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1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809135

RESUMO

Coffee is widely consumed worldwide, and numerous studies indicate that coffee consumption may potentially affect the development of chronic diseases. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) may constitute a risk factor for chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association between coffee consumption and MetS incidence. All participants were selected from the Health Examinees study. MetS was defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and MetS incidence. In comparison with non-consumers, male moderate consumers (≤3 cups/day) showed a lower risk for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (≤1 cup/day, hazard ratio (HR): 0.445, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.254-0.780; 1-3 cups/day, HR: 0.507, 95% CI: 0.299-0.859) and high fasting blood glucose (FPG) (≤1 cup/day, HR: 0.694, 95% CI: 0.538-0.895; 1-3 cups/day, HR: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.598-0.972). Male 3-in-1 coffee (coffee with sugar and creamer) consumers also showed a lower risk for low HDL-C (HR: 0.423, 95% CI: 0.218-0.824) and high FPG (HR: 0.659, 95% CI: 0.497-0.874). These findings indicate a negative association between moderate coffee consumption and low HDL-C and high FPG among Korean male adults.

2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739539

RESUMO

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been largely focused on European (EUR) populations. However, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) derived from EUR have been shown to perform worse in non-EURs compared with EURs. In this study, we aim to improve PRS prediction in East Asians (EASs). We introduce a rescaled meta-analysis framework to combine both EUR (N = 122,175) and EAS (N = 30,801) GWAS summary statistics. To improve PRS prediction in EASs, we use a scaling factor to up-weight the EAS data, such that the resulting effect size estimates are more relevant to EASs. We then derive PRSs for EAS from the rescaled meta-analysis results of EAS and EUR data. Evaluated in an independent EAS validation data set, this approach increases the prediction liability-adjusted Nagelkerke's pseudo R2 by 40%, 41%, and 5%, respectively, compared with PRSs derived from an EAS GWAS only, EUR GWAS only, and conventional fixed-effects meta-analysis of EAS and EUR data. The PRS derived from the rescaled meta-analysis approach achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.6059, higher than AUC = 0.5782, 0.5809, 0.6008 for EAS, EUR, and conventional meta-analysis of EAS and EUR. We further compare PRSs constructed by single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have different linkage disequilibrium (LD) scores and minor allele frequencies (MAFs) between EUR and EAS, and observe that lower LD scores or MAF in EAS correspond to poorer PRS performance (AUC = 0.5677, 0.5530, respectively) than higher LD scores or MAF (AUC = 0.589, 0.5993, respectively). We finally build a PRS stratified by LD score differences in EUR and EAS using rescaled meta-analysis, and obtain an AUC of 0.6096, with improvement over other strategies investigated.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 459, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is well known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the performance of and the optimal cutoff values for obesity indices to discriminate the presence of metabolic abnormalities as a primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in a Health Examinees study (HEXA). METHODS: The current study analyzed 134,195 participants with complete anthropometric and laboratory information in a Health Examinees study, consisting of the Korean population aged 40 to 69 years. The presence of metabolic abnormality was defined as having at least one of the following: hypertension, hyperglycemia, or dyslipidemia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for body mass index, waist to hip ratio, waist to height ratio, waist circumference, and conicity index. RESULTS: The AUC of metabolic abnormalities was the highest for waist-to-height ratio (AUC [95% CIs], 0.677 [0.672-0.683] among men; 0.691 [0.687-0.694] among women), and the lowest for the C index (0.616 [0.611-0.622] among men; 0.645 [0.641-0.649] among women) among both men and women. The optimal cutoff values were 24.3 kg/m2 for the body mass index, 0.887 for the waist-to-hip ratio, 0.499 for the waist-to-height ratio, 84.4 cm for waist circumference and 1.20 m3/2/kg1/2 for the conicity index among men, and 23.4 kg/m2 for the body mass index, 0.832 for the waist-to-hip ratio, 0.496 for the waist-to-height ratio, 77.0 cm for the waist circumference and 1.18 m3/2/kg1/2 for the conicity index among women. CONCLUSION: The waist-to-height ratio is the best index to discriminate metabolic abnormalities among middle-aged Koreans. The optimal cutoff of obesity indices is lower than the international guidelines for obesity. It would be appropriate to use the indices for abdominal obesity rather than general obesity and to consider a lower level of body mass index and waist circumference than the current guidelines to determine obesity-related health problems in Koreans.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20631, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244065

