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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374679

RESUMO

The invasion of osteoclasts into the cartilage via blood vessels advances the process of endochondral ossification, and dysregulation of dynamic intercellular interactions results in skeletal dysplasias. Although the regulation of osteoclasts by growth plate chondrocytes has been reported in detail, the effect of osteoclasts on chondrocytes remains to be determined. In this study, ATDC5 cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated into chondrocytes and treated with conditioned medium obtained from bone marrow macrophages differentiated to osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts. Exosomes were inhibited in conditioned medium or were isolated directly from osteoclasts to further determine whether osteoclast-derived exosomes play an important role in chondrocyte hypertrophy. Additionally, exosomal miRNAs were detected, and let-7a-5p was selected as an miRNA with significantly increased expression in osteoclast-derived exosomes. Experiments were performed to verify the potential target Smad2 and investigate how let-7a-5p affected chondrocytes. The results suggest that both osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts promote chondrocyte hypertrophy and that the promotive effect of osteoclasts is more significant than that of osteoclast precursors. Osteoclast-derived exosomes promote the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. Moreover, osteoclast-derived exosomal let-7a-5p inhibits Smad2 to decrease the transforming growth factor-ß-induced inhibition of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Our research reveals the role of osteoclasts in the regulation of chondrocytes and provides insights into the highly coordinated intercellular process of endochondral ossification.

2.
Biomaterials ; 244: 119979, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200104

RESUMO

The effort of incorporating therapeutic drugs with imaging agents has been one of the mainstreams of nanomedicine, which holds great promise in cancer treatment in terms of monitoring therapeutic drug activity and evaluating prognostic index. However, it is still technically challenging to develop nanomedicine endowing a spatiotemporally controllable mechanism of drug release and activatable imaging capability. Here, we developed a yolk-shell type of GSH-responsive nanovesicles (NVs) in which therapeutic drug (Doxorubicin, DOX) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (ultrasmall paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, USPIO NPs) formed complexes (denoted as USD) and were encapsulated inside the NVs. The formation of USD complexes is mediated by both the electrostatic adsorption between DOX and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polymers and the DOX-iron coordination effect on USPIO NPs. The obtained USD NVs showed a unique yolk-shell structure with restrained drug activity and quenched T1 MRI contrast ability which, on the other hand, can respond to glutathione (GSH) and lead to drug release and T1 contrast activation in a spatiotemporally concurrent manner. Furthermore, the USD NVs exhibited great potential to kill HCT116 cancer cells in vitro and effectively inhibit the tumor growth in vivo. This study may shed light on the design of sophisticated nanotheranostics in precision nanomedicine.

3.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(4): 777-789, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056245

RESUMO

Alcohol is a major cause of acute and chronic pancreatitis. There have been some recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcoholic pancreatitis, which include perturbation in mitochondrial function and autophagy and ectopic exocytosis, with some of these cellular events involving membrane fusion soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor receptor protein receptor proteins. Although new insights have been unraveled recently, the precise mechanisms remain complex, and their finer details have yet to be established. The overall pathophysiology of pancreatitis involves not only the pancreatic acinar cells but also the stellate cells and duct cells. Why only some are more susceptible to pancreatitis and with increased severity, while others are not, would suggest that there may be undefined protective factors or mechanisms that enhance recovery and regeneration after injury. Furthermore, there are confounding influences of lifestyle factors such as smoking and diet, and genetic background. Whereas alcohol and smoking cessation and a generally healthy lifestyle are intuitively the advice given to these patients afflicted with alcoholic pancreatitis in order to reduce disease recurrence and progression, there is as yet no specific treatment. A more complete understanding of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis from which novel therapeutic targets could be identified will have a great impact, particularly with the stubbornly high fatality (>30%) of severe pancreatitis. This review focuses on the susceptibility factors and underlying cellular mechanisms of alcohol injury on the exocrine pancreas.

