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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786298

RESUMO

Alginate and pectin have been widely employed together in various industrial and biomedical applications due to their synergistic interaction. Although alginate and pectin have been used as composite materials in films, gels, and particles, research characterizing their properties in foams is scarce. Thus, in the present study, we fabricated alginate-pectin composite foams with different blending ratios (9:1, 7:3, and 5:5) using calcium ion cross-linking and characterized their properties. It was found that the G' values of rehydrated alginate-pectin 9:1 foam was higher than those of the other rehydrated foams in the rheological behavior. In addition, higher pectin levels in the composite foams led to more water being absorbed during swelling tests and the higher release of BSA in drug-release testing. In indirect and direct cytotoxicity testing, none of the foams exhibited cell cytotoxicity for fibroblast and keratinocyte cells. These results suggest that controlling the pectin content in alginate-pectin foams is key to adjusting their mechanical properties, water absorption, and drug-release ability. In addition, alginate-pectin composite foams are promising candidates for use in wound-dressing applications.

2.
Neuroimmunomodulation ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although the clinical features and pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have been studied in the peripheral and central nervous systems, few plausible pathological interactions are known among the metabolites in these systems. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate abnormal relationships and interactions between peripheral metabolites and central neurometabolites in patients with CRPS. METHODS: Various metabolites and molecules were measured in the peripheral blood, and central neurometabolites in the right and left thalamus using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 12 patients with CRPS and 11 healthy controls. Interactions between peripheral metabolites in blood and central neurometabolites in the right and left thalamus were also investigated. RESULTS: The interactions between peripheral and central metabolites were different in the right and left hemispheres of healthy subjects, suggesting the presence of right hemisphere-dependent energy homeostasis and left hemisphere-dependent acid-base homeostasis that enables effective functioning. The interactions between central and peripheral metabolites in CRPS patients were distinct from those in healthy individuals, supporting the possibility of abnormal interactions and disrupted homeostasis between peripheral and central metabolites, which may result from neuroinflammation and immune system dysfunction. CONCLUSION: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing abnormal metabolic dysfunction and disrupted homeostasis in interactions between metabolites of the peripheral and central nervous systems in CRPS. The approach used to uncover hidden pathophysiologies will improve understanding of how chronic pain can disrupt homeostasis in interactions between two systems and how alternative metabolites can be activated to recover and compensate for pathological dysfunctions in patients with CRPS.

3.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870212

RESUMO

Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) share many pathological mechanisms related to chronic pain that could contribute to multifactorial pathological mechanisms.Methods: We investigated peripheral metabolites in FM and CRPS patients compared to healthy controls based on cross-sectional study.Results: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001), mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.014), and total bilirubin levels (p = 0.017) were lower in FM patients than in healthy controls. On the other hand, CRPS patients showed lower levels of total bilirubin than healthy controls (p = 0.037). Creatinine level was lower in FM patients (p = 0.057) compared to healthy controls, particularly when comparing the low-hemoglobin subgroup among FM patients (p = 0.035) with the low-hemoglobin subgroup among healthy controls. Red blood cell count (r = -0.620, p = 0.031), hematocrit (r = -0.593, p = 0.042), and creatinine level (r = -0.598, p = 0.040) showed negative correlations with McGill Pain Questionnaire-Affective (MPQ-A) scores in FM patients. A negative correlation was observed between MCV and McGill Pain Questionnaire-Sensory scores (r = -0.680, p = 0.015) in CRPS patients.Conclusion: We found specific peripheral metabolites that may exhibit different tendency between FM and CRPS patients as well as some common metabolites, which may be associated with peripheral pathology in the patients. Considering this study had a few limitations such as a small sample sizes and using a liberal threshold of significance in the correlation analysis, future studies with larger sample sizes may be needed to generalize these findings.