RESUMO

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies was conducted to assess the association between menopausal hormone therapy and cardiovascular disease. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from 2000 to 2019, using review methods based on a previous Cochrane review. Quality assessment of RCTs and observational studies was conducted using the Jadad scale and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. A total of 26 RCTs and 47 observational studies were identified. The study populations in the RCTs were older and had more underlying diseases than those in the observational studies. Increased risks of venous thromboembolism [summary estimate (SE), 95% confidence interval (CI): RCTs, 1.70, 1.33-2.16; observational studies, 1.32, 1.13-1.54] were consistently identified in both study types, whereas an increased risk of stroke in RCTs (SE: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25) and a decreased risk of myocardial infarction in observational studies (SE: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.75-0.84) were observed. Differential clinical effects depending on timing of initiation, underlying disease, regimen type, and route of administration were identified through subgroup analyses. These findings suggest that underlying disease and timing of initiation should be carefully considered before starting therapy in postmenopausal women.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899146

RESUMO

This study is aimed to examine the association between macronutrient intake and lung function in healthy adults (n = 5880) using the Ansan-Ansung cohort study. To identify the index of lung function, we used the percentage difference of predicted Forced Expiratory Volume (%FEV1_diff) between baseline and follow-up. Based on the median %FEV1_diff, subjects were classified by two groups as "decreased vs. unchanged/improved". The dietary macronutrients were estimated and validated using the food-frequency questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association after adjusting for confounders. Advanced analysis examined the association after stratifying by age and obesity. The average of %FEV1 is 114.1 and 112.5 at baseline and follow-up, respectively. The positive association of protein and fiber intake with lung function was observed in men. Low fat and high carbohydrate intake decreased the lung function in women only. After stratification by age, the association of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake with lung function was observed in young men and old women only. Otherwise, the association of protein and fiber with lung function was influenced by abdominal obesity. In conclusion, the lung function was positively associated with high protein and fat intake, but was negatively associated with high carbohydrate intake, which could be influenced by age and obesity.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751310

RESUMO

Although a number of studies explain the association between dietary patterns, which take into account that foods are eaten in combination, and breast cancer risk, the findings are inconsistent. We examined the association between dietary patterns and multi-grain rice intake, and the risk of breast cancer in a large-scale prospective cohort study in Korean women. A total of 93,306 women aged 40-69 years from the Health Examinees-Gem (HEXA-G) study (2004 and 2013) were included. We obtained Information on cancer diagnosis via linkage to the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Factor analysis was conducted to obtain dietary patterns, and Cox proportional models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for breast cancer risk. For 494,490 person-years, 359 new cases of breast cancer occurred. We identified three major dietary patterns, that explained 23.9% of the total variance based on daily total food intake (g/day) from 37 food groups: the meat dietary pattern (higher intake of bread and red meat), the white rice dietary pattern (higher intake of white rice and lower intake of multi-grain rice), and the other pattern. Women who had higher white rice dietary pattern scores had a 35% higher risk of breast cancer, than did women with lower white rice dietary pattern scores (multivariable HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.00-1.84 for the highest vs. lowest quartile of the white rice dietary pattern scores, p for trend = 0.0384). We found that women who consumed three or more servings of multi-grain rice per day had 33% lower risk of breast cancer than did those who consumed one or less multi-grain rice serving per day among women under 50 years of age (multivariable HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.45-0.99, p for trend = 0.0204). Our study suggests that a multi-grain rice diet may be associated with lower risk of breast cancer in Korean women.

