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1.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; : 1550059420914201, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204613

RESUMO

We investigated whether the gray matter volume of primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus [HG]) was associated with abnormal patterns of auditory γ activity in schizophrenia, namely impaired γ synchronization in the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) and increased spontaneous broadband γ power. (The γ data were previously reported in Hirano et al, JAMA Psychiatry, 2015;72:813-821). Participants were 24 healthy controls (HC) and 23 individuals with chronic schizophrenia (SZ). The ASSR was obtained from the electroencephalogram to click train stimulation at 20, 30, and 40 Hz rates. Dipole source localization of the ASSR was used to provide a spatial filter of auditory cortex activity, from which ASSR evoked power and phase locking factor (PLF), and induced γ power were computed. HG gray matter volume was derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T with manually traced regions of interest. As expected, HG gray matter volume was reduced in SZ compared with HC. In SZ, left hemisphere ASSR PLF and induced γ power during the 40-Hz stimulation condition were positively and negatively correlated with left HG gray matter volume, respectively. These results provide evidence that cortical gray matter structure, possibly resulting from reduced synaptic connectivity at the microcircuit level, is related to impaired γ synchronization and increased spontaneous γ activity in schizophrenia.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166459

RESUMO

This study sought to identify subgroups of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) defined by specific patterns of emotional and behavioral symptoms according to the parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Our clinical sample comprised 314 children (aged 4 to 15 years) diagnosed with ADHD according to the DSM-5. In addition, comorbid psychiatric disorders, general functioning, and medication status were assessed. Cluster analysis was performed on the CBCL syndrome subscales and yielded a solution with four distinct subgroups. The "High internalizing/externalizing" group displayed an overlap between internalizing and externalizing problems in the CBCL profile. In addition, the "High internalizing/externalizing" group revealed a high rate of comorbid autism spectrum disorder and elevated autistic traits. The "Inattention and internalizing" group revealed a high rate of the predominantly inattentive presentation according to ADHD specifier from the DSM-5. The "Aggression and externalizing" group revealed a high rate of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. The "Less psychopathology" group scored low on all syndrome scales. Children with ADHD were subdivided into four distinct subgroups characterized by psychopathological patterns, with and without internalizing and externalizing problems. The overlap between internalizing and externalizing problems may be mediated with emotional dysregulation and associated neurobiological bases.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048773

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to estimate the network structures of depressive symptoms using network analysis and evaluated the geographic regional differences in theses network structures among Asian patients with depressive disorders. METHODS: Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD), the network of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode was estimated from 1174 Asian patients with depressive disorders. The node strength centrality of all ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for a depressive episode was estimated using a community-detection algorithm. In addition, networks of depressive symptoms were estimated separately among East Asian patients and South or Southeast Asian patients. Moreover, networks were estimated separately among Asian patients from high-income countries and those from middle-income countries. RESULTS: Persistent sadness, fatigue, and loss of interest were the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms in Asian patients with depressive disorders overall. A community-detection algorithm estimated that when excluding psychomotor disturbance as an outlier, the other nine symptoms formed the largest clinically meaningful cluster. Geographic and economic variations in networks of depressive symptoms were evaluated. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that the typical symptoms of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode are the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, our findings suggested that cultural influences related to geographic and economic distributions of participants could influence the estimated depressive symptom network in Asian patients with depressive disorders.