4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 558-565, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546036

RESUMO

In this study, we demonstrate the enhanced disease resistance and positive immunomodulation of novel pectin isolated from Spirulina maxima (SmP) in zebrafish model. Zebrafish larvae exposed to SmP had significantly (p < 0.05) higher cumulative percent survival (CPS) at 25 (44.0%) and 50 µg/mL (67.0%) against Edwardsiella piscicida compared to the control. However, upon Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, SmP exposed larvae at 50 µg/mL had slightly higher CPS (33.3%) compared to control group (26.7%). SmP supplemented zebrafish exhibited the higher CPS against E. piscicida (93.3%) and A. hydrophila (60.0%) during the early stage of post-infection (<18 hpi). qRT-PCR results demonstrated that exposing (larvae) and feeding (adults) of SmP, drive the modulation of a wide array of immune response genes. In SmP exposed larvae, up-regulation of the antimicrobial enzyme (lyz: 3.5-fold), mucin (muc5.1: 2.84, muc5.2: 2.11 and muc5.3: 2.40-fold), pro-inflammatory cytokines (il1ß: 1.79-fold) and anti-oxidants (cat: 2.87 and sod1: 1.82-fold) were identified. In SmP fed adult zebrafish (gut) showed >2-fold induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (il1ß) and chemokines (cxcl18b, ccl34a.4 and ccl34b.4). Overall results confirmed the positive modulation of innate immune responses in larval stage and it could be the main reason for developing disease resistance against E. piscicida and A. hydrophila. Thus, non-toxic, natural and biodegradable SmP could be considered as the potential immunomodulatory agent for sustainable aquaculture.

5.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 122, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetyl xylan esterase plays an important role in the complete enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. It hydrolyzes the ester linkages of acetic acid in xylan and supports and enhances the activity of xylanase. This study was conducted to identify and overexpress the acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) gene revealed by the genomic sequencing of the marine bacterium Ochrovirga pacifica. RESULTS: The AXE gene has an 864-bp open reading frame that encodes 287 aa and consists of an AXE domain from aa 60 to 274. Gene was cloned to pET-16b vector and expressed the recombinant AXE (rAXE) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The predicted molecular mass was 31.75 kDa. The maximum specific activity (40.08 U/mg) was recorded at the optimal temperature and pH which were 50 °C and pH 8.0, respectively. The thermal stability assay showed that AXE maintains its residual activity almost constantly throughout and after incubation at 45 °C for 120 min. The synergism of AXE with xylanase on beechwood xylan, increased the relative activity 1.41-fold. CONCLUSION: Resulted higher relative activity of rAXE with commercially available xylanase on beechwood xylan showed its potential for the use of rAXE in industrial purposes as a de-esterification enzyme to hydrolyze xylan and hemicellulose-like complex substrates.


Assuntos
Acetilesterase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fagus/química , Flavobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Xilanos/metabolismo , Acetilesterase/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estabilidade Enzimática , Flavobacteriaceae/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Microbiologia Industrial , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
J Occup Health ; 61(5): 358-367, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reducing human errors caused by daytime sleepiness among train drivers is important to prevent train accidents. Our purpose of the study was to investigate the association among sleep, workplace sleeping environments, and human errors. METHODS: We recruited 144 South Korean train drivers belongs to the Korean Railroad Corporation. This cross-sectional data was analyzed to investigate the association of insomnia (insomnia severity index), sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index), obstructive sleep apnea (Berlin questionnaire), and daytime sleepiness (Epworth scale) with human error and near-miss experiences. We examined whether human error and near-miss events were associated with various sleeping environments at work and at home after adjusting for the sleep indices. RESULTS: The experience of human errors was associated with insomnia and daytime sleepiness, and near-miss events were associated with insomnia among South Korean drivers. Sleeping environments including cold temperature and odor were related to both human errors and near-miss events among South Korean train drivers, after adjusted for age, working years, shiftwork, obesity, smoking, binge drinking, regular exercise, caffeine consumption, sleep quality, severity of insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: The train drivers' workplace sleeping environment is significantly associated with human error events and near-miss events after adjusting for sleep quality, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and daytime sleepiness. To prevent train accidents caused by human errors, more attention is necessary for improving workplace sleeping environments.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferrovias/estatística & dados numéricos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Sonolência , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15345, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045776