7.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence of the complicated pathways of underlying determinants in the phases of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate simultaneously a set of potential determinants on the initiation and maintenance phases of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The longitudinal data of 54,359 Korean adults aged 40-69 years from the Health Examinees study were used. The median follow-up duration was 4.2 years. The self-reported durations per week of LTPA was repeatedly assessed. Based on previous longitudinal studies, the potential determinants were selected, and hypothetical models were constructed that consider the complex associations between the determinants. The standardized coefficients for direct and indirect effects were estimated by path analysis to differentiate contributions of mediation from the total effects. RESULTS: In the total population, age, education, chronic diseases, smoking, depression symptoms, and self-rated health were significantly associated with both initiation and maintenance phases. Income (B=0.025) and social supports (B=0.019) were associated only with the initiation phase. Waist-to-hip ratio (B=-0.042) and stress (B=-0.035) were associated only with the maintenance phase. After stratifying by sex, the significant effects of education, chronic diseases, and smoking were found only in men. The initiation phase-specific effects of income and social supports and the maintenance phase-specific effects of stress were found only in women. It was estimated that indirect effects contributed approximately 15% of the total effect. CONCLUSION: The findings suggested that there were initiation- or maintenance-specific determinants of leisure-time physical activity according to sex.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3833, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737321

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been shown to predict breast cancer risk in European women, but their utility in Asian women is unclear. Here we evaluate the best performing PRSs for European-ancestry women using data from 17,262 breast cancer cases and 17,695 controls of Asian ancestry from 13 case-control studies, and 10,255 Chinese women from a prospective cohort (413 incident breast cancers). Compared to women in the middle quintile of the risk distribution, women in the highest 1% of PRS distribution have a ~2.7-fold risk and women in the lowest 1% of PRS distribution has ~0.4-fold risk of developing breast cancer. There is no evidence of heterogeneity in PRS performance in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. A PRS developed for European-ancestry women is also predictive of breast cancer risk in Asian women and can help in developing risk-stratified screening programmes in Asia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
9.
Cancer Res Treat ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854492

RESUMO

Purpose: Dietary calcium intake has been suggested to be protective against the development of colorectal cancer. The mean dietary calcium intake of Koreans is 490 mg/day, which is far below the recommended calcium intake of 700-800 mg/day. In this study, we explored the relationship between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer development in Koreans with relatively low calcium intake compared with individuals in Western countries. Materials and Methods: The Health Examinees Study, a large-scale genomic community-based prospective cohort study, was designed to identify the general characteristics of major chronic diseases in Koreans. A total of 119,501 participants aged 40-69 years recruited between 2004 and 2013 were included in this analysis. The calcium intake level was categorized using the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs). The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared with the group that consumed less than the recommended amount of calcium, the group that consumed more than the recommended intake of calcium showed a significant reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer in women. (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.95). Among men, however, no significant association was observed between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.45). Conclusion: Korean women who adhere to the recommended intake of calcium showed a reduced risk of colorectal cancer.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841297