4.
JCI Insight ; 5(3)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051343

RESUMO

SNAP23 is the ubiquitous SNAP25 isoform that mediates secretion in non-neuronal cells, similar to SNAP25 in neurons. However, some secretory cells like pancreatic islet ß cells contain an abundance of both SNAP25 and SNAP23, where SNAP23 is believed to play a redundant role to SNAP25. We show that SNAP23, when depleted in mouse ß cells in vivo and human ß cells (normal and type 2 diabetes [T2D] patients) in vitro, paradoxically increased biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion corresponding to increased exocytosis of predocked and newcomer insulin granules. Such effects on T2D Goto-Kakizaki rats improved glucose homeostasis that was superior to conventional treatment with sulfonylurea glybenclamide. SNAP23, although fusion competent in slower secretory cells, in the context of ß cells acts as a weak partial fusion agonist or inhibitory SNARE. Here, SNAP23 depletion promotes SNAP25 to bind calcium channels more quickly and longer where granule fusion occurs to increase exocytosis efficiency. ß Cell SNAP23 antagonism is a strategy to treat diabetes.

5.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MCC950 is a novel NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor that possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the lack of noninvasive monitoring methods limits its potential clinical translation. Thus, we sought to investigate whether 18F-FDG PET imaging can monitor the therapeutic effects of MCC950 in an AMI murine model. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were used to generate an AMI model. MCC950 or sterile saline was intraperitoneally administered 1 hour after surgery and then daily for 7 consecutive days. 18F-FDG PET (inflammation) imaging was used to monitor inflammatory changes on days 3 and 5. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect inflammatory markers and to confirm the PET imaging results. 18F-FDG PET (viability) imaging was used to quantitate the viability defect expansion on days 7 and 28. Cardiac ultrasound and survival analyses were performed to evaluate the cardiac function and survival rate. Adverse remodeling was determined by Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) and Masson trichrome staining. RESULTS: The FDG-PET (inflammation) imaging revealed that MCC950 treatment led to lower 18F-FDG inflammatory uptakes, at the infarct region, on days 3 and 5 when compared to the MI group. The decreased M1 macrophages and neutrophils infiltration and the remission of the NLRP3/IL-1ß pathway, confirmed the FDG-PET (inflammation) imaging results. The FDG-PET (viability) imaging revealed that MCC950 significantly decreased the expansion of the viability defect, demonstrating its myocardial preservation effects. The acute FDG-PET (inflammation) signal positively correlated with the late viability defect and with the reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Additionally, the alleviated adverse remodeling and the improved survival rate further support the anti-inflammatory efficiency of MCC950 in AMI. CONCLUSION: Using 18F-FDG PET imaging, we noninvasively demonstrated the therapeutic effects of MCC950 in AMI and showed that 18F-FDG PET imaging holds promising application potentials in MCC950's clinical translation.

6.
Nanoscale ; 12(8): 5084-5090, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068224

RESUMO

NIR-II biological imaging (1000-1700 nm) has shown promise for deep tissue penetration, high spatial resolution, and low background noise. Among all the NIR-II probes, organic probes particularly attract huge attention due to their excellent stability and biocompatibility, which have the most potential for clinical translation. However, most previously reported organic NIR-II fluorescent agents often suffer from low quantum yields in aqueous solution. Herein, we developed a novel D-π-A-π-D-type NIR II chromophore XA1 with AIE characteristics based on a new design strategy for NIR-II AIE fluorophores. Owing to their intrinsic aggregation-induced emission enhancement nature, the formulated XA1 NPs show a high fluorescence quantum yield up to 14.8%, which is higher than those of most previously reported organic NIR-II fluorophores. Based on the XA1 NPs, noninvasive imaging of limb and cerebral vessels is achieved with a high signal-to-background ratio and deep penetration. Furthermore, the XA1 NPs can be used as good contrast agents for high resolution imaging of blood vessels of tumors and precise detection of tumors based on the EPR mechanism. Collectively, our work demonstrated a novel strategy for designing and manufacturing NIR-II fluorophores with AIE characteristics and proved that XA1 NPs are highly promising NIR-II probes for biomedical imaging under physiological and pathological conditions.