4.
J Epidemiol ; 30(1): 15-23, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between decline in handgrip strength from midlife to late life and dementia is unclear. METHODS: Japanese community-dwellers without dementia aged 60 to 79 years (ie, individuals in late life; mean age, 68 years) were followed for 24 years (1988-2012) (n = 1,055); 835 of them had participated in a health examination in 1973-1974 (mean age, 53 years), and these earlier data were used for the midlife analysis. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, we estimated the risk conferred by a decline in handgrip strength over a 15-year period (1973-74 to 1988) from midlife to late life on the development of total dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) over the late-life follow-up period from 1988 to 2012. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 368 subjects experienced total dementia. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of total dementia increased significantly with greater decline in handgrip strength (increased or unchanged handgrip strength [≥+0%] 25.1, mildly decreased [-14 to -1%] 28.4, and severely decreased [≤-15%] 38.9 per 1,000 person-years). A greater decline in handgrip strength was significantly associated with higher risk of total dementia after adjusting for potential confounding factors; subjects with severely decreased handgrip strength had 1.51-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.99, P < 0.01) increased risk of total dementia compared to those with increased or unchanged handgrip strength. Similar significant findings were observed for AD, but not for VaD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a greater decline in handgrip strength from midlife to late life is an important indicator for late-life onset of dementia.

5.
Pediatr Int ; 62(2): 151-157, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently comorbid and, as both are defined as neurodevelopmental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, simultaneous diagnosis is possible. However, despite the frequency of this comorbid state, its endophenotypic features remain unclear. This study thus aimed to describe the behavioral and emotional problems in boys with comorbid ASD and ADHD using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). METHODS: In total, 102 boys (age, 6-12 years) diagnosed with one or both disorders were divided into three groups according to their clinical diagnosis: ASD + ADHD (N = 39), ASD (N = 37), and ADHD (N = 25). Symptoms and related behaviors were compared among the groups using parents' ratings of the autism spectrum quotient, ADHD rating scale-IV, and SDQ. RESULTS: In the ASD + ADHD group, the proportion of "clinical-range" cases was as high as 76.9% for the SDQ total difficulties score (TDS). The ASD + ADHD and ADHD groups had significantly higher TDS as well as behavioral problems and hyperactivity subscale scores than did the ASD group; however, the ASD + ADHD group did not have significantly different scores on any subscale compared with the other two groups. The ASD + ADHD and ASD groups also had significantly lower prosocial behavior scores than the ADHD group. CONCLUSIONS: When using the SDQ as a screening tool for neurodevelopmental disorders, a high TDS, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and low prosocial behavior can be considered characteristic of ASD and ADHD comorbidity in 6- to 12-year-old boys.

6.
Autism Res ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793248

RESUMO

Despite accumulating evidence that culture shapes the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no studies have yet applied the Self-Construal Scale to individuals with ASD. We compared the self-construals (measured using the Self-Construal Scale) of 31 high-functioning Japanese individuals with ASD with those of 60 typically developing (TD) individuals. We also examined how the self-construals of individuals with ASD related to their intelligence quotient, adverse childhood experiences, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ASD symptoms during adulthood and preschool years, and subjective well-being. Individuals with ASD were more likely to display independent self-construals than were TD individuals; unexpectedly, however, a substantial proportion of individuals with ASD (43.8%) displayed relatively interdependent self-construals. Among individuals with ASD, self-construals were significantly associated with ASD symptoms during preschool years, and with satisfaction of the need for autonomy and frustration of the need for relatedness. Evaluating self-construals can help predict the subjective well-being of high-functioning individuals with ASD. Moreover, the Self-Construal Scale may be useful for understanding the heterogeneous phenotypes of ASD, based on its association with autistic symptoms during preschool years, suggesting that the scale is a potential tool to develop efficient interventions for high-functioning individuals with ASD. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of disorders presenting a variety of symptoms and biological origins that can complicate choosing an intervention best suited for improving well-being. Results indicate that a self-construal scale could help understand individuals with high-functioning ASD by independent and interdependent self-construals that are associated with ASD symptoms during preschool years and adult subjective well-being. Our findings suggest that this scale can help understand ASD and select appropriate interventions.