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration and quality with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. Among a total of 74,867 participants (25,069 men and 49,798 women) recruited for the Health Examinees (HEXA) study, adjusted geometric means of hs-CRP level were compared across categories of sleep duration (<6, 6-7, 8-9, and ≥10 hours) and sleep quality (difficulty in initiating sleep and maintaining sleep) using ANCOVA models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for elevated hs-CRP (>3 mg/L) associated with sleep characteristics were estimated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Men who slept ≥10 hours per day were significantly associated with elevated hs-CRP (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.95). Whereas in women, difficulty in initiating sleep (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.57 for "Always"), and maintaining sleep was significantly associated with elevated hs-CRP levels (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26 for "Often"; OR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.28 for "Always"). Additionally, women who experienced poor sleep quality presented an elevated level of hs-CRP (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.23). Our findings suggest that excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality are significantly associated with the elevated inflammatory marker, specifically hs-CRP. Further research is needed to examine the effect of sleep interventions focused on these factors.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Tob Control ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the health harms associated with low-intensity smoking in Asians who, on average, smoke fewer cigarettes and start smoking at a later age than their Western counterparts. METHODS: In this pooled analysis of 738 013 Asians from 16 prospective cohorts, we quantified the associations of low-intensity (<5 cigarettes/day) and late initiation (≥35 years) of smoking with mortality outcomes. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression. Cohort-specific HRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years, 92 068 deaths were ascertained. Compared with never smokers, current smokers who consumed <5 cigarettes/day or started smoking after age 35 years had a 16%-41% increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease mortality and a >twofold risk of lung cancer mortality. Furthermore, current smokers who started smoking after age 35 and smoked <5 cigarettes/day had significantly elevated risks of all-cause (HRs (95% CIs)=1.14 (1.05 to 1.23)), CVD (1.27 (1.08 to 1.49)) and respiratory disease (1.54 (1.17 to 2.01)) mortality. Even smokers who smoked <5 cigarettes/day but quit smoking before the age of 45 years had a 16% elevated risk of all-cause mortality; however, the risk declined further with increasing duration of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that smokers who smoked a small number of cigarettes or started smoking later in life also experienced significantly elevated all-cause and major cause-specific mortality but benefited from cessation. There is no safe way to smoke-not smoking is always the best choice.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234852, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have focused on leisure time physical activity (LTPA), household physical activity (HPA) can contribute to health benefits. This study aimed to compare LTPA and HPA patterns and to examine the association of these types of activities with the risk of mortality in Korea. METHODS: A total of 125,299 participants 40 to 69 years old and enrolled in the Health Examinees (HEXA) study from 2004 to 2012 were included in this study. The sex-specific LTPA and HPA categories were defined based on a questionnaire. A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the LTPA and HPA correlates. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Overall, the LTPA and HPA patterns differed by age, income, and history of chronic diseases. LTPA reduced the risk of death, and lower risks were observed in more time spent engaged in or a vigorous LTPA intensity. The subjects who participated only in HPA and were not involved in LTPA also had lower risks of mortality (HR = 0.72, 95% CIs: 0.60-0.85 for men, and HR = 0.84, 95% CIs: 0.69-1.02 for women) than those who did not participate in both LTPA and HPA. CONCLUSIONS: HPA reduced the risks of mortality in middle-aged Korean adults and could even decrease the risk of death in those who did not participate in LTPA.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Atividade Motora , Adulto , Idoso , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
13.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 14(3): 217-224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported on marital status and the prevalence of obesity; however, few studies have assessed the prevalence of underweight in relation to marital status. This study aimed to explore the association of obesity and abdominal obesity with marital status among Koreans aged 40-69 years. METHODS: We selected a total of 137,608 participants from the Health Examinees Gem Study for the final analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of obesity with marital status, with controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of underweight was higher in unmarried men (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.25-2.63) and women (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.79-2.61) than in married individuals. Compared to married individuals, a lower prevalence of BMI≥25kg/m2 was observed for those who were unmarried (men: OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.62-0.81, women: OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.58-0.73) or divorced/separated (men: OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69-0.93, women: OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98). Interestingly, widowed women showed higher prevalence of BMI≥25kg/m2 (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10-1.25) and abdominal obesity (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16-1.30) compared to married women, and the association persisted only among women in their 50s and 60s. CONCLUSIONS: Married participants showed a higher prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity than those in other marriage categories except for widowed women.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5000, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193459