7.
J Cell Biochem ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100911

RESUMO

Vitamins B are co-enzymes participating in energy metabolic pathways. While some vitamins B are known affecting bone homeostasis, the effects of vitamin B1 (thiamine) on bone health remains unclear. In our study, we used cell counting kit-8, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase stain, actin cytoskeleton stain, and pit formation assay to evaluate the effect of thiamine on osteoclast differentiation, formation, and function, respectively. Then we used dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay to investigate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and removal. Osteoporosis model by ovariectomy was established for animal experiments. We found that thiamine had inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation. And its inhibitory role on osteoclast differentiation is in a dose-dependent way. Mechanistically, ThDP suppresses intracellular ROS accumulation and unfolded protein response signaling during osteoclastogenesis via inhibiting Rac-Nox1/2/4 and intracellular inositol-requiring protein-1α/X-box-binding protein pathways, respectively. Osteoporotic mice treated with thiamine rich dietary showed better bone strength relative to thiamine deficient dietary. Our study explored the non-coenzyme inhibitory functions of B1 vitamin in receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand induced osteoclastogenesis and uncovered the significance of B1 vitamin in bone health.

8.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 620-631, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877023

RESUMO

Combination therapy that could better balance immune activation and suppressive signals holds great potential in cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we serendipitously found that the pH-responsive nanovesicles (pRNVs) self-assembled from block copolymer polyethylene glycol-b-cationic polypeptide can not only serve as a nanocarrier but also cause immunogenic cell death (ICD) through preapoptotic exposure of calreticulin. After coencapsulation of a photosensitizer, 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) and an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitor, indoximod (IND), pRNVs/HPPH/IND at a single low dose elicited significant antitumor efficacy and abscopal effect following laser irradiation in a B16F10 melanoma tumor model. Treatment efficacy attributes to three key factors: (i) singlet oxygen generation by HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT); (ii) increased dendritic cell (DC) recruitment and immune response provocation after ICD induced by pRNVs and PDT; and (iii) tumor microenvironment modulation by IND via enhancing P-S6K phosphorylation for CD8+ T cell development. This study exploited the nanocarrier to induce ICD for the host's immunity activation. The "all-in-one" smart nanovesicles allow the design of multifunctional materials to strengthen cancer immunotherapy efficacy.

10.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(5): 463-468, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of the participation of osteocytes in the formation of osteoclasts under hypoxia. METHODS: The hypoxia culture system of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 was established by deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) in vitro. The proliferation of MLO-Y4 cells was examined by CCK-8 cell proliferation/toxicity assay. RAW264.7 cells were induced to osteoclasts by the conditioned medium containing the cultured MLO-Y4. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was performed on day 7. Quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in MLO-Y4 under hypoxia. The effects of siHIF-1α on the expression levels of HIF-1α and RANKL in MLO-Y4 under the same conditions were detected. RESULTS: DFO (100 µmol·L⁻¹) promoted the proliferation of MLO-Y4 at 24 h, which decreased with time (P<0.01). After the addition of soluble sRANKL, the formation of osteoclasts was significantly increased in the DFO group (P<0.001). The expression of RANKL mRNA in MLO-Y4 under 100 µmol·L⁻¹ DFO increased first and then decreased with the duration of hypoxia. This expression reached a peak at 24 h (P<0.01). Hypoxia up-regulated the expression of HIF-1α and RANKL protein (P<0.01). Under hypoxia, siHIF-1α downregulated the expression of HIF-1α and RANKL (P<0.01). siHIF-1α also decreased the number of osteoclasts (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Under hypoxia, MLO-Y4 could facilitate the formation of RANKL through upre-gulating the expression of HIF-1α protein, thereby accelerate the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts.


