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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813411

RESUMO

RATIONALE: It remains unknown whether long-term ozone exposure can impair lung function. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between long-term ozone exposure and adult lung function in China. METHODS: Lung function results and diagnosis of small airways dysfunction (SAD) were collected from a cross-sectional study, China Pulmonary Health Study (N=50,991). We used multivariate linear and logistic regression models to examine the associations of long-term ozone exposure with lung function parameters and SAD, respectively, adjusting for demographic characteristics, individual risk factors, and longitudinal trend. We then performed a stratification analysis by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We observed each 1-standard deviation (SD, 4.9 ppb) increase in warm-season ozone concentrations was associated with a 14.2 mL/s [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.8, 19.6] decrease in forced expiratory flow at 75th percentile of vital capacity and a 29.5 mL/s (95% CI: 19.6, 39.5) decrease in mean forced expiratory flow between the 25th and 75th percentile of vital capacity. The odds ratio of SAD was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.11) for a 1-SD increase in warm-season ozone concentrations. Meanwhile, we observed a significant association with a decreased ratio of expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) but not with FEV1 or FVC. The association estimates were greater in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group. CONCLUSION: We found independent associations of long-term ozone exposure with impaired small airways function and higher SAD risks, while the associations with airflow obstruction were weak. COPD patients appear to be more vulnerable.

2.
Stat Med ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816464

RESUMO

Jointly analyzing transcriptomic data and the existing biological networks can yield more robust and informative feature selection results, as well as better understanding of the biological mechanisms. Selecting and classifying node features over genome-scale networks has become increasingly important in genomic biology and genomic medicine. Existing methods have some critical drawbacks. The first is they do not allow flexible modeling of different subtypes of selected nodes. The second is they ignore nodes with missing values, very likely to increase bias in estimation. To address these limitations, we propose a general modeling framework for Bayesian node classification (BNC) with missing values. A new prior model is developed for the class indicators incorporating the network structure. For posterior computation, we resort to the Swendsen-Wang algorithm for efficiently updating class indicators. BNC can naturally handle missing values in the Bayesian modeling framework, which improves the node classification accuracy and reduces the bias in estimating gene effects. We demonstrate the advantages of our methods via extensive simulation studies and the analysis of the cutaneous melanoma dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas.

3.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771377

RESUMO

In this study, one of the commonly used MXene (Ti3C2Tx) and ß nucleated isotactic polypropylene (ß-iPP)/MXene composites of different compositions were fabricated. The effects of MXene on non-isothermal crystallization and polymorphic behavior of ß-iPP/MXene composites were comparatively studied. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics indicates that for all samples, the lower cooling rates promote composites to crystallize at higher temperatures. When MXene and ß-Nucleating agent (ß-NA) are added separately, the crystallization temperature of composites shifts towards higher temperatures at all cooling rates. When MXene and ß-NA are added simultaneously, the composite shows different cooling rate dependence, and the effects of improving crystallization temperatures is more obvious under rapid cooling. The activation energy of four samples iPP, iPP/MXene, iPP/ß-NA, and iPP/MXene/ß-NA were -167.5, -185.5, -233.8, and -218.1 kJ/mol respectively, which agree with the variation tendency of crystallization temperatures. The polymorphic behavior analysis obtained from Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) is affected by two factors: the ability to form ß-crystals and the thermal stability of ß-crystals. Because ß-crystals tend to recrystallize to α-crystals below a critical temperature, to eliminate the effect of ß-α recrystallization, the melting curves at end temperatures Tend = 50 °C and Tend = 100 °C are comparatively studied. The results show that more thermally unstable ß-crystals would participate in ß-α recrystallization with higher cooling rates. Moreover, thermal stability of ß-crystals is improved by adding MXene. To further verify these findings, samples of three different thermal conditions were synthesized and analyzed by DSC, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Polarized Light Optical Microscopy (PLOM), and the results were consistent with the above findings. New understandings of synthesizing ß-iPP/MXene composites with adjustable morphologies and polymorphic behavior were proposed.

4.
J Sep Sci ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784088

RESUMO

Juglandis Mandshuricae Cortex is the bark of Juglans mandshurica Maxim., which has been used as a folk medicine plant in China and India. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry method was developed to clarify and quantify the chemical profiling of Juglandis Mandshuricae Cortex rapidly. A total of 113 compounds were characterized. Among them, seven flavonoids were simultaneously quantified in 15 min, including myricetin, myricetrin, taxifolin, kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, and naringenin. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, and the limits of detection and quantification. All calibration curves showed a good linear relationship (r > 0.9990) within test ranges. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 2.16%. Accuracy validation showed that the recovery was between 95.6% and 101.3% with relative standard deviation values below 2.85%. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the contents of seven flavones in Juglandis Mandshuricae Cortex from seven sources and the contents of these places were calculated respectively. This method provides a theoretical basis for further developing the medicinal value of Juglandis Mandshuricae Cortex.

