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1.
Kidney Med ; 5(2): 100580, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36712314

RESUMO

Rationale & Objective: Compared to the original nursing home status (any nursing home stay in the previous calendar year), new nursing home status variables were developed to improve the risk adjustment of Standardized Mortality/Hospitalization Ratio (SMR/SHR) models used in public reporting of dialysis quality of care, such as the Annual Dialysis Facility Report. Study Design: Retrospective observational study. Setting & Participants: 625,040 US maintenance dialysis patients with >90 kidney failure days in 2019. Predictors: Nursing home status variables; patient characteristics; comorbid conditions. Outcomes: Mortality/hospitalization. Analytical Approach: We assigned patients and patient times (SMR/SHR model) to one of 3 mutually exclusive categories: long-term care (≥90 days), short-term care (1-89 days), or non-nursing home, based on nursing home stay during the previous 365 days from the first day of the time period at risk. Nursing home status was derived from the Nursing Home Minimum Data Set. Comparisons of hazard ratios from adjusted models, facility SMR/SHR performance, and model C-statistics between the original/new models were performed. Results: SMR's hazard ratio of original nursing home status (2.09) was lower than both ratios of short-term care (2.38) and long-term care (2.43), whereas SHR's hazard ratio of original nursing home status (1.10) was between the ratios of long-term care (1.01) and short-term care (1.20). There was a difference in hazard ratios between short-term care and long-term care for both measures. Small percentages of facilities changed performance categories: 0.7% for SMR and 0.4% for SHR. The SMR C-statistic improved whereas the SHR C-statistic was relatively unchanged. Limitations: Limited capture of subacute rehabilitation stays in the nursing home by using a 90-day cutoff for short-term care and long-term care; unable to draw causal inference about nursing home care. Conclusions: Use of a nursing home metric that effectively separates short-term from long-term nursing home utilization results in more meaningful risk adjustment that generally comports with Medicare payment policy, potentially resulting in more interpretable results for dialysis stakeholders.

2.
Theriogenology ; 199: 121-130, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716593

RESUMO

Apoptosis of granulosa cells is a key factor in mammalian follicular atresia. It has a significant impact on oocyte development and maturation. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a group of highly heterogeneous population. Previous studies have found that ovarian follicular fluid is rich in EVs. In the present study, the follicular fluid of 3-5 mm follicles from bovine ovaries without corpus luteum was collected, and a subtype of small EVs (sEVs), low-density small EVs (LD-sEVs), was successfully isolated by differential ultracentrifugation combined with iodixanol density gradient centrifugation. LD-sEVs were identified using transmission electron microscope, nanoparticle tracking analysis and Western blot. Flow cytometry, Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), Western blot, and other methods were used to detect the effect of LD-sEVs on follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. After that, let-7i, a highly expressed miRNA component in LD-sEVs, was screened and target validation was carried out in granulosa cells. The results showed that LD-sEVs could be taken up by granulosa cells and inhibited the apoptosis. Further research found that let-7i inhibits the apoptosis of granulosa cells by targeting FASLG. It plays an important role in regulating the apoptosis of follicular granulosa cells, which may affect follicular development.

3.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700559

RESUMO

The oxygen-consuming property of photodynamic therapy (PDT) affects its effects and aggravates tumor hypoxia, thus upregulating the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to exacerbate tumor metastasis and lead to treatment failure. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the dynamic changes in the factors related to PDT and tumor development trends in real time, thus helping to improve PDT efficiency. This study fabricated a fluorescent probe, TPE-2HPro, and a fluorescein-labeled aptamer probe, FAM-AptamerVEGF, to detect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and VEGF through the photoinduced electron-transfer effect and the specific affinity of the aptamer to VEGF, respectively. The two probes were loaded into the inner pores and absorbed on the surface of polydopamine coating-wrapped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN@PDA) to construct the dual-probe-loaded system, MSNTH@PDAApt, which was kept stable in fetal bovine serum (FBS) solution and achieved pH-responsive release behavior, thus helping to increase the accumulation of the two probes in tumor cells. The dichloroacetic acid-mediated in vitro antitumor tests showed that the changing trends of H2O2 and VEGF levels were consistent with the results of related mechanism studies and could be monitored by MSNTH@PDAApt. The in vitro chlorin e6 (Ce6)-mediated PDT treatment demonstrated that when the illumination condition was 650 nm, 50 mW/cm2 for 10 min, cells were more inclined to metastasis and invasion rather than death due to a substantial increase in VEGF expression at the low Ce6 concentrations. With the increase of the Ce6 concentration, the growth of the H2O2 level gradually exceeded that of VEGF, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell death dominated when the Ce6 concentration was about 2 times its IC50 values. Besides, hypoxia also affected the H2O2 and VEGF changes. These results demonstrated that MSNTH@PDAApt could precisely monitor and assess the tumor development trends during PDT treatment, thus helping improve the treatment effect.

