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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361733

RESUMO

Biocomposites comprising a combination of natural fibres and bio-based polymers are good alternatives to those produced from synthetic components in terms of sustainability and environmental issues. However, it is well known that water or aqueous chemical solutions affect natural polymers/fibres more than the respective synthetic components. In this study the effects of water, salt water, acidic and alkali solutions ageing on water uptake, mechanical properties and flammability of natural fibre-reinforced polypropylene (PP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites were compared. Jute, sisal and wool fibre- reinforced PP and PLA composites were prepared using a novel, patented nonwoven technology followed by the hot press method. The prepared composites were aged in water and chemical solutions for up to 3 week periods. Water absorption, flexural properties and the thermal and flammability performances of the composites were investigated before and after ageing each process. The effect of post-ageing drying on the retention of mechanical and flammability properties has also been studied. A linear relationship between irreversible flexural modulus reduction and water adsorption/desorption was observed. The aqueous chemical solutions caused further but minor effects in terms of moisture sorption and flexural modulus changes. PLA composites were affected more than the respective PP composites, because of their hydrolytic sensitivity. From thermal analytical results, these changes in PP composites could be attributed to ageing effects on fibres, whereas in PLA composite changes related to both those of fibres present and of the polymer. Ageing however, had no adverse effect on the flammability of the composites.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Fibras Minerais/análise , Poliésteres/química , Polipropilenos/química , Água/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/análise , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Poliésteres/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Soluções , Fibra de Lã/análise
2.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114010

RESUMO

This study is based on previously reported reaction to fire properties of flax fibre-reinforced polymeric (polypropylene, PP and polylactic acid, PLA) composites, prepared by pre-treating the fabrics with different fire retardants (FRs) prior to composite preparation. It was observed that while all of these treatments were very effective in flax/PLA in terms of achieving a V-0 rating in a UL-94 test, only an organophosphonate FR was capable of achieving a V-0 rating for flax/PP. However, all fire-retardant treatments impaired the mechanical properties of the composites; the reduction was more in flax/PLA compared to flax/PP composites. To understand these effects further, here thermal analysis and pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry of the composites and each component separately treated with FRs have been conducted and the results analysed in terms of the effect on each component so as to observe any interaction between the different components. The results indicated that in flax/PLA composites, the water released during FR catalysed dehydration-decomposition of flax may hydrolyse PLA, changing decomposition pathway of PLA to produce less flammable volatile, hence resulting in reduced flammability.

3.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668613

RESUMO

While environmental concerns have caused polymeric brominated primary flame retardants (PolyBrFRs) to be effective replacement monomeric species, few alternatives for antimony trioxide (ATO) have been developed beyond the zinc stannates (ZnSs). Previous research, which explored the interactions of aluminium (AlW), tin (II) (SnW) and zinc (ZnW) tungstates with several phosphorus-containing flame retardants in polyamide 6.6 (PA66), is extended to two PolyBrFRs: brominated polystyrene (BrPS), and poly(pentabromobenzyl acrylate) (BrPBz). On assessing the effect of each tungstate on the thermal degradation and flammability in combination with each PolyBrFR using TGA, UL94, LOI, cone calorimetry and TGA-FTIR, only ZnW and SnW showed significant increases in LOI (>26 vol.%). Both ZnW-BrPS- and ZnW-BrPBz-containing formulations yielded average UL94 ratings ≥ V-2 and TGA char residues (corrected for metals content at 500 °C) in air > 15 wt.%. BrPS-containing samples, especially those containing ZnW and SnW, generated peak heat release rates approximately 50% lower than the equivalent BrPBz samples. These reductions did not correlate with respective increases in LOI, suggesting that tungstate-PolyBrFR combinations influence pre-ignition differently to post-ignition behaviour. Calculated synergistic effectivities indicate that ZnW functions as a synergist in both pre- and post-ignition stages, especially with BrPS. TGA-FTIR and char analyses showed that, in addition to the vapour-phase activity normally associated with PolyBrFRs, condensed-phase processes occurred, especially for the ZnW-PolyBrFR combinations. Additionally, ZnW demonstrated significant smoke-suppressing properties comparable with zinc stannate (ZnS).

4.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041132

RESUMO

Thin coatings of crosslinked poly(vinylphosphonic acid), PVPA, display good adhesion and excellent intumescent, fire-retardant barrier properties when applied to the surfaces of a typical thermoplastic, such as poly(methyl methacrylate), but perform relatively poorly in water-soak tests. To strengthen and further improve the barrier properties of the intumescent char and to make the coating more hydrophobic, PVPA has been complexed with various inorganic and organic species. The chars formed from coatings of some of these hybrid materials are less friable than chars from coatings synthesized from crosslinked PVPA alone, and show higher levels of water tolerance with no significant reduction in dry adhesion to the substrate.


Assuntos
Incêndios/prevenção & controle , Organofosfonatos/química , Polivinil/química , Retardadores de Chama , Teste de Materiais/métodos
5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(3)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30960391

RESUMO

Flame Retardancy Index, FRI, was defined as a simple yet universal dimensionless criterion born out of cone calorimetry data on thermoplastic composites and then put into practice for quantifying the flame retardancy performance of different polymer composites on a set of reliable data. Four types of thermoplastic composites filled with a wide variety of flame retardant additives were chosen for making comparative evaluations regardless of the type and loading level of the additive as well as the irradiance flux. The main features of cone calorimetry including peak of Heat Release Rate (pHRR), Total Heat Release (THR), and Time-To-Ignition (TTI) served to calculate a dimensionless measure that reflects an improvement in the flame retardancy of nominated thermoplastic composites with respect to the neat thermoplastic, quantitatively. A meaningful trend was observed among well-classified ranges of FRI quantities calculated for the studied dataset on thermoplastic composites by which "Poor", "Good", and "Excellent" flame retardancy performances were explicitly defined and exhibited on logarithmic scales of FRI axis. The proposed index remains adaptable to thermoplastic systems whatever the polymer or additive is.

6.
Polymers (Basel) ; 8(8)2016 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974566

RESUMO

This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6), fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt %) of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i) aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi) at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii) ammonium sulphamate (AS)/dipentaerythritol (DP) system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 8(8): 5216-5237, 2015 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793500

RESUMO

Intumescent coatings are commonly used as passive fire protection systems for steel structures. The purpose of this work is to explore whether these can also be used effectively on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE) composites, considering the flammability of the composites compared to non-flammable steel substrate. The thermal barrier and reaction-to-fire properties of three commercial intumescent coatings on GRE composites have been studied using a cone calorimeter. Their thermophysical properties in terms of heating rate and/or temperature dependent char expansion ratios and thermal conductivities have been measured and correlated. It has been suggested that these two parameters can be used to design coatings to protect composite laminates of defined thicknesses for specified periods of time. The durability of the coatings to water absorption, peeling, impact, and flexural loading were also studied. A strong adhesion between all types of coatings and the substrate was observed. Water soaking had a little effect on the fire performance of epoxy based coatings. All types of 1 mm thick coatings on GRE helped in retaining ~90% of the flexural property after 2 min exposure to 50 kW/m² heat flux whereas the uncoated laminate underwent severe delamination and loss in structural integrity after 1 min.

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