5.
Biometrics ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780668

RESUMO

We thank the editors for organizing the discussions and the discussants for insightful comments. Our rejoinder provides results and comments to address the questions raised in the discussions. Specifically, we present results showing DICA largely demonstrates better or comparable stability as compared with standard ICA. We also validate the DICA in real fMRI application by showing DICA generally shows higher reliability in reproducibly recovering major brain functional networks as compared with the standard ICA. We provide details on the computational complexity of the method. The computational cost of DICA is very reasonable with the analysis of the fMRI and DTI data easily implementable on a PC or laptop. Finally, we include discussions on several directions for extending the DICA framework in the future.

6.
JCI Insight ; 6(22)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806652

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with limited treatment options. Despite endothelial cells (ECs) comprising 30% of the lung cellular composition, the role of EC dysfunction in pulmonary fibrosis (PF) remains unclear. We hypothesize that sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of PF via EC phenotypic modifications. Transcriptome data demonstrate that SREBP2 overexpression in ECs led to the induction of the TGF, Wnt, and cytoskeleton remodeling gene ontology pathways and the increased expression of mesenchymal genes, such as snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (snai1), α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and neural cadherin. Furthermore, SREBP2 directly bound to the promoter regions and transactivated these mesenchymal genes. This transcriptomic change was associated with an epigenetic and phenotypic switch in ECs, leading to increased proliferation, stress fiber formation, and ECM deposition. Mice with endothelial-specific transgenic overexpression of SREBP2 (EC-SREBP2[N]-Tg mice) that were administered bleomycin to induce PF demonstrated exacerbated vascular remodeling and increased mesenchymal transition in the lung. SREBP2 was also found to be markedly increased in lung specimens from patients with IPF. These results suggest that SREBP2, induced by lung injury, can exacerbate PF in rodent models and in human patients with IPF.

7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(21): e2101936, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605226

RESUMO

The neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists are approved as treatment for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. The emerging role of the substance P-NK-1R system in oncogenesis raises the possibility of repurposing well-tolerated NK-1R antagonists for cancer treatment. This study reports that human colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with high NK-1R expression have poor survival, and NK-1R antagonists SR140333 and aprepitant induce apoptotic cell death in CRC cells and inhibit CRC xenograft growth. This cytotoxicity induced by treatment with NK-1R antagonists is mediated by induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress triggers calcium release, resulting in the suppression of prosurvival extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-c-Myc signaling. Along with ER calcium release, one ER stress pathway mediated by protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) is specifically activated, leading to increased expression of proapoptotic C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). Moreover, NK-1R antagonists enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy by increasing the sensitivity and overcoming resistance to 5-fluorouracil in CRC cells through the induction of sustained ER stress and the consequent suppression of ERK-c-Myc signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, the findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the efficacy of NK-1R antagonists either as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy for cancer treatment.

8.
J Biopharm Stat ; : 1-17, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632951

RESUMO

In current clinical trial development, historical information is receiving more attention as it provides utility beyond sample size calculation. Meta-analytic-predictive (MAP) priors and robust MAP priors have been proposed for prospectively borrowing historical data on a single endpoint. To simultaneously synthesize control information from multiple endpoints in confirmatory clinical trials, we propose to approximate posterior probabilities from a Bayesian hierarchical model and estimate critical values by deep learning to construct pre-specified strategies for hypothesis testing. This feature is important to ensure study integrity by establishing prospective decision functions before the trial conduct. Simulations are performed to show that our method properly controls family-wise error rate and preserves power as compared with a typical practice of choosing constant critical values given a subset of null space. Satisfactory performance under prior-data conflict is also demonstrated. We further illustrate our method using a case study in Immunology.

