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Waste Manag ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257132


To optimize output streams in mechanical waste treatment plants dynamic particle size control is a promising approach. In addition to relevant actuators - such as an adjustable shredder gap width - this also requires technology for online and real-time measurements of the particle size distribution. The paper at hand presents a model in MATLAB® which extracts information about several geometric descriptors - such as diameters, lengths, areas, shape factors - from 2D images of individual particles taken by RGB cameras of pre-shredded, solid, mixed commercial waste and processes this data in a multivariate regression model using the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) to predict the particle size class of each particle according to a drum screen. The investigated materials in this work are lightweight fraction, plastics, wood, paper-cardboard and residual fraction. The particle sizes are divided into classes defined by the screen cuts (in mm) 80, 60, 40, 20 and 10. The results show assignment reliability for certain materials of over 80%. Furthermore, when considering the results for determining a complete particle size distribution - for an exemplary real waste - the accuracy of the model is as good as 99% for the materials wood, 3D-plastics and residual fraction for each particle size class respectively as assignment errors partially compensate each other.

Waste Manag ; 95: 476-492, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351634


The general aim of circular economy is the most efficient and comprehensive use of resources. In order to achieve this goal, new approaches of Industry 4.0 are being developed and implemented in the field of waste management. The innovative K-project: Recycling and Recovery of Waste 4.0 - "ReWaste4.0" deals with topics such as digitalisation and the use of robotic technologies in waste management. Here, a summary of the already published results in these areas, which were divided into the four focused topics, is given: Collection and Logistics, Machines and waste treatment plants, Business models and Data Tools. Presented are systems and methods already used in waste management, as well as technologies that have already been successfully applied in other industrial sectors and will also be relevant in the waste management sector for the future. The focus is set on systems that could be used in waste treatment plants or machines in the future in order to make treatment of waste more efficient. In particular, systems which carry out the sorting of (mixed) waste via robotic technologies are of interest. Furthermore "smart bins" with sensors for material detection or level measurement, methods for digital image analysis and new business models have already been developed. The technologies are often based on large amounts of data that can contribute to increase the efficiency within plants. In addition, the results of an online market survey of companies from the waste management industry on the subject of waste management 4.0 or "digital readiness" are summarized.

Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Comércio , Indústrias , Reciclagem
Waste Manag Res ; 37(9): 885-897, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333076


Production, quality and quality assurance, as well as co-incineration of solid recovered fuels in cement industry, have become state-of-the-art in the European cement industry. At the global level, average thermal substitution rate is about 17%, whereby, only 13% in Canada and in the USA 16%, while in the European Union 28 it is about 44% (i.e. 11,300,000 t waste fuels utilised in 2016). In Austria, thermal substitution rate was ca. 80% in 2017, which was worldwide the highest one. Regarding solid recovered fuels for the cement industry, two types are relevant, namely solid recovered fuels PREMIUM Quality and solid recovered fuels MEDIUM Quality. In the case study shown, solid recovered fuels PREMIUM Quality from 11 and solid recovered fuels MEDIUM Quality from nine different solid recovered fuels production plants have been investigated. Investigations consist of sorting and sieving analyses (for PREMIUM), as well as physical-chemical analyses (for both solid recovered fuels types) according to the (inter)national standards (i.e. Austrian 'ÖNORM', European 'EN' standards and CEN TC 343 guidelines). The results gained from the first investigation were published in 2014 and here, results of further investigations are updated for 2016 and 2018 and confronted with legal and market relevant requirements. During the investigation, not enough parallel samples could be investigated and therefore no adequate scientific statistical analyses could be elaborated but a more practical indicative interpretation has been made. Finally, it can be confirmed, that all investigated solid recovered fuels fulfil the Austrian legal and international solid recovered fuels and co-incineration market requirements.

Eliminação de Resíduos , Áustria , Canadá , Combustíveis Fósseis , Fósseis , Incineração