4.
Neuroimage ; 268: 119879, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642154

RESUMO

Thirty years of neuroimaging reveal the set of brain regions consistently associated with pleasant and unpleasant affect in humans-or the neural reference space for valence. Yet some of humans' most potent affective states occur in the context of other humans. Prior work has yet to differentiate how the neural reference space for valence varies as a product of the sociality of affective stimuli. To address this question, we meta-analyzed across 614 social and non-social affective neuroimaging contrasts, summarizing the brain regions that are consistently activated for social and non-social affective information. We demonstrate that across the literature, social and non-social affective stimuli yield overlapping activations within regions associated with visceromotor control, including the amygdala, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and insula. However, we find that social processing differs from non-social affective processing in that it involves additional cortical activations in the medial prefrontal and posterior cingulum that have been associated with mentalizing and prediction. A Bayesian classifier was able to differentiate unpleasant from pleasant affect, but not social from non-social affective states. Moreover, it was not able to classify unpleasantness from pleasantness at the highest levels of sociality. These findings suggest that highly social scenarios may be equally salient to humans, regardless of their valence.

5.
Science ; 379(6628): 168-173, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634172

RESUMO

Mechanically strong and ductile load-carrying materials are needed in all sectors, from transportation to lightweight design to safe infrastructure. Yet, a grand challenge is to unify both features in one material. We show that a plain medium-manganese steel can be processed to have a tensile strength >2.2 gigapascals at a uniform elongation >20%. This requires a combination of multiple transversal forging, cryogenic treatment, and tempering steps. A hierarchical microstructure that consists of laminated and twofold topologically aligned martensite with finely dispersed retained austenite simultaneously activates multiple micromechanisms to strengthen and ductilize the material. The dislocation slip in the well-organized martensite and the gradual deformation-stimulated phase transformation synergistically produce the high ductility. Our nanostructure design strategy produces 2 gigapascal-strength and yet ductile steels that have attractive composition and the potential to be produced at large industrial scales.

6.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0252622, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625672

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the pathogenic agent of tuberculosis (TB). Intracellular survival plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Mtb, a process that depends on an array of virulence factors for Mtb to colonize and proliferate within a host. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNS and ROS) are among the most effective antimycobacterial molecules generated by the host during infection. However, Mtb has evolved a number of proteins and enzymes to detoxify ROS and RNS. Secretory protein Rv1324, as a possible thioredoxin, might also have oxidoreductase activity against ROS and RNS during Mtb infection, and it is a potential virulence factor of Mtb. In this study, we investigated the biochemical properties of Mtb Rv1324 and its role in mycobacterial survival and virulence. The results showed that the Rv1324 protein had antioxidant activity and increased the survival of M. smegmatis that was exposed to ROS and RNS. In addition, Rv1324 enhanced the colonization ability of M. smegmatis in the lungs of mice. Further, mice infected with M. smegmatis harboring Rv1324 exhibited pathological injury and inflammation in the lung, which was mediated by ferroptosis. In summary, this study advances our understanding of the mechanisms of mycobacterial survival and pathogenesis, and it reveals a novel target for TB treatment. IMPORTANCE The intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) plays a crucial role in its pathogenesis, which depends on various Mtb oxidoreductases that are resistant to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) that are generated by the host during Mtb infection. Secretory protein Rv1324 is a potential virulence factor of Mtb and is a possible thioredoxin that has oxidoreductase activity against ROS and RNS during Mtb infection. We investigated the biochemical properties of Mtb Rv1324 and its role in mycobacterial survival and virulence. It was confirmed that the Rv1324 protein had antioxidant activity and an increased mycobacterial resistance to ROS and RNS. In addition, Rv1324 enhanced mycobacterial persistence and induced pathological injury and inflammation in the lungs of mice by activating ferroptosis. This study advances our understanding of the mechanisms of mycobacterial survival and pathogenesis, and it reveals a novel target for TB treatment.