7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 102004, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired cognitive flexibility has been implicated in the genetic basis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent endophenotype studies of OCD showed neural inefficiency in the cognitive control network and interference by the limbic network of the cognitive control network. Exploring the relationship between the functional brain network and impaired cognitive flexibility may provide novel information about the neurobiological basis of OCD. METHODS: We obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) scans and measured the cognitive flexibility of 37 medication-free OCD patients and 40 healthy control (HC) participants using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). We explored the difference between OCD and HC groups in the functional brain network related to impaired cognitive flexibility from the amygdala and dorsal striatal regions of interest (ROIs) by using a seed-based approach. RESULTS: Significant differences between the OCD and HC groups were identified in the resting state functional network from the dorsal caudate. Increased functional connectivity from the dorsal caudate to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI) was associated with poorer cognitive flexibility in the OCD group, but better cognitive flexibility in the HC group. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence that the impaired cognitive flexibility of OCD may be associated with dysfunctions of the brain network from the dorsal caudate (DC) to important nodes of the salience network. Our results extend the neuropsychological model of OCD by showing intrinsically different associations between OCD and HC in functional network and cognitive flexibility.

8.
Neurology ; 93(22): e2053-e2064, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The associations between trans fatty acids and dementia have been unclear. We investigated the prospective association between serum elaidic acid (trans 18:1 n-9) levels, as an objective biomarker for industrial trans fat, and incident dementia and its subtypes. METHODS: In total, 1,628 Japanese community residents aged 60 and older without dementia were followed prospectively from when they underwent a screening examination in 2002-2003 to November 2012 (median 10.3 years, interquartile range 7.2-10.4 years). Serum elaidic acid levels were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and divided into quartiles. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios for all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia by serum elaidic acid levels. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 377 participants developed some type of dementia (247 AD, 102 vascular dementia). Higher serum elaidic acid levels were significantly associated with greater risk of developing all-cause dementia (p for trend = 0.003) and AD (p for trend = 0.02) after adjustment for traditional risk factors. These associations remained significant after adjustment for dietary factors, including total energy intake and intakes of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (both p for trend <0.05). No significant associations were found between serum elaidic acid levels and vascular dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that higher serum elaidic acid is a possible risk factor for the development of all-cause dementia and AD in later life. Public health policy to reduce industrially produced trans fatty acids may assist in the primary prevention of dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Ácidos Oleicos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Trans/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Demência/sangue , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência Vascular/sangue , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
eNeuro ; 6(5)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540999

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are major psychiatric disorders, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the complicated pathologies of these disorders remain unclear. It is difficult to establish adequate in vitro models for pathological analysis because of the heterogeneity of these disorders. In the present study, to recapitulate the pathologies of these disorders in vitro, we established in vitro models by differentiating mature neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from BP and SCZ patient with contributive copy number variations, as follows: two BP patients with PCDH15 deletion and one SCZ patient with RELN deletion. Glutamatergic neurons and GABAergic neurons were induced from hiPSCs under optimized conditions. Both types of induced neurons from both hiPSCs exhibited similar phenotypes of MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein 2)-positive dendrite shortening and decreasing synapse numbers. Additionally, we analyzed isogenic PCDH15- or RELN-deleted cells. The dendrite and synapse phenotypes of isogenic neurons were partially similar to those of patient-derived neurons. These results suggest that the observed phenotypes are general phenotypes of psychiatric disorders, and our in vitro models using hiPSC-based technology may be suitable for analysis of the pathologies of psychiatric disorders.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(17): e011652, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446828

RESUMO

Background Epidemiological evidence implies a link between heart disease and dementia. However, few prospective studies have assessed the association between serum NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels and dementia. Methods and Results A total of 1635 community-dwelling Japanese elderly aged ≥60 years without dementia (57% women, mean age±SD 70.8±7.7 years) were followed up for 10 years. Serum NT-proBNP levels were divided into 4 categories (≤54, 55-124, 125-299, and ≥300 pg/mL). The hazard ratios were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up period, 377 subjects developed all-cause dementia, 247 Alzheimer disease, and 102 vascular dementia. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of all-cause dementia was 31.5 per 1000 person-years and increased significantly with higher serum NT-proBNP levels, being 16.4, 32.0, 35.7, and 45.5, respectively (P for trend <0.01). Subjects with serum NT-proBNP levels of ≥300 pg/mL had a significantly higher risk of all-cause dementia (hazard ratio=2.46, 95% CI 1.63-3.71) than those with serum NT-proBNP levels of ≤54 pg/mL after adjusting for confounders. Similar risks were observed for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Incorporation of the serum NT-proBNP level into a model with known risk factors for dementia significantly improved the predictive ability for incident dementia (c-statistics 0.780-0.787, P=0.02; net reclassification improvement 0.189, P=0.001; integrated discrimination improvement 0.011, P=0.003). Conclusions Higher serum NT-proBNP levels were significantly associated with an increased risk of dementia. Serum NT-proBNP could be a novel biomarker for predicting future risk of dementia in the general elderly population.