9.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 39(8): 383-389, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620473

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We performed SBT (sequence-based typing) on clinical and environmental Legionellapneumophila isolates in Shenyang (China). We analyzed and compared the results with those obtained by PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis). METHODS: Twenty-two L. pneumophila isolates were collected from two patients with L. pneumophila infection, two hospitals, and 13 office buildings. There were two clinical isolates, one strain isolated from domestic tap water, another from shower water and 18 strains from cooling tower water. All these isolates were analyzed by SBT and PFGE methods. RESULTS: The 22 isolates were divided into 7 types by SBT. Five isolates belonged to novel sequence types (ST2345, ST2344, ST2406, ST2407, and ST2408) and one isolate belonged to ST328. The STs were not obtained for two of the isolates. The remaining 14 isolates belonged to ST1. PFGE typing divided the 22 isolates into 14 pulsotypes. The main pulsotype was SYC, which included seven isolates. CONCLUSION: Both typing methods showed that predominant clonal lines exist in the Shenyang region, with high levels of genetic polymorphisms. Five novel STs were identified, indicating a unique genetic composition of L. pneumophila strains in this region, which are significantly different from those found in other environmental water systems in the world.


Assuntos
Legionella pneumophila , Doença dos Legionários , China/epidemiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/genética , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água
10.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 747722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660605

RESUMO

In this paper, on the basis of the differences in the hydrogen ion concentration (pH) of the diluent dairy goat semen on X/Y sperm motility, an X/Y sperm enrichment study was conducted to establish a simple and effective method for gender control in dairy goats. Dairy goat semen was diluted using different pH dilutions and was incubated. Then, the X/Y sperm ratio in the isolated upper sperm was determined using the double TaqMan qPCR method. The internal pH change pattern of sperm cells at different pH dilutions was measured using BCECF-AM probe, and the functional parameters of the isolated sperm were tested with the corresponding kit. Next, an in vitro fertilization test was conducted using isolated spermatozoa and oocytes to determine their fertilization rates, the percentages of female embryos, and the expression of genes related to developing potentially fertilized embryos. Results showed that the percentages of the X sperm cells in the upper sperm layer were 67.24% ± 2.61% at sperm dilution pH of 6.2 and 30.45% ± 1.03% at sperm dilution pH of 7.4, which was significantly different from 52.35% ± 1.72% of the control group (pH 6.8) (P < 0.01). Results also showed that there is a relationship between the external pHo and internal pHi of sperm cells. Furthermore, the percentages of female embryos after the in vitro fertilization of the isolated upper sperm with mature oocytes at pH 6.2 and 7.4 were 66.67% ± 0.05 and 29.73% ± 0.04%, respectively, compared with 48.57% ± 0.02% in the control group (pH 6.8). Highly significant differences occurred between groups (P < 0.01). Additionally, no significant difference was observed during the expression of genes related to embryonic development between the blastocysts formed from sperm isolated by changing the pH of the diluent and the control sperm (P > 0.05). Therefore, this study successfully established a simple and effective method for enriched X/Y sperms from dairy goats, which is important for regulating the desired sex progeny during dairy goat breeding and for guiding dairy goat production.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(20): 23471-23516, 2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718232

RESUMO

It is widely thought that individuals age at different rates. A method that measures "physiological age" or physiological aging rate independent of chronological age could therefore help elucidate mechanisms of aging and inform an individual's risk of morbidity and mortality. Here we present machine learning frameworks for inferring individual physiological age from a broad range of biochemical and physiological traits including blood phenotypes (e.g., high-density lipoprotein), cardiovascular functions (e.g., pulse wave velocity) and psychological traits (e.g., neuroticism) as main groups in two population cohorts SardiNIA (~6,100 participants) and InCHIANTI (~1,400 participants). The inferred physiological age was highly correlated with chronological age (R2 > 0.8). We further defined an individual's physiological aging rate (PAR) as the ratio of the predicted physiological age to the chronological age. Notably, PAR was a significant predictor of survival, indicating an effect of aging rate on mortality. Our trait-based PAR was correlated with DNA methylation-based epigenetic aging score (r = 0.6), suggesting that both scores capture a common aging process. PAR was also substantially heritable (h2~0.3), and a subsequent genome-wide association study of PAR identified significant associations with two genetic loci, one of which is implicated in telomerase activity. Our findings support PAR as a proxy for an underlying whole-body aging mechanism. PAR may thus be useful to evaluate the efficacy of treatments that target aging-related deficits and controllable epidemiological factors.