7.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(5): 1076-1083, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254996

RESUMO

Studies have shown that gut microbiota metabolites can enter the central nervous system via the blood-spinal cord barrier and cause neuroinflammation, thus constituting secondary injury after spinal cord injury. To investigate the correlation between gut microbiota and metabolites and the possible mechanism underlying the effects of gut microbiota on secondary injury after spinal cord injury, in this study, we established mouse models of T8-T10 traumatic spinal cord injury. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metabolomics to reveal the changes in gut microbiota and metabolites in fecal samples from the mouse model. Results showed a severe gut microbiota disturbance after spinal cord injury, which included marked increases in pro-inflammatory bacteria, such as Shigella, Bacteroides, Rikenella, Staphylococcus, and Mucispirillum and decreases in anti-inflammatory bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Allobaculum, and Sutterella. Meanwhile, we identified 27 metabolites that decreased and 320 metabolites that increased in the injured spinal cord. Combined with pathway enrichment analysis, five markedly differential amino acids (L-leucine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-isoleucine and L-valine) were screened out, which play a pivotal role in activating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses following spinal cord injury. Integrated correlation analysis indicated that the alteration of gut microbiota was related to the differences in amino acids, which suggests that disturbances in gut microbiota might participate in the secondary injury through the accumulation of partial metabolites that activate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Findings from this study provide a new theoretical basis for improving the secondary injury after spinal cord injury through fecal microbial transplantation.

8.
Environ Res ; 220: 115029, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise is a serious public health problem globally as it has adverse psychological and physiologic effects (i.e., sleep). Since previous studies mainly focused on individual levels, we aim to examine associations between road traffic noise and sleep deprivation on a large scale; namely, the US at county level. METHODS: Information from a large-scale sleep survey and national traffic noise map, both obtained from government's open data, were utilized and processed with Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. To examine the associations between traffic noise and sleep deprivation, we used a hierarchical Bayesian spatial modelling framework to simultaneously adjust for multiple socioeconomic factors while accounting for spatial correlation. FINDINGS: With 62.90% of people not getting enough sleep, a 10 dBA increase in average sound-pressure level (SPL) or Ls10 (SPL of the relatively noisy area) in a county, was associated with a 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CrIs:1.19-1.86) or 8% (1.08; 1.00-1.16) increase in the odds of a person in a particular county not getting enough sleep. No significant association was observed for Ls90 (SPL of the relatively quiet area). A 10% increase in noise exposure area or population ratio was associated with a 3% (1.03; 1.01-1.06) or 4% (1.04; 1.02-1.06) increase in the odds of a person within a county not getting enough sleep. INTERPRETATION: Traffic noise can contribute to variations in sleep deprivation among counties. This study suggests that policymakers could set up different noise-management strategies for relatively quiet and noisy areas and incorporate geospatial noise indicators, such as exposure population or area ratio. Furthermore, urban planners should consider urban sprawl patterns differently in terms of noise-induced sleep problems.