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between adolescent overweight and obesity and PTC risk in adulthood. We conducted a case-control study in the Republic of Korea with 1,549 PTC patients and 15,490 controls individually matched for age and sex. We estimated body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years from self-reported weight at this age. Compared with BMI < 23.0 at age 18 years, BMI ≥ 25.0 at age 18 years was associated with higher PTC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 4.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.57, 5.22). The association between BMI ≥ 25.0 at age 18 years and PTC risk was stronger among men (OR = 6.65, 95% CI: 4.78, 9.27) than among women (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.74, 4.43), and stronger among individuals with current BMI ≥ 25.0 (OR = 8.21, 95% CI: 6.34, 10.62) than among those with current BMI < 25.0 (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.49, 3.27). Among PTC patients, BMI ≥ 25.0 at age 18 years was associated with extra-thyroidal extension and T stage ≥2, but not with N stage ≥1 or BRAFV600E mutation. Adolescent overweight and obesity was associated with higher risk of PTC in adulthood. Our results emphasise the importance of weight management in adolescence to decrease the PTC risk.

15.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(2): 275-285, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the association between dietary pattern and the risk of high blood pressure (BP) and to estimate the attenuated effect by gender and obesity on the association using data from a prospective cohort study in Korea. DESIGN: Prospective study. Diet was assessed using a validated 103-item FFQ and was input into factor analysis after adjustment for total energy intake. SETTING: Community-based Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES) cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy individuals (n 5151) without high BP at recruitment from the community-based cohort study. RESULTS: Dietary pattern was not associated with the risk of high BP regardless of the type of covariates, with the exception of the 'rice' pattern. The effect of the 'rice' pattern was observed in both men (Ptrend = 0·013) and women (Ptrend < 0·001), but the statistical significance remained only in women after adjustment for confounders (Ptrend = 0·004). The positive association of the 'rice' pattern with high BP risk was attenuated by obesity. After stratification by gender and obese status, in particular, the harmful effect of the 'rice' pattern was predominantly observed in obese women (Ptrend < 0·001) only. CONCLUSIONS: This longitudinal study in Korean adults found a positive association of the 'rice' pattern with long-term development of incident high BP, predominantly in women. The association is likely to be attenuated by gender and obese status.

16.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 52(6): 377-383, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Self-reported disease history is often used in epidemiological studies. In this study, we acquired the hospital records of subjects who self-reported stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) and evaluated the validity of the participants' self-reported disease history. We also determined the level of agreement between specialists and non-specialists. METHODS: Among the participants in the Health Examinees study, 1488 subjects self-reported stroke or MI during 2012-2017, and medical records were acquired for the 429 subjects (28.8%) who agreed to share their medical information. Each record was independently assigned to 2 medical doctors for review. The records were classified as 'definite,' 'possible,' or 'not' stroke or MI. If the doctors did not agree, a third doctor made the final decision. The positive predictive value (PPV) of self-reporting was calculated with the doctors' review as the gold standard. Kappa statistics were used to compare the results between general doctors and neurologists or cardiologists. RESULTS: Medical records from 208 patients with self-reported stroke and 221 patients with self-reported MI were reviewed. The PPV of self-reported disease history was 51.4% for stroke and 32.6% for MI. If cases classified as 'possible' were counted as positive diagnoses, the PPV was 59.1% for stroke and 33.5% for MI. Kappa statistics showed moderate levels of agreement between specialists and non-specialists for both stroke and MI. CONCLUSIONS: The validity of self-reported disease was lower than expected, especially in those who reported having been diagnosed with MI. Proper consideration is needed when using these self-reported data in further studies.


Assuntos
Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
17.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877693

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies regarding breast cancer risk related to milk consumption remain controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between milk consumption and the risk for breast cancer. A total of 93,306 participants, aged 40-69 years, were included in the prospective cohort study in the Health Examinees-Gem (HEXA-G) study between 2004 and 2013. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Information on cancer diagnosis in the eligible cohort was retrieved from the Korea Central Cancer Registry through 31 December 2014. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 359 breast cancer cases were observed over a median follow-up period of 6.3 years. Milk consumption was not associated with decreased risk for breast cancer in the total population (p for trend = 0.0687). In women under 50 years of age, however, milk consumption was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. In the comparison between highest (≥1 serving/day) and lowest (<1 serving/week) intake categories of milk, the multivariate HR (95% CI) was 0.58 (0.35-0.97, p for trend = 0.0195)) among women under 50 years of age. In conclusion, our findings show that milk consumption in Korean women aged 50 or younger is associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer, when compared to those who never or rarely consumed milk. Further studies need to be conducted to assess this relationship and confirm these results.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Leite , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627478

