactured during this timeframe carry a lower risk of the same malfunction. These same devices are known to have superior longevity in general, and the overall mean lifespan of the devices remains long. METHODS: All patients implanted or followed at our two centers who experienced premature battery depletion and had a Boston Scientific ICD or CRT-D potentially at risk for low-voltage capacitor malfunction were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: Nineteen out of 838 patients (2.3%) with devices potentially at risk have had premature battery depletion: 5.7% of those under advisory and 1.1% of those not under advisory. None of our patients had compromised therapy, and all had >27 days of projected battery longevity remaining. CONCLUSIONS: Undetected premature battery depletion in this population of ICDs has the potential to expose a patient to an interval of time where the device is unable to provide therapy. However, with enrollment in remote monitoring, regular follow-up, and attention to audible alerts, the risk of therapy loss due to low-voltage state can be effectively mitigated. For these reasons, prophylactic generator replacement is not recommended.

8.
Cardiol Clin ; 37(2): 241-249, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926025

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is common in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Due to reduced left atrial appendage (LAA) emptying velocities and increased sludge formation, a higher rate of stroke and embolism are seen with CHF. Up to 50% of CHF patients are inadequately covered for stroke protection with anticoagulation, and, even while on therapy, CHF patients are at risk for failure to clear LAA or left ventricular (LV) thrombus. Device-based LAA closure (LAAC) alternatives exist. Following intracardiac device closure, an increased rate of device-related thrombus is seen in heart failure patients, which warrants further study to optimize LAAC benefits.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Saúde Global , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prognóstico , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia
10.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 11(11): e006714, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous pericardial access for catheter ablation is associated with a bleeding risk. We sought to elucidate the relation of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events associated with epicardial procedures to anticoagulation strategy. METHODS: Anticoagulation strategy before and during pericardial access for 355 patients (57±14 years old) who had ventricular arrhythmia mapping and ablation were reviewed. Oral anticoagulants were stopped perioperatively and heparin administered before the procedure. Pericardial bleeding >80 mL was considered significant. The patients were divided into 3 groups per the anticoagulation strategy. Group 1: no heparin was administered before pericardial access, group 2: heparin was administered and reversed before pericardial access, and group 3: heparin was administered and not reversed. RESULTS: Significant pericardial bleeding occurred in 46 cases (13%) and did not differ among the groups ( P=0.720). Unintentional cardiac puncture and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% were independently associated with pericardial bleeding (odds ratio, 16.4; 95% CI, 7.35-36.40; P<0.001 and odds ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.02-5.10; P=0.044). Of 38 procedures with unintentional cardiac puncture, there was no difference in pericardial bleeding for different anticoagulation strategies. Thromboembolic events occurred in 5 patients; 1 coronary embolism, 1 stroke, 2 deep vein thrombosis with 1 fatal pulmonary embolism, and 1 thrombus on a temporary ventricular assist device. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding is the major risk related to pericardial access and seems to be more related to unintentional cardiac puncture than to the anticoagulation strategy. Thrombotic complications are infrequent but potentially severe. The major focus for improving safety should be on the prevention of unintentional cardiac puncture.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Mapeamento Epicárdico/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericárdio/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Punções/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Heart Rhythm ; 15(1): 56-62, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28917558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation is now a mainstay of therapy for ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). However, there are scenarios where either physiological or anatomical factors make ablation less likely to be successful. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) may be an alternate therapy for patients with difficult-to-ablate VAs. METHODS: We identified all patients referred for CSD at a single center for indications other than long QT syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia who had failed catheter ablation. Medical records were reviewed for medical history, procedural details, and follow-up. RESULTS: Seven cases of CSD were identified in patients who had failed prior catheter ablation or had disease not amenable to ablation. All patients had VAs refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs, with a median arrhythmia burden of 1 episode of sustained VA per month. There were no acute complications of sympathectomy. One of 7 patients (14%) underwent heart transplant. No patient had sustained VA after sympathectomy at a median follow-up of 7 months. CONCLUSION: Because of anatomical and physiological constraints, many VAs remain refractory to catheter ablation and remain a significant challenge for the electrophysiologist. While CSD has been described as a therapy for long QT syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, data regarding its use in other cardiac conditions are sparse. This series illustrates that CSD may be a viable treatment option for patients with a variety of etiologies of VAs.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Eletrocardiografia , Simpatectomia/métodos , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Toracoscopia , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184354, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a mechanistically heterogeneous disorder, and the ability to identify sub-phenotypes ("endophenotypes") of AF would assist in the delivery of personalized medicine. We used the clinical response to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) to identify a sub-group of patients with non-PV mediated AF and sought to define the clinical associations. METHODS: Subjects enrolled in the Vanderbilt AF Ablation Registry who underwent a repeat AF ablation due to arrhythmia recurrence were analyzed on the basis of PV reconnection. Subjects who had no PV reconnection were defined as "non-PV mediated AF". A comparison group of subjects were identified who had AF that was treated with PVI-only and experienced no arrhythmia recurrence >12 months. They were considered a group enriched for "PV-mediated AF". Univariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate clinical associations between the PV and non-PV mediated AF groups. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty nine subjects underwent repeat AF ablation and thirty three (14%) had no PV reconnection. They were compared with 91 subjects identified as having PV-mediated AF. Subjects with non-PV mediated AF were older (64 years [IQR 60,71] vs. 60 [52,67], P = 0.01), more likely to have non-paroxysmal AF (82% [N = 27] vs. 35% [N = 32], P<0.001), and had a larger left atrium (LA) (4.2cm [3.6,4.8] vs. 4.0 [3.3,4.4], P = 0.04). In univariate analysis, age (per decade: OR 1.56 [95% CI: 1.04 to 2.33], P = 0.03), LA size (per cm: OR 1.8 [1.06 to 3.21], P = 0.03) and non-paroxysmal AF (OR 8.3 [3.10 to 22.19], P<0.001) were all significantly associated with non-PV mediated AF. However, in multivariable analysis only non-paroxysmal AF was independently associated with non-PV mediated AF (OR 7.47 [95% CI 2.62 to 21.29], P<0.001), when adjusted for age (per decade: OR 1.25 [0.81 to 1.94], P = 0.31), male gender (OR 0.48 [0.18 to 1.28], P = 0.14), and LA size (per 1cm: 1.24 [0.65 to 2.33], P = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Non-paroxysmal AF was the only clinical variable found to be independently associated with non-PV mediated AF. We demonstrated that analysis of AF ablation outcomes data can serve as a tool to successfully identify a sub-phenotype of subjects who have non-PV mediated AF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID # NCT02404415.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Veias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Análise de Regressão
18.
J Arrhythm ; 32(1): 51-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26949431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cardiac fibrosis, which can now be measured noninvasively using T1-mapping with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). This study aimed to assess the impact of AF on ventricular T1 at the time of CMRI. METHODS: Subjects with AF scheduled for AF ablation underwent CMRI with standard electrocardiography gating and breath-hold protocols on a 1.5 T scanner with post-contrast ventricular T1 recorded from 6 regions of interest at the mid-ventricle. Baseline demographic, clinical, and imaging characteristics were examined using univariate and multivariable linear regression modeling for an association with myocardial T1. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-seven patients were studied (32% women; median age, 61 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 55-67], 50% persistent AF [episodes>7 days or requiring electrical or pharmacologic cardioversion], 30% in AF at the time of the CMRI). The median global T1 was 404 ms (IQR, 381-428). AF at the time of CMRI was associated with a 4.4% shorter T1 (p=0.000) compared to sinus rhythm when adjusted for age, sex, persistent AF, body mass index, congestive heart failure, and renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate<60). A post-hoc multivariate model adjusted for heart rate suggested that heart rate elevation (p=0.009) contributes to the reduction in T1 observed in patients with AF at the time of CMRI. No association between ventricular T1 and AF recurrence after ablation was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: AF at the time of CMRI was associated with lower post-contrast ventricular T1 compared with sinus rhythm. This effect was at least partly due to elevated heart rate. T1 was not associated with the recurrence of AF after ablation.