9.
ACS Omega ; 7(47): 42939-42948, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36467920

RESUMO

Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer with great mechanical properties and good transparency, but its low crystallization rate greatly limits its application. Hyperbranched polyesters (HBPs) modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an ideal nucleating agent to prove the crystallization of PLLA. To compare different terminal group HBPs' effect on the modification of CNTs and the crystallization of PLLA, through the condensation reaction and amidation reaction, CNTs-H202 and CNTs-N102 were prepared, respectively. The modification was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we observed the changes on the surface of modified CNTs. PLLA/CNT composites were prepared, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the crystallization behavior of the composites. The mechanical properties of PLLA/CNT composites were investigated as well. The results showed that the modified CNTs had a better promotion on PLLA crystallization and mechanical properties than the unmodified CNTs. CNTs-N102 had a slight advantage on the promotion on PLLA crystallization, which was caused by the lower grafting rate of HBP N102, and CNTs-H202 had a better promotion on the mechanical properties of PLLA, which was caused by the better compatibility with PLLA. In conclusion, hydroxy-terminated HBP is a better CNT modified material than amino-terminated HBP.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 1085409, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36570905

RESUMO

Plants are exposed to increasingly severe drought events and roots play vital roles in maintaining plant survival, growth, and reproduction. A large body of literature has investigated the adaptive responses of root traits in various plants to water stress and these studies have been reviewed in certain groups of plant species at a certain scale. Nevertheless, these responses have not been synthesized at multiple levels. This paper screened over 2000 literatures for studies of typical root traits including root growth angle, root depth, root length, root diameter, root dry weight, root-to-shoot ratio, root hair length and density and integrates their drought responses at genetic and morphological scales. The genes, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and hormones that are involved in the regulation of drought response of the root traits were summarized. We then statistically analyzed the drought responses of root traits and discussed the underlying mechanisms. Moreover, we highlighted the drought response of 1-D and 2-D root length density (RLD) distribution in the soil profile. This paper will provide a framework for an integrated understanding of root adaptive responses to water deficit at multiple scales and such insights may provide a basis for selection and breeding of drought tolerant crop lines.

11.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although histopathological evaluation after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is critical to assess the accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis, it is still challenging to perform precise endoscopic to pathological evaluation. We evaluated the importance of tissue marking dye (TMD)-targeted marking for post-ESD specimen guided by magnificent endoscope on histopathological accuracy and endoscopic-to-histopathological reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 81 specimens resected by ESD [43 without TMD marking (N-TMD group), and 38 specimens with TMD-targeted cancerous areas marking guided by post-procedural magnifying endoscopy on resected specimens (TMD group)] between January 31, 2019, and January 31, 2022 at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were included in the study. The baseline characteristics of patients, discrepancies between endoscopic and histopathological diagnosis, and the impact of TMD on histopathological diagnosis and reconstruction were analyzed. RESULTS: Discrepancies between endoscopic (pre-ESD) and histopathological (post-ESD) diagnosis increased significantly in TMD group (68.4% (26/38) for tumor areas, 26.3% (10/38) for tumor margins, and 26.3% (10/38) for tumor differentiations) when compared with N-TMD group (p < 0.0001). Deeper sections were achieved in all TMD-marked resected lesions and 27.9% (12/43) lesions in the N-TMD group (p < 0.001). More pathological evaluations in TMD group were changed from curative resection to non-curative resection [6/38(15.8%) vs 1/43(2.3%)] compared with N-TMD group (p < 0.0001). TMD-targeted marking also improved the efficiency of histopathological reconstruction on pre-procedural endoscopic images and benefit endoscopists training. CONCLUSION: TMD-targeted labeling on resected specimens could improve precise endoscopic-to-pathological diagnosis, reconstruction by point-to-point marking and benefit endoscopists training.

12.
J Comput Graph Stat ; 31(3): 856-865, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36506350

RESUMO

In the problem of composite hypothesis testing, identifying the potential uniformly most powerful (UMP) unbiased test is of great interest. Beyond typical hypothesis settings with exponential family, it is usually challenging to prove the existence and further construct such UMP unbiased tests with finite sample size. For example in the COVID-19 pandemic with limited previous assumptions on the treatment for investigation and the standard of care, adaptive clinical trials are appealing due to ethical considerations, and the ability to accommodate uncertainty while conducting the trial. Although several methods have been proposed to control Type I error rates, how to find a more powerful hypothesis testing strategy is still an open question. Motivated by this problem, we propose an automatic framework of constructing test statistics and corresponding critical values via machine learning methods to enhance power in a finite sample. In this article, we particularly illustrate the performance using Deep Neural Networks (DNN) and discuss its advantages. Simulations and two case studies of adaptive designs demonstrate that our method is automatic, general and prespecified to construct statistics with satisfactory power in finite-sample. Supplemental materials are available online including R code and an R shiny app.