12.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 73(8): 427-440, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148350

RESUMO

Hikikomori, a severe form of social withdrawal, has long been observed in Japan mainly among youth and adolescents since around the 1970s, and has been especially highlighted since the late 1990s. Moreover, hikikomori-like cases have recently been reported in many other countries. Hikikomori negatively influences not only the individual's mental health and social participation, but also wider education and workforce stability, and as such is a novel urgent global issue. In this review, we introduce the history, definition, diagnostic evaluation, and interventions for hikikomori and also the international prevalence of hikikomori outside Japan. We propose a hypothesis regarding the globalization of hikikomori based on domestic and international perspectives. In addition, we introduce our latest assessment system for hikikomori (including the latest version of the 'proposed diagnostic criteria of hikikomori for the future DSM/ICD diagnostic systems') and propose therapeutic strategies, including family approaches and individualized therapies. Finally, we present future challenges that may lead to solutions for an internationalized hikikomori.

13.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(6): 323-330, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240984

RESUMO

Background: Although cannabis use has been linked with schizophrenia in a dose-response pattern, to our knowledge, the relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia has rarely been reported in Asian population. Aim: We compared the clinical characteristics and psychotropic prescription patterns between cannabis users and non-users among Asian patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, we aimed to identify the independent correlates of cannabis use in these subjects. Methods: We performed the analysis of the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP), a collaborative consortium survey used to collate the prescription patterns for antipsychotic and other psychotropic medications in patients with schizophrenia in Asia. We included 132 schizophrenia patients in the group of lifetime cannabis use and 1756 in the group that had never used cannabis. A binary logistic model was fitted to detect the clinical correlates of lifetime cannabis use. Results: Adjusting for the effects of age, sex, geographical region, income group, duration of untreated psychosis, and Charlson comordity index level, a binary logistic regression model revealed that lifetime cannabis use was independently associated with aggressive behavior [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.582, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.006-2.490, p = .047] and with long-acting injectable antipsychotic treatment (aOR = 1.796, 95% CI = 1.444-2.820, p = .001). Conclusion: Our findings indicate a close link between lifetime cannabis use and aggressive behavior. The use of long-acting, injectable antipsychotics preferentially treats the aggressive behavior cannabis users among patients with schizophrenia in Asia, especially, the South or Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Agressão , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 412, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249538

RESUMO

Hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal more than 6 months, has increasingly become a crucial issue especially among adolescents. Loneliness, avoidant personality, Japanese culture-related attachment style ("amae"), and difficulty in expressing emotions are suggested to be related to hikikomori. However, deeper psychological aspects have not been well clarified. The Rorschach test is one of the most popular psychological assessment tools to evaluate deeper personality traits. The Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) has been established as the most reliable scoring method. Until now, no CS research has been conducted focusing on hikikomori. Therefore, we herein conducted a pilot case-control study using CS in clinical cases with and without hikikomori condition. Participants were recruited from the Mood Disorder/Hikikomori Clinic at Kyushu University Hospital. Twenty-two patients with hikikomori (HK patients) and 18 patients without hikikomori (non-HK patients) participated in the present study. All the 40 participants conducted the self-report Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) personality questionnaire and CS. Regarding the SCID-II personality questionnaire, various personality traits including passive aggressive trait were significantly higher in HK patients. Among CS variables, HK patients showed higher scores on FC (Form Color) and SumT (total number of texture-related responses). In addition, frequency of SumT was higher in HK patients. The present results suggest that persons with hikikomori are more likely to express emotions indirectly and expect others to presume their feelings and thoughts. Persons with hikikomori may also have difficulty in becoming independent emotionally from primitive dependence and attachment on significant others. Further investigations with larger samples are warranted for validation.