RESUMO

Despite the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids from fish or fish oil on cardiovascular diseases, limited information is available regarding the effects of oily fish in the diet on the risk of dyslipidemia. This study aimed to investigate the association between oily fish consumption and the incidence of dyslipidemia among Korean adults included in the Health Examinees Gem (HEXA-G) cohort during 5 years of follow-up. In total, 20,670 participants (5710 men and 14,960 women) were included in this study. The average intake of oily fish including dark meat fish, such as mackerel, pacific saury, and Spanish mackerel, and eel, was estimated using food frequency questionnaires. Oily fish consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia in both men (Relative risk (RR) comparing extreme quintiles = 0.75; 95% CI 0.60-0.95; P for trend = 0.0121) and women (RR comparing extreme quintiles = 0.81; 95% CI 0.69-0.96; P for trend = 0.0110) after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, increased consumption of oily fish was significantly associated with a lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia in the general Korean population. Future randomized clinical trials or prospective studies are required to confirm these findings in the Korean or other Asian populations.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Peixes , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 203-211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously conducted a systematic field synopsis of 1059 breast cancer candidate gene studies and investigated 279 genetic variants, 51 of which showed associations. The major limitation of this work was the small sample size, even pooling data from all 1059 studies. Thereafter, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accumulated data for hundreds of thousands of subjects. It's necessary to re-evaluate these variants in large GWAS datasets. METHODS: Of these 279 variants, data were obtained for 228 from GWAS conducted within the Asian Breast Cancer Consortium (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry). Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the results from these two datasets. FINDINGS: Of those 228 variants, an association was observed for 12 variants in 10 genes at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 2·19 × 10-4. The associations for four variants reached P < 5 × 10-8 and have been reported by previous GWAS, including rs6435074 and rs6723097 (CASP8), rs17879961 (CHEK2) and rs2853669 (TERT). The remaining eight variants were rs676387 (HSD17B1), rs762551 (CYP1A2), rs1045485 (CASP8), rs9340799 (ESR1), rs7931342 (CHR11), rs1050450 (GPX1), rs13010627 (CASP10) and rs9344 (CCND1). Further investigating these 10 genes identified associations for two additional variants at P < 5 × 10-8, including rs4793090 (near HSD17B1), and rs9210 (near CYP1A2), which have not been identified by previous GWAS. INTERPRETATION: Though most candidate gene variants were not associated with breast cancer risk, we found 14 variants showing an association. Our findings warrant further functional investigation of these variants. FUND: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Caspase 8 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Risco
20.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 44(12): 1371-1378, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663770

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the frequency and quantity of coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Health Examinees study. A total of 130 420 participants (43 682 men and 86 738 women) were included in our study. Coffee consumption was categorized into 5 categories (0, <1, 1, 2-3, and ≥4 cups/day). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervalS (CIs) using multivariate logistic regression. In this study population, the prevalence of MetS was 12 701 (29.1%) in men and 21 338 (24.6%) in women. High coffee consumption (≥4 cups/day) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS compared with non-coffee consumers (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70-0.90, p for trend <0.0001 in men; OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.62-0.78, p for trend <0.0001 in women). The multivariable-adjusted ORs for high fasting glucose decreased with increasing levels of coffee consumption in men (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.54-0.67, p for trend <0.0001) and women (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.63-0.79, p for trend <0.0001). For women, the multivariable-adjusted ORs for hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.93, p for trend = 0.0007) decreased with increasing levels of coffee consumption. We found that coffee consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean men and women. Our study warrants further prospective cohort studies.


Assuntos
Café , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
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