13.
Appl Acoust ; 185: 108379, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36532954

RESUMO

The present work constitutes the sequel to the analysis of data from an online survey administered to 464 home workers in London in January 2021 during the COVID-19 lockdown. Perceived affective quality of indoor soundscapes has been assessed in the survey through a previously developed model, as the combination of two perceptual dimensions, one related to comfort (a comfortable - annoying continuum) and the other to content (a full of content - empty continuum). Part I of the study reported on differences in comfort, content, and soundscape appropriateness based on the activity performed at home during the lockdown, i.e. working from home (WFH) and relaxation. Moreover, associations between soundscape dimensions and psychological well-being have been highlighted. Part II of the study deals with the exploration of the influences of several acoustical, building, urban and person-related factors on soundscape dimensions and well-being. A mixed-method approach has been adopted by combining multivariate regression of questionnaire scores with the qualitative analysis of spontaneous descriptions given by respondents. Results showed that several sound sources, urban features, housing characteristics, working modes and demographic factors can influence (positively and negatively) soundscape dimensions differently depending on the task at hand. Notably, the perceived dominance of neighbours' noises during relaxation, moderated by noise sensitivity, and the number of people at home were common factors negatively affecting both comfort and well-being, that partially explained the association between comfortable indoor soundscapes and better mental health. The discussion points out the importance of considering the different impacts that acoustical factors (e.g. sound typology), building (e.g., house size), urban (e.g., availability of a quiet side), situational (e.g., number of people at home), and person-related factors (e.g., noise sensitivity) can provide on building occupants depending on the specific activity people are engaged with at home and the opportunities to foster people's well-being through building, urban and acoustic design.

14.
Microorganisms ; 10(12)2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557619

RESUMO

The transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) is the central pivot of a prokaryotic organism to receive, process and respond to internal and external environmental information. However, little is known about its spatial organization so far. In recent years, chromatin interaction data of bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis have been published, making it possible to study the spatial organization of bacterial transcriptional regulatory networks. By combining TRNs and chromatin interaction data of E. coli and B. subtilis, we explored the spatial organization characteristics of bacterial TRNs in many aspects such as regulation directions (positive and negative), central nodes (hubs, bottlenecks), hierarchical levels (top, middle, bottom) and network motifs (feed-forward loops and single input modules) of the TRNs and found that the bacterial TRNs have a variety of stable spatial organization features under different physiological conditions that may be closely related with biological functions. Our findings provided new insights into the connection between transcriptional regulation and the spatial organization of chromosome in bacteria and might serve as a factual foundation for trying spatial-distance-based gene circuit design in synthetic biology.

15.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 30(6): 1637-1642, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To calculate the cut-off values of speed of platelet recovery and its R-squared in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after initial induction chemotherapy, which were used to predict the complete remission (CR) of the first induction chemotherapy, and guide the clinic to choose the next appropriate chemotherapy regimen as soon as possible. METHODS: A total of 117 patients with newly diagnosed AML in the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University were included. Patients were diagnosed by morphology, immunology, cytogenetics, and molecular biology (MICM) classification, and the risk stratification was evaluated in combination with the clinical situations of the patients at the time of admission. The peripheral platelet counts after the first induction chemotherapy were detected and the linear regression equation was used to calculate the recovery speed of platelet counts in 5 consecutive blood cell analysis before discharge. According to the ROC curve, the cut-off value between the recovery speed and the R-squared was calculated, and the cut-off value was used to divide the patients into different groups. The differences between groups were compared by Pearson χ2 test to observe the remission effect of the first induction chemotherapy. RESULTS: ROC curve analysis showed that the cut-off value for predicting the platelet recovery speed and its R-squared of the first induction chemotherapy to achieve remission was 4.059 5×109/(L·d) and 72.7%, the sensitivity was 77% and 63.9%, the specificity was 62.5% and 67.9%, and the Youden index was 0.395 and 0.318, respectively. The patients were divided into different groups and compared according to the above cut-off values, and the results showed statistical differences (P<0.001, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: The cut-off value of platelet recovery speed and its R-squared after the first induction chemotherapy calculated by peripheral platelet count and ROC curve in AML patients can be used as an index to evaluate the remission. The faster the platelet recovery speed after chemotherapy is, the more likely patients achieve remission. The more stable the platelet recovery tendency is, the more likely patients achieve remission too.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Citogenética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Biologia Molecular
16.
J Adv Res ; 2022 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539076