15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 198, 2019 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, an extended-release formulation of quetiapine, quetiapine XR, demonstrated efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with bipolar depression. Bipolar disorder is a chronic disease requiring continuous treatment. METHODS: This was a long-term (52-week), open-label, non-controlled extension study to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of quetiapine XR in Japanese patients with bipolar depression who had previously completed the initial 8-week double-blind study. Efficacy was determined by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Depression Scale 17-item (HAM-D17), and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar scale (CGI-BP). Safety evaluations included analysis of adverse events, clinical laboratory measures, vital signs, Drug-induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. RESULTS: The mean (SD) MADRS total score decreased from 30.9 (6.9) at baseline to 16.1 (10.6) at week 8, and eventually to 9.1 (8.7) at week 52. The sustained efficacy of quetiapine XR treatment was also shown using HAM-D17 total scores, CGI-BP-Severity and Change evaluations. The most common adverse events were somnolence, nasopharyngitis, and thirst. Long-term treatment with quetiapine XR caused no substantial changes in the safety profiles, including clinical laboratory parameters, and no new safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of quetiapine XR was sustained long-term and no new safety concerns were identified in Japanese patients with bipolar depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Registration: NCT01725308. Date of registration; 12th November 2012 (retrospectively registered).

16.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 145-152, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005464

RESUMO

The early auditory-evoked gamma band response (EAGBR) may serve as an index of the integrity of fast recurrent inhibition or synaptic connectivity in the auditory cortex, where abnormalities in individuals with schizophrenia have been consistently found. The EAGBR has been rarely investigated in first episode schizophrenia patients (FESZ) and individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for schizophrenia, and never been compared directly between these populations nor evaluated longitudinally. Here we examined the EAGBR in FESZ, CHR, and matched healthy controls (HC) at baseline and 1-year follow-up assessments to determine whether the EAGBR was affected in these clinical groups, and whether any EAGBR abnormalities changed over time. The electroencephalogram was recorded with a dense electrode array while subjects (18 FESZ, 18 CHR, and 40 HC) performed an auditory oddball task. Event-related spectral measures (phase locking factor [PLF] and evoked power) were computed on Morlet-wavelet-transformed single epochs from the standard trials. At baseline, EAGBR PLF and evoked power did not differ between groups. FESZ showed progressive reductions of PLF and evoked power from baseline to follow-up, and deficits in PLF at follow-up compared to HC. EAGBR peak frequency also increased at temporal sites in FESZ from baseline to follow-up. Longitudinal effects on the EAGBR were not found in CHR or HC, nor did these groups differ at follow-up. In conclusion, we detected neurophysiological changes of auditory cortex function in FESZ during a one-year period, which were not observed in CHR. These findings are discussed within the context of neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia.

17.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 73(7): 370-375, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021515

RESUMO

Hoarding disorder (HD) is a newly listed disease in the new category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in the DSM-5. Patients with HD find it difficult to discard possessions regardless of their actual value and to organize those things. As a result, the possessions overflow the living space and hinder living functions. Though the hoarding symptom had been regarded as a subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to date, recent studies have revealed many differences in clinical characteristics, including onset, course, degree of insight, and treatment responses, between hoarding and other subtypes. Moreover, several neuroimaging studies have found specific changes of brain structure and function in OCD patients with hoarding symptoms compared to patients with non-hoarding OCD. Meanwhile, strategies for treatment of HD have not been standardized. At present, psychological treatment using cognitive behavioral therapy techniques has a certain effect. In this review, we outline the pathophysiology and treatment of HD.