RESUMO

The brain has multiple functions, and its structures are very closely related to one another. Thus, the brain areas associated with stress, emotion, and intelligence are closely connected. The purpose of this study was to investigate the multiple associations between stress and emotional intelligence (EI), between EI and intelligence quotient (IQ), between cytokines and stress, and between cytokines and IQ. We measured the stress, EI, cognitive intelligence using IQ, and cytokine levels of 70 healthy subjects. We also analyzed the association of cytokines with IQ according to hemispheric dominance using the brain preference indicator (BPI). We found significant negative correlations between stress and the components of EI, such as emotional awareness and expression, emotional thinking, and emotional regulation. High levels of anger, which is a component of stress, were significantly related to poor emotional regulation. Additionally, emotional application was positively correlated with full-scale IQ scores and scores on the vocabulary, picture arrangement, and block design subtests of the IQ test. High IL-10 levels were significantly associated with low stress levels only in the right-brain-dominant group. High IL-10 and IFN-gamma levels have been associated with high scores of arithmetic intelligence. TNF-alpha and IL-6 were negatively associated with vocabulary scores and full-scale IQ, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were positively associated with scores on the arithmetic subtest in left-brain-dominant subjects. On the other hand, IL-10 showed positive correlations with scores for vocabulary and for vocabulary and arithmetic in right-brain-dominant subjects. Furthermore, we found significant linear regression models which can show integrative associations and contribution on emotional and cognitive intelligence. Thus, we demonstrated that cytokines, stress, and emotional and cognitive intelligence are closely connected one another related to brain structure and functions. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 had negative effects, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10 and IFN-gamma) showed beneficial effects, on stress levels, and multiple dimensions of emotional and cognitive intelligence. Additionally, these relationships among cytokines, stress, and emotional and cognitive intelligence differed depending on right and left hemispheric dominance.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Testes de Inteligência , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , República da Coreia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(19): e15574, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are chronic diseases, which generally require lifetime care. Meditation and yoga can be complementary to pharmacological therapies according to the scientific evidences so far. Brain education-based meditation (BEM) is a technique, which has been known to change brain structure, psychology, and physiology of healthy adult participants. This randomized, nonblinded pilot trial aimed to examine whether BEM affects the conditions of patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes compared with health education classes. METHODS: We randomly allocated 48 patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes to BEM (n = 24) or health education (n = 24) classes in the Ulsan Junggu Public Health Center in Korea, where the classes were run during the same period and explored the impact of 8-week practice on the serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, creatinine, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Total RNA was extracted to examine inflammatory gene expressions from the whole blood using PAXgene blood RNA System. In addition, self-reports on mental/physical health were evaluated. The Student's t test, chi-squared test, and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The number of people who participated until the completion of the study was 14 in the control and 21 in the BEM group. After 8 weeks, LDL cholesterol level was significantly decreased in the BEM group after the intervention (13.82 mg/dL reduction, P < .05), while it was not significantly altered in the control group. The expression of inflammatory genes was significantly reduced after 8 weeks of the BEM training (0.3-, 0.5-, and 0.2-fold change for NFKB2, RELA, and IL1B, respectively, all P < .05). In the item analysis of mental/physical health self-reports, a significant improvement was confirmed as follows: increases in focus, confidence, relaxation, and happiness; decreases in fatigue, anger, and loneliness (all P < .05). There were no important adverse events or side-effects by BEM intervention. CONCLUSION: Compared to health education, BEM helps lower LDL cholesterol level and the inflammatory gene expression in the patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Moreover, BEM induces positive effects on the self-reported mental/physical states, warranting further study.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hipertensão/terapia , Meditação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/psicologia , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
9.
Pain Med ; 20(10): 1989-1996, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In Korea, patients diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the army are typically discharged from the army; however, the course of the disease after discharge is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of CRPS that occurred in the army and to identify the influences of various clinical and psychosocial factors immediately before discharge on the disease course. METHODS: Clinical profiles and psychosocial status were collected from the medical records of 16 patients with CRPS type 1 who were discharged during the period between March 2017 and April 2018. The degree of improvement after discharge was assessed by follow-up evaluation through telephone contact. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to identify clinical and psychosocial predictors for the rate of recovery. RESULTS: The median time to recovery after discharge was 39 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.8-69.2 weeks). The sole predictor for time to recovery after discharge was the time period from the onset of pain to discharge. Each one-week increase in the duration of pain experienced in the military was associated with a 18.2% (95% CI = 5.3%-29.5%) reduction in the rate of recovery after discharge (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experienced a short period of pain in the military demonstrated a relatively good prognosis after discharge. This may show how prolonged pain in the army could affect the experience of pain from a social point of view, in that it shows the disease course after a change in the social environment.