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea has the fourth-highest mortality rate of all diseases and causes a large number of infant deaths each year. The maternally separated (MS) piglet (newly weaned piglet) is an excellent model to investigate the treatment of diarrhea in infants. Drinking alkaline mineral water has the potential to be therapeutic in gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhea, but the supporting evidence from system studies and the mechanisms involved have yet to be reported. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine whether drinking alkaline mineral water confers diarrhea resistance in MS piglets under weaning stress and what the fundamental mechanisms involved are. METHODS: MS piglets were used to create a stress-induced intestinal disorder-diarrhea susceptibility model. A total of 240 MS piglets were randomly divided into two groups (6 pens/group and 20 piglets/pen). IPEC-J2 cell line was used for in vitro evaluation. An alkaline mineral complex (AMC) water was employed, and its effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, gut microbes, gut morphology, and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation and differentiation were investigated using a variety of experimental methodology. RESULTS: AMC water reduced diarrhea rate in MS piglets by inhibiting the HPA axis, ameliorating gut microbiota structure, and stimulating IEC proliferation and differentiation. Apparently, the brain-microbe-gut axis is linked with AMC water conferring diarrhea resistance in piglets. Mechanistically, AMC water decreased stress hormones (COR and Hpt) secretion by suppressing HPA axis, which then increased the abundance of beneficial gut microbes; accordingly, maintained the proliferation of IEC and promoted the differentiation of intestinal stem cells (ISC) into goblet cell and Paneth cell by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. In the absence of gut microbiota (in vitro), AMC activated the LPS-induced Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inhibition in IPEC-J2 cells and significantly increased the number of Lgr5 + cells, whereas had no effect on IPEC-J2 differentiation. CONCLUSION: Drinking alkaline mineral water confers diarrhea resistance in MS piglets by maintaining intestinal epithelial regeneration via the brain-microbe-gut axis; thus, this study provides a potential prevention strategy for young mammals at risk of diarrhea.

17.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(4): 2001, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319250

RESUMO

Crowd noise is usually the primary noise in large waiting halls, and it is difficult to predict because it is influenced by several factors such as room acoustics and crowd characteristics. This study developed a crowd noise prediction model based on the superposition of direct and reverberant sound energy using the factors of the spatial layout of waiting halls, number and distribution of crowds, behavior ratio (ratio of vocal passengers to the total number of passengers), and average crowd sound power. To verify the model, on-site measurements were conducted in two large waiting halls to obtain the necessary input parameters. The crowd noise levels in one of the waiting halls were obtained from 1-s noise level data after excluding broadcast periods. A method for determining an individual's average sound power based on the model was also presented and found to be approximately 70.6 dB. Finally, the model was verified using measured data, and it showed that the model could accurately predict the average crowd noise level and changing trend of crowd noise in temporal and spatial dimensions with an average R-square of approximately 0.55 and average difference of approximately 1.1 dBA between the predicted and measured results.