Assuntos
Osteoclastos , Osteócitos , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Hipóxia
11.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(13): 2770-2779, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The high false positive rate (FPR) of 18F-FDG PET/CT in lung cancer screening represents a severe challenge for clinical decision-making. This study aimed to develop a clinical-translatable radiomics nomogram for reducing the FPR of PET/CT in lung cancer diagnosis, and to determine the impact of integrating manual diagnosis to the performance of the radiomics nomogram. METHODS: Among 3,947 18F-FDG PET/CT-screened patients with lung lesion, 157 malignant and 111 benign patients were retrospectively enrolled and divided into training and test cohorts. The data of manual diagnosis were recorded. A total of 4,338 features were extracted from CT, thin-section CT, PET and PET/CT, and the four radiomics signatures (RS) were then generated by LASSO method. Radiomics prediction nomogram integrating imaging-based RS and manual diagnosis was developed using multivariable logistic regression. The performances of RS and prediction nomograms were independently validated through key discrimination index and clinical benefit. RESULTS: The FPR of manual diagnosis was found to be 30.6%. Among the four RS, PET/CT RS exhibited the best performance. By integrating manual diagnosis, the hybrid nomogram integrating PET/CT RS and manual diagnosis demonstrated lowest FPR and highest area under curve (AUC) and Youden index (YI) in both training and test cohorts (FPR: 5.4% and 9.1%, AUC: 0.98 and 0.92, YI: 85.8% and 75.5%, respectively). This hybrid nomogram respectively corrected 78.6% and 37.5% among FPR cases produced by PET/CT RS, without significantly sacrificing its sensitivity. The net benefit of hybrid nomogram appeared highest at <85% threshold probability. CONCLUSION: The established hybrid nomogram integrating PET/CT RS and manual diagnosis can significantly reduce FPR, improve diagnostic accuracy and enhance clinical benefit compared to manual diagnosis. By integrating manual diagnosis, the performance of this hybrid nomogram is superior to PET/CT RS, indicating the importance of clinicians' judgement as an essential information source for improving radiomics diagnostic approaches.

12.
Bioconjug Chem ; 30(6): 1745-1753, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181890

RESUMO

As highly expressed in insulinomas, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is believed to be an attractive target for diagnosis, localization, and treatment with radiolabeled exendin 4. However, the high and persistent radioactivity accumulation of exendin 4 in the kidneys limits accurate diagnosis and safe, as well as effective, radiotherapy in insulinomas. In this study, we intend to reduce the renal accumulation of radiolabeled exendin 4 through degradation mediated by brush border membrane enzymes. A new exendin 4 ligand NOTA-MVK-Cys40-Leu14-Exendin 4 containing Met-Val-Lys (MVK) linker between the peptide and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) chelator was synthesized and labeled with 68Ga. The in vitro mouse serum stability and cell binding affinity of the tracer were evaluated. Initial in vitro cleavage of the linker was determined by incubation of a model compound Boc-MVK-Dde with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) with and without the inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Further cleavage studies were performed with the full structure of NOTA-MVK-Cys40-Leu14-Exendin 4. Kidney and urine samples were collected in the in vivo metabolism study after intravenous injection of 68Ga-NOTA-MVK-Cys40-Leu14-Exendin 4. The microPET images were acquired in INS-1 tumor model at different time points; the radioactivity uptake of 68Ga-NOTA-MVK-Cys40-Leu14-Exendin 4 in tumor and kidneys were determined and compared with the control radiotracer without MVK linker. 68Ga-NOTA-MVK-Cys40-Leu14-Exendin 4 was stable in mouse serum. The MVK modification did not affect the affinity of NOTA-MVK-Cys40-Leu14-Exendin 4 toward GLP-1R. The in vitro cleavage study and in vivo metabolism study confirmed that the MVK sequence can be recognized by BBM enzymes and cleaved at the amide bond between Met and Val, thus releasing the small fragment containing Met. MicroPET images showed that the tumor uptake of 68Ga-NOTA-MVK-Cys40-Leu14-Exendin 4 was comparable to that of the control, while the kidney uptake was significantly reduced. As a result, more favorable tumor to kidney ratios were achieved. In this study, a novel exendin 4 analogue, NOTA-MVK-Cys40-Leu14-Exendin 4, was successfully synthesized and labeled with 68Ga. With the cleavable MVK sequence, this ligand could be cleaved by the enzymes on kidneys, and releasing the fragment of 68Ga-NOTA-Met-OH, which will rapidly excrete from urine. As the high and consistent renal radioactivity accumulation could be significantly reduced, NOTA-MVK-Cys40-Leu14-Exendin 4 shows great potential in the diagnosis and radiotherapy for insulinoma.


