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1.
Iperception ; 9(5): 2041669518800507, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263104

RESUMO

In classic simultaneous color contrast and simultaneous brightness contrast, the color or brightness of a stimulus appears to shift toward the complementary (opposite) color or brightness of its surrounding region. Kaneko and colleagues proposed that simultaneous contrast involves separate "fast" and "slow" mechanisms, with stronger induction effects for fast than slow. Support for the model came from a diverse series of experiments showing that induction by surrounds varying in luminance or color was stronger for brief than long presentation times (10-40 vs. 80-640 ms). Here, to further examine possible underlying processes, we reanalyzed 12 separate small data sets from these studies using correlational and factor analytic techniques. For each analysis, a principal component analysis of induction strength revealed two factors, with one Varimax-rotated factor accounting for brief and one for long durations. In simultaneous brightness experiments, separate factor pairs were obtained for luminance increments and decrements. Despite being based on small sample sizes, the two-factor consistency among 12 analyses would not be expected by chance. The results are consistent with separate fast and slow processes mediating simultaneous contrast for brief and long flashes.

2.
Iperception ; 8(3): 2041669517707766, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28567269

RESUMO

In simultaneous contrast of spatial frequency (SF), a test grating surrounded by a coarser inducing grating looks apparently finer. We combined this effect with another visual illusion; the fact that flickering the inducing grating raises its apparent SF. We found that the inducer's apparent, not physical spatial frequency, drove the simultaneous contrast that it induced into a test grating. Thus, when the inducer was made to flicker, its SF appeared to be higher and consequently, the test's SF appeared lower than before. This suggests that simultaneous contrast of spatial frequency exists further downstream than the flicker-induced increase in perceived SF.

3.
J Vis ; 17(4): 7, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28423412

RESUMO

Kaneko and Murakami (2012) demonstrated that simultaneous contrast for brightness and color (chromatic saturation) were enhanced by flashing the stimulus very briefly (10 ms). Here we examined whether this effect of duration generalized to other visual features. Tilt illusion and simultaneous hue contrast were both shown to be much stronger with a stimulus duration of 10 ms compared with 500 ms. The similar temporal dynamics for simultaneous contrast across visual features suggest common underlying principles.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Cor , Humanos , Orientação , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Iperception ; 7(5): 2041669516664741, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698989

RESUMO

Rotating squares appeared to be distorted into pincushions with concave sides. These illusory shape changes were caused by a perceived compression along the curved path of motion.

5.
Iperception ; 7(5): 2041669516667629, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698992

RESUMO

When two adjacent surfaces move in step, this can generate a sensation of transparency, even in the absence of intersections. Stopping the motion of one surface makes it look suddenly opaque.

6.
Perception ; 45(5): 596-600, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26791056

RESUMO

An orbiting ray pattern produces an unexpected gray disk. Here we demonstrate this visual effect and its possible insights into visual temporal integration.

7.
Vision Res ; 108: 85-92, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25666488

RESUMO

Independent channels respond to both the spatial and temporal characteristics of visual stimuli. Gratings <3 cycles per degree (cpd) are sensed by transient channels that prefer intermittent stimulation, while gratings >3 cpd are sensed by sustained channels that prefer steady stimulation. From this we predict that adaptation to a spatially uniform flickering field will selectively adapt the transient channels and raise the apparent spatial frequency of coarse sinusoidal gratings. Observers adapted to a spatially uniform field whose upper or lower half was steady and whose other half was flickering. They then adjusted the spatial frequency of a stationary test (matching) grating on the previously unmodulated half field until it matched the apparent spatial frequency of a grating falling on the previously flickering half field. The adapting field flickered at 8 Hz and the spatial frequency of the gratings was varied in octave steps from 0.25 to 16 cpd. As predicted, adapting to flicker raised the apparent spatial frequency of the test gratings. The aftereffect reached a peak of 11% between 0.5 and 1 cpd and disappeared above 4 cpd. We also observed that superimposed 10 Hz luminance flicker raised the apparent spatial frequency of 0.5 cpd test gratings. The effect was not seen with slower flicker or finer test gratings. Altogether, our study suggests that apparent spatial frequency is determined by the balance between transient and sustained channels and that an imbalance between the channels caused by flicker can alter spatial frequency perception.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular/fisiologia , Ilusões Ópticas/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Pós-Imagem/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
8.
Iperception ; 5(7): 585-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25926966

RESUMO

When a striped disk moves across a flickering background, the stripes paradoxically seem to move faster than the disk itself. We attribute this new illusion to reverse-phi motion, which slows down the disk rim but does not affect the stripes.

9.
J Vis ; 12(12)2012 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23117671

RESUMO

Simultaneous brightness contrast and simultaneous color contrast are classical illusions that demonstrate how our perception can be altered by spatial context; a central gray region appears to have brightness and color that are complementary to those of a surrounding region. Previous studies have suggested the involvement of a sluggish process in these illusions. On the other hand, a different, fast mechanism has recently been postulated to operate in simultaneous contrast when the stimulus is presented only briefly. Here, we show that in briefly flashed stimuli, not only the simultaneous brightness contrast but also the simultaneous color contrast is perceived with greatly enhanced illusion strength. In simultaneous brightness contrast, inserting a spatial gap between the center and surround weakened the illusion only when the stimulus was flashed. In simultaneous color contrast, the gap weakened the illusion irrespective of stimulus duration. Both brightness contrast and color contrast effects steeply decayed with duration. The present study suggests the existence of a fast-responding process for estimating brightness/color primarily based on local difference in luminance/color along the edge between the center and surround. We argue that the sluggishness of simultaneous contrast demonstrated by previous studies originated from a sluggish process after local and fast spatial interactions.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Visão de Cores/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Psicofísica/métodos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia
10.
J Vis ; 9(7): 14, 2009 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19761329

RESUMO

Despite wide recognition that a moving object is perceived to last longer, scientists do not yet agree as to how this illusion occurs. In the present study, we conducted two experiments using two experimental methods, namely duration matching and reproduction, and systematically manipulated the temporal frequency, spatial frequency, and speed of the stimulus, to identify the determinant factor of the illusion. Our results indicated that the speed of the stimulus, rather than temporal frequency or spatial frequency per se, best described the perceived duration of a moving stimulus, with the apparent duration proportionally increasing with log speed (Experiments 1 and 2). However, in an additional experiment, we found little or no change in onset and offset reaction times for moving stimuli (Experiment 3). Arguing that speed information is made explicit in higher stages of visual information processing in the brain, we suggest that this illusion is primarily mediated by higher level motion processing stages in the dorsal pathway.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Percepção de Movimento , Ilusões Ópticas , Percepção do Tempo , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação , Percepção Espacial
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