12.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 68(1): 23-33, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678756

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in angiogenesis in ovaries, particularly during follicular development and ovulation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the major pro-inflammatory factors that are involved in the angiogenesis process physiologically and pathologically. Previous studies have shown that 17ß-estradiol (E2) stimulates VEGF expression by upregulating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in many cell types, and the high level of E2 causes an inflammatory-like microenvironment before ovulation. However, whether IL-6 signaling is involved in E2-regulating VEGF expression in swine granulosa cells (GCs) is still unknown. In this study, we found the estrogen membrane receptor, G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), was expressed in swine GCs, and the expression level of GPER, HIF-1α, and VEGF increased with follicular development. In vitro study showed that E2, ICI182780, and GPER agonist (G1) promoted the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in swine GCs, while GPER antagonist (G15) inhibited the stimulating effect of E2 and G1. Meanwhile, G15 inhibited the stimulating effect of E2 and G1 on IL-6 mRNA expression and secretion. Furthermore, IL-6 antibody and AG490 (JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor) attenuated G1-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression. In conclusion, this study revealed how estrogen-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expressions in swine GCs are mediated through GPER-derived IL-6 secretion leading to JAK2/STAT3 activation.

13.
Biometrics ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694629

RESUMO

Recent advances in neuroimaging technologies have provided opportunities to acquire brain images of different modalities for studying human brain organization from both functional and structural perspectives. Analysis of images derived from various modalities involves some common goals such as dimension reduction, denoising, and feature extraction. However, since these modalities have vastly different data characteristics, the current analysis is usually performed using distinct analytical tools that are only suitable for a specific imaging modality. In this paper, we present a Distributional Independent Component Analysis (DICA) that represents a new approach that performs decomposition on the distribution level, providing a unified framework for extracting features across imaging modalities with different scales and representations. When applying DICA to fMRI images, we successfully recover well-established brain functional networks in neuroscience literature, providing empirical validation that DICA delivers neurologically relevant findings. More importantly, we discover several structural network components when applying DICA to DTI images. Through fiber tracking, we find these DICA-derived structural components correspond to several major white fiber bundles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these fiber bundles are successfully identified via blind source separation on single subject DTI images. We also evaluate the performance of DICA as compared with existing ICA methods through extensive simulation studies.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258278, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding risk factors for short- and long-term COVID-19 outcomes have implications for current guidelines and practice. We study whether early identified risk factors for COVID-19 persist one year later and through varying disease progression trajectories. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 6,731 COVID-19 patients presenting to Michigan Medicine between March 10, 2020 and March 10, 2021. We describe disease progression trajectories from diagnosis to potential hospital admission, discharge, readmission, or death. Outcomes pertained to all patients: rate of medical encounters, hospitalization-free survival, and overall survival, and hospitalized patients: discharge versus in-hospital death and readmission. Risk factors included patient age, sex, race, body mass index, and 29 comorbidity conditions. RESULTS: Younger, non-Black patients utilized healthcare resources at higher rates, while older, male, and Black patients had higher rates of hospitalization and mortality. Diabetes with complications, coagulopathy, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and blood loss anemia were risk factors for these outcomes. Diabetes with complications, coagulopathy, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and blood loss were associated with lower discharge and higher inpatient mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: This study found differences in healthcare utilization and adverse COVID-19 outcomes, as well as differing risk factors for short- and long-term outcomes throughout disease progression. These findings may inform providers in emergency departments or critical care settings of treatment priorities, empower healthcare stakeholders with effective disease management strategies, and aid health policy makers in optimizing allocations of medical resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Front Oncol ; 11: 750794, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692531

RESUMO

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most malignant neoplasm in oral cancer. There is growing evidence that its progression involves altered metabolism. The current method of evaluating prognosis is very limited, and metabolomics may provide a new approach for quantitative evaluation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the use of metabolomics as prognostic markers for patients with OSCC. Methods: An analytical platform, Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Orbitrap High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS), was used to acquire the serum fingerprinting profiles from a total of 103 patients of OSCC before and after the operation. In total, 103 OSCC patients were assigned to either a training set (n = 73) or a test set (n = 30). The potential biomarkers and the changes of serum metabolites were profiled and correlated with the clinicopathological parameters and survival of the patients by statistical analysis. To further verify our results, we linked them to gene expression using data from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Results: In total, 14 differential metabolites and five disturbed pathways were identified between the preoperative group and postoperative group. Succinic acid change-low, hypoxanthine change-high tumor grade, and tumor stage indicated a trend towards improved recurrence-free survival (RFS), whether in a training set or a test set. In addition, succinic acid change-low, hypoxanthine change-high, and tumor grade provided the highest predictive accuracy of the patients with OSCC. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the imbalance in the amino acid and purine metabolic pathway may affect the prognosis of OSCC. Conclusions: The changes of metabolites before and after operation may be related to the prognosis of OSCC patients. UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS serum metabolomics analysis could be used to further stratify the prognosis of patients with OSCC. These results can better understand the mechanisms related to early recurrence and help develop more effective therapeutic targets.