Assuntos
Exenatida/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Gálio/farmacocinética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel/farmacocinética , Insulinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Exenatida/química , Exenatida/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Radioisótopos de Gálio/química , Radioisótopos de Gálio/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/análise , Células HEK293 , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Insulinoma/radioterapia , Camundongos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
13.
J Biol Chem ; 294(29): 11240-11247, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167789

RESUMO

In bone remodeling, after a lifespan of ∼2 weeks, osteoclasts undergo apoptosis in each bone turnover cycle, resulting in generation of a large number of apoptotic bodies (ABs). However, the biological roles of osteoclast-derived ABs (OC-ABs) in bone remodeling have not been investigated and remain unknown. In this study, we stimulated bone marrow macrophages with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to obtain both preosteoclasts and mature osteoclasts (mOCs). We then used alendronate to induce apoptosis in preosteoclasts and mOCs and generate the respective ABs and used flow cytometry and immunoblotting to characterize the sizes and immunogenic characteristics of the extracted ABs. We show that mOC-ABs are engulfed by preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and promote the viability of these cells. Among all osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles, mOC-ABs had the highest osteogenic potency. We further observed that mOC-ABs had the highest vesicular receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) levels among all types of osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles. Of note, masking of vesicular RANK by soluble RANKL strongly abolished the osteogenic potency of osteoclast-derived ABs. Mechanistically, we found that mOC-ABs induce osteoblast differentiation by activatingPI3K/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal protein S6 kinase signaling. In conclusion, OC-ABs promote osteogenic differentiation by stimulating osteoblast differentiation via activation of RANKL reverse signaling. These findings provide important insights into the reversal phase between the bone resorption and formation stages during bone remodeling and identify an AB-dependent cellular signaling mechanism in osteoclast-osteoblast coupling.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(5): 353, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040267

RESUMO

A variety of osteolytic factors have been identified from breast cancer cells leading to osteolysis, but less is known about which factor plays an essential role in the initiation process prior to the overt vicious osteolytic cycle. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidences to clarify the role of interleukin-11 (IL-11) as an essential contributor to breast cancer bone metastasis mediated osteolysis. Animal studies showed that bone specific metastatic BoM-1833 cells induce earlier onset of osteolysis and faster tumor growth compared with MCF7 and parental MDA-MB-231 cells in BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. IL-11 was further screened and identified as the indispensable factor secreted by BoM-1833 cells inducing osteoclastogenesis independently of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Mechanistic investigation revealed that the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway as a downstream effector of IL-11, STAT3 activation further induces the expression of c-Myc, a necessary factor required for osteoclastogenesis. By inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation, AG-490 was shown effective in reducing osteolysis and tumor growth in the metastatic niche. Overall, our results revealed the essential role and the underlying molecular mechanism of IL-11 in breast cancer bone metastasis mediated osteolysis. STAT3 targeting through AG-490 is a potential therapeutic strategy for mitigating osteolysis and tumor growth of bone metastatic breast cancer.

15.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(1): 96-103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931855

RESUMO

Peptides containing the asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) motif can target the tumor neovascular biomarker CD13/aminopeptidase N receptor. D-K6L9 is a tumor-selective anti-cancer peptide. To improve the capacity of NGR peptides to target tumors, we joined the NGR and D-K6L9 peptides to form NKL. Next, we linked 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) to NKL and labeled it with gallium 68 (68Ga, t1/2 = 67.7 min) to form 68Ga-DOTA-NKL. This novel probe was characterized in vitro. 68Ga-DOTA-NKL was stable in phosphate buffered saline at room temperature and in human serum at 37°C. We determined that the uptake rate of 68Ga-DOTA-NKL in CD13 receptor-positive 22Rv1 tumor cells was 3.15% ± 0.04 after 2 h, and tested 68Ga-DOTA-NKL using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography imaging in vivo. MicroPET imaging results revealed that 22Rv1 tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-NKL was 8.69 ± 0.20, 6.61 ± 0.22, 3.85 ± 0.06, and 1.41 ± 0.23 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h postinjection (pi), respectively. The tumor-to-background contrast in the subcutaneous human prostate cancer 22Rv1 mouse model was 9.97 ± 1.90. The 68Ga-DOTA-NKL probe has combined tumor-targeting and tumor-selective properties, and may be used to diagnose CD13-positive tumors.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Antígenos CD13 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HT29 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Sondas Moleculares , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(11): 21182-21192, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032948