10.
Neurochem Res ; 44(5): 1192-1200, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887217

RESUMO

Catecholamines, including epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA), are associated with the response to stressful conditions. However, the relationships of catecholamines with intelligence and their interactions with stress remain unclear. This study assessed stress, intelligence quotient (IQ), and catecholamine levels in 70 healthy subjects to elucidate associations between catecholamines and stress, and between catecholamines and IQ. Additionally, the associations of catecholamines with stress and IQ were analyzed according to hemispheric dominance using the Brain Preference Indicator (BPI). There were positive correlations between the NE/E ratio and the somatization of stress but negative correlations between the E/NE ratio and the somatization of stress among the total number of subjects. In the right-brain-dominant group, a high E/DA ratio was correlated with low levels of stress, somatization and depression, and high NE/E and DA/E ratios were associated with high levels of somatization. In the left-brain-dominant group, high E levels were correlated with low levels of depression. In the total subjects, there were positive correlations between the NE/E and DA/E ratios and the sum of the vocabulary, arithmetic, picture arrangement, and block design IQ subtests. Thus, these catecholamines were associated with stress and IQ, which suggests that the autonomic functional regulation of catecholamine levels in relation to stress may also affect cognitive functions related to intelligence in the brain. Furthermore, the relationships between catecholamines and stress or IQ differed depending on hemispheric dominance, which suggests that the present results could be used to inform the development of personalized therapies based on hemispheric asymmetry.


Assuntos
Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Inteligência/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(7): e14452, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762759

RESUMO

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and fibromyalgia (FM) share many features. Both can cause severe pain and are considered to have a mechanism of action, including dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system. However, they have clinical differences in pain range and degree. The present study aimed to find neurophysiologic differences between CRPS and FM using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG). Thirty-eight patients with CRPS and 33 patients with FM were included in the analysis. Resting-state QEEG data were grouped into frontal, central, and posterior regions to analyze for regional differences. General linear models were utilized to test for group differences in absolute and relative powers. As a result, the CRPS group relative to FM group showed lower total absolute powers in the beta band (F = 5.159, P < .05), high beta (F = 14.120, P < .05), and gamma band (F = 15.034, P < .05). There were no significant differences between 2 groups in the delta, theta, and alpha bands. The present findings show that the CRPS and FM groups differ mainly in the high frequency, which may reflect their distinct pathophysiology and symptomatology. Our study suggests that the QEEG differences can be clinically useful in assessing brain function in patients with CRPS and FM.


Assuntos
Ritmo beta , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ritmo Gama , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Neuroreport ; 30(2): 108-112, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507760

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate distinct neurometabolites in the right and left thalamus and insula of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), myo-inositol (ml), glutamine (Gln), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutathione (GSH), and alanine (Ala) relative to total creatine (tCr) levels, including creatine and phosphocreatine, were determined in the right and left thalamus and insula in 12 patients with CRPS compared with 11 healthy controls using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of NAAG/tCr and Ala/tCr were higher in patients with CRPS than in controls in the left thalamus. NAAG/tCr, ml/tCr, and Gln/tCr levels were higher but NAA/tCr levels were lower in the right insula of patients with CRPS compared with controls. There were negative correlations between GSH/tCr and pain score (McGill Pain Questionnaire) in the left thalamus. These findings are paramount to understand and determine all aspects of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie CRPS, including involvement of the central and parasympathetic nervous systems as well as oxidative stress and antioxidants. Thus, the distinct metabolites presented herein may be essential to understand a strong diagnostic and prognostic potential for CRPS and to develop effective medical treatments.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/patologia , Aminoácidos Excitatórios/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
13.
Pain Med ; 20(3): 504-514, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986072