19.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 27(1): 120-4, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26511459

RESUMO

We present three cases within 11 months at a single institution of sustained VT that fell below the programmed detection rate of the patients' implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), two of which continued until converting to an agonal VF that did not meet criteria for detection, and a third case that could not be successfully defibrillated after a prolonged period of VT. These episodes may be under-recognized due to the dependence of device diagnostic storage on programming and the post-mortem effort that is often required to review these events. Some patients, likely those with the most advanced heart failure, may not tolerate sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and may even die from ventricular arrhythmias without ever having a rhythm that meets detection criteria in a ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Eletrocardiografia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taquicardia Ventricular/complicações , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Falha de Tratamento
20.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 26(10): 1111-6, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are potentially preventable complications associated with high morbidity, mortality, and cost. A recently developed bio-absorbable antibacterial envelope (TYRX™-A) might prevent CIED infections in high-risk subjects. However, data regarding safety and efficacy have not been published. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a single-center retrospective cohort study, we compared the prevalence of CIED infections among subjects with ≥2 risk factors treated with the TYRX™-A envelope (N = 135), the nonabsorbable TYRX™ envelope (N = 353), and controls who did not receive an envelope (N = 636). Infection was ascertained by individual chart review. The mean (95% confidence interval) number of risk factors was 3.08 (2.84-3.32) for TYRX™-A, 3.20 (3.07-3.34) for TYRX™, and 3.09 (2.99-3.20) for controls, P = 0.3. After a minimum 300 days follow-up, the prevalence of CIED infection was 0 (0%) for TYRX™-A, 1 (0.3%) for TYRX™, and 20 (3.1%) for controls (P = 1 for TYRX™-A vs. TYRX™, P = 0.03 for TYRX™-A vs. controls, and P = 0.002 for TYRX™ vs. controls). In a propensity score-matched cohort of 316 recipients of either envelope and 316 controls, the prevalence of infection was 0 (0%) and 9 (2.8%), respectively, P = 0.004. When limited to 122 TYRX™-A recipients and 122 propensity-matched controls, the prevalence of CIED infections was 0 (0%) and 5 (4.1%), respectively, P = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: Among high-risk subjects, the TYRX™-A bio-absorbable envelope was associated with a very low prevalence of CIED related infections that was comparable to that seen with the nonabsorbable envelope.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Implantes de Medicamento/administração & dosagem , Marca-Passo Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Implantes Absorvíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Causalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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