RESUMO

Osteocytes, entrapped within the mineralized bone matrix, has been found to have numerous functions such as acting as an orchestrator of bone remodeling through regulation of both osteoclast and osteoblast activity and also functioning as an endocrine cell. Due to a specialized morphology and surrounding structure, osteocytes are more tolerant to hypoxia during osteoporosis, fracture, osteoarthritis, and orthodontic-orthognathic combination therapy. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is one of the master regulators of hypoxia reactions, playing an important role in bone modeling, remodeling, and homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the pivotal functional role of HIF-1α in osteocytes initiating of bone remodeling under hypoxia. In the present study, the osteoclasts formation induced by RAW264.7 was significantly promoted in conditioned media (CM) from osteocytic MLO-Y4 exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Therefore, hypoxic MLO-Y4 cells simulated by 100 µmol/L CoCl2 or 2% O2 stably expressed HIF-1α proteins and upregulated the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level. Furthermore, with the Knockdown of HIF-1α, the expression of RANKL mRNA and protein decreased after transient transfection. In addition, the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) was also correlated with HIF-1α and RANKL levels under hypoxia. Then AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor, inhibited p-JAK2, p-STAT3 and RANKL expression. It was possible that AG490 disturbed the contact of HIF-1α and RANKL by JAK2/STAT3 pathway, influencing osteoclastogenesis. Our findings suggested that HIF-1α promoted the expression of RANKL by activating JAK2/STAT3 pathway in MLO-Y4 cells, and enhanced osteocyte-mediated osteoclastic differentiation in vitro.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3975, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850711

RESUMO

In many non-excitable cells, the depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores leads to the dynamic formation of membrane contact sites (MCSs) between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM), which activates the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) to refill the ER store. Two different Ca2+-sensitive proteins, STIM1 and extended synaptotagmin-1 (E-syt1), are activated during this process. Due to the lack of live cell super-resolution imaging, how MCSs are dynamically regulated by STIM1 and E-syt1 coordinately during ER Ca2+ store depletion and replenishment remain unknown. With home-built super-resolution microscopes that provide superior axial and lateral resolution in live cells, we revealed that extracellular Ca2+ influx via SOCE activated E-syt1s to move towards the PM by ~12 nm. Unexpectedly, activated E-syt1s did not constitute the MCSs per se, but re-arranged neighboring ER structures into ring-shaped MCSs (230~280 nm in diameter) enclosing E-syt1 puncta, which helped to stabilize MCSs and accelerate local ER Ca2+ replenishment. Overall, we have demonstrated different roles of STIM1 and E-syt1 in MCS formation regulation, SOCE activation and ER Ca2+ store replenishment.