RESUMO

Ojjective: The aim of this study was to find peripheral biomarkers and central metabolites affecting neuroinflammation in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients using [11C]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: Using MRS and PET, we measured associations between neurometabolites and neuroinflammation in 12 CRPS patients and 11 healthy controls. Also, we investigated various peripheral parameters that may affect neuroinflammation in CRPS. Results: We found positive correlations of Lipid (Lip)13a/total creatine (tCr) and Lip09/tCr with neuroinflammation, the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the right and left insula in CRPS patients. However, these correlations were not found in controls. High hemoglobin levels correlated with decreased neuroinflammation (the DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195) in the right thalamus and left insula in healthy controls. We found that high levels of glucose and pH correlated with increased neuroinflammation, but high levels of CO2, basophil, and creatinine were associated with decreased neuroinflammation in the left thalamus and the right and left insula in CRPS patients. Conclusions: This is the first report indicating that elevated neuroinflammation levels are associated primarily with lipids in the brain and pH, glucose, CO2, basophil, and creatinine in the peripheral parameters in CRPS patients. Our results suggest that characterizing the peripheral biomarkers and central metabolites affecting neuroinflammation is essential to understanding the pathophysiology of CRPS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/metabolismo , Adulto , Basófilos , Glicemia/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Inflamação/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas , Lipídeos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
14.
Mindfulness (N Y) ; 9(6): 1857-1866, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524515

RESUMO

The majority of meditation involves focusing attention on internal events or sensations and becoming aware of emotions. The insula cortex, through a functional connection with the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions, plays a key role in integrating external sensory information with internal bodily state signals and emotional awareness. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the resting-state functional connectivity of the insula with other brain regions in meditation practitioners and control subjects. Thirty-five Brain Wave Vibration meditation practitioners and 33 controls without meditation experience were included in this study. All subjects underwent 4.68-min resting-state functional scanning runs using magnetic resonance imaging. The anterior and posterior insulae were chosen as seed regions for the functional connectivity map. Meditation practitioners showed significantly greater insula-related functional connectivity in the thalamus, caudate, middle frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus than did controls. Control subjects demonstrated greater functional connectivity with the posterior insula in the parahippocampal gyrus. Our findings suggest that the practice of Brain Wave Vibration meditation may be associated with functional differences in regions related to focused attention, executive control, and emotional awareness and regulation.

15.
Psychiatry Investig ; 15(11): 1071-1078, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We developed easily accessible imagery-based treatment program for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to workplace accidents and investigated the effects of the program on various PTSD related symptoms. METHODS: The program was based on an online platform and consisted of eight 15-min sessions that included script-guided imagery and supportive music. Thirty-five patients with workplace-related PTSD participated in this program 4 days per week for 4 weeks. Its effects were examined using self-report questionnaires before and after the take-home online treatment sessions. RESULTS: After completing the 4-week treatment program, patients showed significant improvements in depressed mood (t=3.642, p=0.001) based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), anxiety (t=3.198, p=0.003) based on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item (GAD-7) scale, and PTSD symptoms (t=5.363, p<0.001) based on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Check List (PCL). In particular, patients with adverse childhood experiences exhibited a greater degree of relief related to anxiety and PTSD symptoms than those without adverse childhood experiences. CONCLUSION: The present. RESULTS: demonstrated that the relatively short online imagery-based treatment program developed for this study had beneficial effects for patients with workplace-related PTSD.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16935, 2018 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446714

RESUMO

Online mind-body training (MBT) programs can improve the psychological capabilities of practitioners. Although there has been a lot of effort to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of meditation, little is known about changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity that accompany mind-body training. The present study aimed to investigate how an online MBT program alters EEG functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN). We assessed a group of healthcare providers, including 14 females who participated in the 4-week MBT program and 15 females who underwent a 4-week of waiting period. EEG data and information about psychological states were obtained at baseline and 4 weeks. The result was that the intervention group showed significant reductions in anxiety and trait anger that were accompanied by increased global DMN network strengths in the theta and alpha (but not beta and delta) frequency bands; these changes were not observed in the control group. Other variables including state anger, positive and negative affect, and self-esteem have not been changed over time in both groups. These findings suggest that practicing the mind-body training could have a relevance to the functional differences in network related to stress and anxiety reaction.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Educação a Distância , Terapias Mente-Corpo , Análise de Variância , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos
17.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci ; 16(4): 391-397, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466211