18.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 73(8): 448-457, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900331

RESUMO

AIM: Understanding premorbid personality is important, especially when considering treatment selection. Historically, the premorbid personality of patients with major depression in Japan was described as Shuchaku-kishitsu [similar to Typus melancholicus], as proposed by Shimoda in the 1930s. Since around 2000, there have been increased reports in Japan of young adults with depression who have had premorbid personality differing from the traditional type. In 2005, Tarumi termed this novel condition 'dysthymic-type depression,' and more recently the condition has been called Shin-gata/Gendai-gata Utsu-byo [modern-type depression (MTD)]. We recently developed a semi-structured diagnostic interview to evaluate MTD. Development of a tool that enables understanding of premorbid personality in a short time, especially at the early stage of treatment, is desirable. The object of this study was to develop a self-report scale to evaluate the traits of MTD, and to assess the scale's psychometric properties, diagnostic accuracy, and biological validity. METHODS: A sample of 340 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis. Diagnostic accuracy of the MTD traits was compared against a semi-structured interview. RESULTS: The questionnaire contained 22 items across three subscales, thus we termed it the 22-item Tarumi's Modern-Type Depression Trait Scale: Avoidance of Social Roles, Complaint, and Low Self-Esteem (TACS-22). Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity were all satisfactory. Among patients with major depression, the area under the curve was 0.757 (sensitivity of 63.1% and specificity of 82.9%) and the score was positively correlated with plasma tryptophan. CONCLUSION: The TACS-22 possessed adequate psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy in an initial sample of Japanese adults. Additional research on its ability to support clinical assessment of MTD is warranted.

19.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 13: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814929

RESUMO

Suicide is one of the most disastrous outcomes for psychiatric disorders. Recent advances in biological psychiatry have suggested a positive relationship between some specific brain abnormalities and specific symptoms in psychiatric disorders whose organic bases were previously completely unknown. Microglia, immune cells in the brain, are regarded to play crucial roles in brain inflammation by releasing inflammatory mediators and are suggested to contribute to various psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Recently, activated microglia have been suggested to be one of the possible contributing cells to suicide and suicidal behaviors via various mechanisms especially including the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway. Animal model research focusing on psychiatric disorders has a long history, however, there are only limited animal models that can properly express psychiatric symptoms. In particular, to our knowledge, animal models of human suicidal behaviors have not been established. Suicide is believed to be limited to humans, therefore human subjects should be the targets of research despite various ethical and technical limitations. From this perspective, we introduce human biological studies focusing on suicide and microglia. We first present neuropathological studies using the human postmortem brain of suicide victims. Second, we show recent findings based on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and peripheral blood biomarker analysis on living subjects with suicidal ideation and/or suicide-related behaviors especially focusing on the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway. Finally, we propose future perspectives and tasks to clarify the role of microglia in suicide using multi-dimensional analytical methods focusing on human subjects with suicidal ideation, suicide-related behaviors and suicide victims.

20.
Psychogeriatrics ; 19(4): 333-339, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734411

RESUMO

AIM: Depressive disorders are common in old age. Antipsychotics (APs) are often used as an adjunctive treatment with antidepressants (ADs) in this population but its patterns of use in Asia are not known. This study explored the rate of combination of APs and ADs in older adult psychiatric patients in Asia. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the database of a multicentre study which recorded participants' basic demographical and clinical data in standardised format in 10 Asian countries and territories. The data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 955 older adult psychiatric in- and outpatients were included in this study. The proportion of concurrent AP and AD use was 32.0%, ranging from 23.3% in Korea to 44.0% in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, inpatient status and diagnosis of schizophrenia, anxiety and other mental disorders were significantly related to a higher proportion of concurrent use of APs and ADs. CONCLUSION: Around a third of older adult psychiatric patients had concurrent AP and AD use in the Asian countries/regions surveyed. Considering the uncertain effectiveness and questionable safety of the AP and AD combination in this patient population, such should be cautiously used.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Japão , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Singapura , Taiwan , Tailândia
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