18.
J Rheumatol ; 46(6): 616-622, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) compared with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in assessing vessel inflammation of Takayasu arteritis (TA). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 71 patients with TA who had undergone carotid CEUS. Twenty-two of 71 patients underwent FDG-PET after CEUS. Clinical disease activity was assessed by Kerr criteria and the Indian Takayasu Clinical Activity Score 2010 (ITAS2010). We investigated the correlation between carotid vascularization on CEUS and clinical data. The consistency of carotid CEUS and PET data has been analyzed for TA disease activity. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant correlation between the results of CEUS and ITAS2010 (p = 0.004) or Kerr criteria (p < 0.001). According to ITAS2010, thirty-four of 71 patients with TA were clinically inactive. Assessment of 34 TA patients with clinically inactive disease yielded 11 CEUS scans that showed active lesions (visual grade ≥ 2) in the left or right carotid artery. In 22 cases that underwent CEUS and FDG-PET, 12 were active and 10 were inactive on the basis of ITAS2010. Moreover, bilateral carotid CEUS vascularization score positively correlated with vascular FDG uptake in these patients with TA (p = 0.004). When vascular inflammation was defined as FDG uptake with visual grade ≥ 2, carotid CEUS showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80%. CONCLUSION: For TA patients with clinically inactive disease, CEUS could help clinicians to identify active lesions in the carotid vascular region. Carotid CEUS may be a rapid and cost-effective imaging tool in the followup of patients with TA.

19.
FASEB J ; 33(5): 6378-6389, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776318

RESUMO

Central ischemic necrosis is one of the biggest obstacles in the clinical application of traditional tissue-engineered bone (TEB) in critical-sized bone defect regeneration. Because of its ability to promote vascular invasion, endochondral ossification-based TEB has been applied for bone defect regeneration. However, inadequate chondrocyte hypertrophy can hinder vascular invasion and matrix mineralization during endochondral ossification. In light of recent studies suggesting that ceria nanoparticles (CNPs) improve the blood vessel distribution within TEB, we modified TEB scaffold surfaces with CNPs and investigated the effect and mechanism of CNPs on endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration. The CNPs used in this study were synthesized by the microemulsion method and modified with alendronate-anchored polyethylene glycol 600. We showed that CNPs accelerated new bone formation and enhanced endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration in both a subcutaneous ectopic osteogenesis model and a mouse model of critical-sized bone defects. Mechanistically, CNPs significantly promoted endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration by ensuring sufficient hypertrophic differentiation via the activation of the RNA helicase, DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-His) box helicase 15, and its downstream target, p38 MAPK. These results suggested that CNPs could be applied as a biomaterial to improve the efficacy of endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration in critical-sized bone defects.-Li, J., Kang, F., Gong, X., Bai, Y., Dai, J., Zhao, C., Dou, C., Cao, Z., Liang, M., Dong, R., Jiang, H., Yang, X., Dong, S. Ceria nanoparticles enhance endochondral ossification-based critical-sized bone defect regeneration by promoting the hypertrophic differentiation of BMSCs via DHX15 activation.

20.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(4): 908-920, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635755

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic performance of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for detecting suspected prostate cancer (PCa) and to compare it with that of two cancer-predicting nomograms. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 146 consecutive patients with suspected PCa based on symptoms or elevated total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels who underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT and histopathologic examinations from April 2017 to April 2018 in a large tertiary care hospital in China. The 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT results (PCa or benignancy) were evaluated by two experienced nuclear medicine specialists. The risk of positive PCa was evaluated using ERSPC and PCPT nomograms. The diagnostic performances of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT and that of the two nomograms were compared via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, decision curve analysis, and logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients with tPSA of 0.4-50 ng/ml were included in the final analysis; PCa diagnosis was confirmed in 37 patients and excluded in 21 patients. ROC analysis showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT were 91.67, 81.82, 89.19, and 85.71%, respectively, in per-patient analyses. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT exhibited a higher AUC (0.867) than those of ERSPC-RC3 (0.855) and PCPT-RC (0.770). The net benefit of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was greatest for patients within threshold probabilities of 15-90%. Among the 58 patients, 11 (19%) biopsies suggested by ERSPC-RC3 were unnecessary and could have been avoided if judged by the 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT results. Multivariate analysis revealed that the maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) and prostate volume were significant predictive factors for positive PCa results. CONCLUSION: In suspected PCa patients with tPSA of 0.4-50 ng/ml, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT outperformed the nomograms in predicting cancer and reducing unnecessary biopsies. In addition, the risk of PCa was positively correlated with a higher SUVmax and lower prostate volume, which could help clinicians in making preliminary estimates of individual cancer risk, monitoring 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT false-positive results and making biopsy decisions in daily medical practice.

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