Assuntos
Acústica , Ruído , Som
18.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(4): 2022, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319262

RESUMO

A listening test was conducted with 32 participants to obtain data on emotional changes in response to three types of urban soundscape spatial sequences. By establishing a time series model, the relationship between psychoacoustic parameters of the sequence and changes in the two dimensions of emotion was determined. Results showed that psychoacoustic parameters can explain 44% and 40%-49% of the changes in the pleasantness and arousal dimensions of emotion, respectively. Roughness and fluctuation have the highest correlation with emotional changes, while loudness and articulation index have the lowest correlation with emotional changes. This research verified the lags between psychoacoustic changes in the soundscape and the associated perceived emotion. First, there was a 3-4 s lag between psychoacoustic parameters and emotional changes. Second, changes in roughness and loudness could cause synchronous changes in emotions, while other parameters could cause delayed changes in emotions. Finally, the lag of emotion had a strong and stable explanatory power for emotional changes. This research proves the effectiveness of the time series analysis technology in establishing the dynamic relationship between the acoustic parameters of soundscape sequences and the second-by-second perceived emotions and provides a new data analysis method for in-depth study of soundscape sequence perception.


Assuntos
Acústica , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Psicoacústica , Fatores de Tempo , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia
19.
Humanit Soc Sci Commun ; 9(1): 406, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406149

RESUMO

Urbanization has exposed people to extreme sound levels. Although researchers have investigated the ability of people to listen, analyze, and distinguish sound, the concept of noise has not been clearly articulated from a human perspective. The lack of knowledge on how people perceive noise limits our capacity to control it in a targeted manner. This study aimed to interpret the definition of noise from the public perspective based on a grounded theory approach. Seventy-eight participants were interviewed about noise, and four categories of perceived understanding of noise were identified: challenges, definitions of noise, opportunities, and action. As one of the challenges, urbanization is associated with increased noise levels around the human environment. In terms of definition, perceiving sound as noise is considered to be a result of the complex and dynamic process that includes sound, the environment, and humans. Sound and humans interact with the environment. In terms of opportunities, noise may have positive roles on certain occasions, dispelling the misconception that noise is exclusively negative. In addition, we found that noise perception has gradually shifted from noise control to noise utilization. In terms of action, noise can be controlled at the sound sources, susceptible target groups, susceptible behaviors and states, locations, and times where noise is perceived with high frequency. In this study, we investigated several aspects of noise, ranging from noise control, soundscape definition, and 'soundscape indices' (SSID) integration and application. Our findings provide an additional basis for developing better definitions, control, and utilization strategies of noise in the future, thereby improving the quality of the sound environment.

20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1005535, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388272

RESUMO

Background: Microplastic has become a growing environmental problem. A balanced microbial environment is an important factor in human health. This study is the first observational cross-sectional study focusing on the effects of microplastics on the nasal and gut microbiota in a highly exposed population. Methods: We recruited 20 subjects from a Plastic Factory (microplastics high-exposure area) and the other 20 from Huanhuaxi Park (microplastics low-exposure area) in Chengdu, China. We performed the microplastic analysis of soil, air, and intestinal secretions by laser infrared imaging, and microbiological analysis of nasal and intestinal secretions by 16S rDNA sequencing. Results: The result shows that the detected points of microplastics in the environment of the high-exposure area were significantly more than in the low-exposure area. Polyurethane was the main microplastic component detected. The microplastic content of intestinal secretions in the high-exposure group was significantly higher than in the low-exposure group. Specifically, the contents of polyurethane, silicone resin, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, and polyethylene in the high-exposure group were significantly higher than in the low-exposure group. Moreover, high exposure may increase the abundance of nasal microbiotas, which are positively associated with respiratory tract diseases, such as Klebsiella and Helicobacter, and reduce the abundance of those beneficial ones, such as Bacteroides. Simultaneously, it may increase the abundance of intestinal microbiotas, which are positively associated with digestive tract diseases, such as Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, and Sphingomonas, and reduce the abundance of intestinal microbiotas, which are beneficial for health, such as Ruminococcus Torquesgroup, Dorea, Fusobacterium, and Coprococcus. A combined analysis revealed that high exposure to microplastics may not only lead to alterations in dominant intestinal and nasal microbiotas but also change the symbiotic relationship between intestinal and nasal microbiotas. Conclusion: The results innovatively revealed how microplastics can affect the intestinal and nasal microecosystems. Clinical trial registration: ChiCTR2100049480 on August 2, 2021.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microplásticos , Humanos , Plásticos/farmacologia , Poliuretanos/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais
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