16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 157: 112540, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500008

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is one kind of persistent organic pollutants. In previous study, we found that PFOS induced autophagy-dependent lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) in hepatocytes, and siRNA against lysosomal permease spinster 1 (SPNS1) relieved PFOS-induced LMP. However, whether and how SPNS1 functioned as the link between autophagy and LMP was still not defined. In this study, we constructed a stable cell line expressing high levels of SPNS1. We found that SPNS1 interacted specifically with α-tubulin of tyrosinated isotype by pull-down assay. After treatment with PFOS, the level of tyrosinated α-tubulin was autophagy-dependently decreased. SPNS1-tyrosinated α-tubulin interaction was disrupted subsequently, which led to LMP eventually. We also found that stable high-expression of SPNS1 in hepatocytes accelerated lysosomal acidification, and deteriorated PFOS-induced LMP. This study pointed out that SPNS1-tyrosinated α-tubulin interaction mediated the cross-talk between autophagy and LMP induced by PFOS, shedding new light on the mechanism of PFOS hepatotoxicity.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587074

RESUMO

Graph mining is an essential component of recommender systems and search engines. Outputs of graph mining models typically provide a ranked list sorted by each item's relevance or utility. However, recent research has identified issues of algorithmic bias in such models, and new graph mining algorithms have been proposed to correct for bias. As such, algorithm developers need tools that can help them uncover potential biases in their models while also exploring the impacts of correcting for biases when employing fairness-aware algorithms. In this paper, we present FairRankVis, a visual analytics framework designed to enable the exploration of multi-class bias in graph mining algorithms. We support both group and individual fairness levels of comparison. Our framework is designed to enable model developers to compare multi-class fairness between algorithms (for example, comparing PageRank with a debiased PageRank algorithm) to assess the impacts of algorithmic debiasing with respect to group and individual fairness. We demonstrate our framework through two usage scenarios inspecting algorithmic fairness.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 740565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589089

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation, which currently lacks safe and effective medicine. Some previous studies indicated that Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a natural saponin extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine herb Ligusticum chuanxiong, alleviates the experimental colitis symptoms in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of AS-IV on IBD remains unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that M2-polarized intestinal macrophages play a pivotal role in IBD progression. Here, we found that AS-IV attenuated clinical activity of DSS-induced colitis that mimics human IBD and resulted in the phenotypic transition of macrophages from immature pro-inflammatory macrophages to mature pro-resolving macrophages. In vitro, the phenotype changes of macrophages were observed by qRT-PCR after bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were induced to M1/M2 and incubated with AS-IV, respectively. In addition, AS-IV was effective in inhibiting pro-inflammatory macrophages and promoting the pro-resolving macrophages to ameliorate experimental colitis via the regulation of the STAT signaling pathway. Hence, we propose that AS-IV can ameliorate experimental colitis partially by modulating macrophage phenotype by remodeling the STAT signaling, which seems to have an essential function in the ability of AS-IV to alleviate the pathological progress of IBD.

19.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502971

RESUMO

The effects of MXene on the crystallization behavior of ß-nucleated isotactic polypropylene (iPP) were comparatively studied. The commonly used MXene Ti3C2Tx was prepared by selective etching and its structure and morphology were studied in detail. Then MXene and a rare earth ß-nucleating agent (NA) WBG-II were nucleated with iPP to prepare samples with different polymorphic compositions. The crystallization, melting behavior, and morphologies of neat iPP, iPP/MXene, iPP/WBG-II, and iPP/MXene/WBG-II were comparatively studied. The crystallization behavior analysis reveals that a competitive relationship exists between MXene and WBG-II when they were compounded as α and ß nucleating agents. In the system, the ß-nucleation efficiency (NE) of WBG-II is higher than α-NE of MXene. The ß-phase has relatively low thermal stability and would transform to α-phase when cooled below a critical temperature.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5480, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531383

RESUMO

Magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene has recently become a thriving material platform realizing correlated electron phenomena taking place within its topological flat bands. Several numerical and analytical methods have been applied to understand the correlated phases therein, revealing some similarity with the quantum Hall physics. In this work, we provide a Mott-Hubbard perspective for the TBG system. Employing the large-scale density matrix renormalization group on the lattice model containing the projected Coulomb interactions only, we identify a first-order quantum phase transition between the insulating stripe phase and the quantum anomalous Hall state with the Chern number of ±1. Our results not only shed light on the mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall state discovered at three-quarters filling, but also provide an example of the topological Mott insulator, i.e., the quantum anomalous Hall state in the strong coupling limit.

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