RESUMO

Objective: Meditation can elicit trait-like changes in psychological and social styles, as well as enhancement of emotional regulatory capacity. We investigated the relation between personality traits and emotional intelligence in meditation practitioners. Methods: Seventy-two long-term practitioners of mind-body training (MBT) and 62 healthy comparative individuals participated in the study. The participants completed emotional intelligence questionnaires and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Results: The MBT group revealed higher scores on all five emotional intelligence factors than did those in the control group, such as emotional awareness and expression, empathy, emotional thinking, emotional application, and emotional regulation (all p≤0.001). MBT practitioners also had higher scores on the intuition of perceiving function (t =-2.635, p =0.010) and on the feeling of the judging function (t =-3.340, p =0.001) of the MBTI compared with those in the control group. Only the MBT group showed a robust relationship with every factor of emotional intelligence and MBTI-defined intuitive styles, indicating that higher scores of emotional intelligence were related to higher scores for intuition. Conclusion: Emotional intelligence of meditation practitioners showed notable relationships with some features of personality trait. In-depth associations between emotional intelligence and personality traits would help to foster psychological functions in meditation practitioners.

18.
Psychiatry Investig ; 15(9): 891-899, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated peripheral and central metabolites affecting depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and anger in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients. METHODS: Metabolite levels were determined in the right and left thalamus and insula, in 12 CRPS patients using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). RESULTS: There were positive correlations between valine (Val)/tNAA (N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate) and the anxiety, and a negative correlation between glutamine (Gln)/NAA and the depression. There were positive correlations between alanine (Ala)/Gln and the depression and suicidal ideation, between glutamate (Glu)/Gln and the depression and suicidal ideation, between N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG)/Gln and the depression. There was a positive correlation between Ala/NAAG and the trait anger and a negative correlation between creatine (Cr)/N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the trait anger. There was a negative correlation between Cr/Glx (Glu+Gln) and the trait anger. High hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase were associated with low pain levels, but CO2 and chloride showed positive correlations with pain levels in CRPS patients. Peripheral glucose, CO2 and chloride were associated with depression, anxiety, anger and suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: The specific central and peripheral metabolites were associated with psychological disorders including depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation and anger in CRPS patients, showing pathological interactions between a painful body and mind.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(23): e10867, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879022

RESUMO

Chronic pain is defined as persistent or recurrent pain lasting longer than 3 months; the severity of pain can be rated in terms of intensity, pain-related distress, and functional impairment. Researches have shown an association between psychosocial factors, such as empathic ability, and the severity of pain. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most common psychologic intervention for individuals with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CBT on empathy in chronic pain patients, examining especially gender differences. In total, 89 patients with severe chronic pain (46 men and 43 women) underwent 8 sessions of CBT over the course of 4 weeks. Self-reported clinical symptoms were measured at the beginning and end of the CBT. Empathy was measured using the interpersonal reactivity index, and pain severity was assessed using the short-form McGill pain questionnaire. A comparison of male and female patients before CBT indicated that females showed higher levels of empathy in response to affective issues and reported greater affective pain than males. A mixed analysis of variance revealed that female patients showed higher levels of empathy than did male patients, both before and after CBT. We also found significant relationships between affective pain and empathy for others' personal distress in all patients. These results suggest that the effectiveness of CBT may be affected by chronic pain patients' level of empathy. Although the evident result was not shown in this study, the present findings imply that female patients may formulate excellent therapeutic alliance in CBT intervention that can lead to a clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Empatia , Adulto , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Neurosci Lett ; 673: 33-38, 2018 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499310

RESUMO

Spirulina maxima is a blue-green micro alga that contains abundant amounts of proteins (60-70%), vitamins, chlorophyll a, and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). It has been shown to reduce oxidative stress, and prevent diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, it is unclear whether Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE), chlorophyll a, and C-PC prevent Aß1-42-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC prevent Aß1-42-induced cell death. SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC suppressed the Aß1-42-induced increase in poly-ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage and reduced Aß1-42-induced decreases in glutathione and its associated factors. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a critical role in neuronal survival and neuroprotection, was increased by SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-PC in Aß1-42-treated cells. SM70EE treatment decreased oxidative stress and cell death in response to Aß1-42 treatment, while simultaneously suppressing PARP cleavage and increasing the levels of glutathione (GSH) and its associated factors. Moreover, SM70EE lowered the levels of APP and BACE1, two major factors involved in APP processing, and increased BDNF expression during Aß1-42-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. We suggest that SM70EE prevents cell death caused by Aß1-42 -induced neurotoxicity via the activation of BDNF signaling.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade , Spirulina/química , Animais , Estresse Oxidativo , Células PC12 , Ficocianina/administração & dosagem , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Ratos , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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