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1.
J Am Coll Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039654

RESUMO

Ketogenic diets (KDs) have received increasing attention among athletes and physically active individuals. However, the question as to whether and how the diet could benefit this healthy cohort remains unclear.Purpose: This study was designed to systematically review the existing evidence concerning the effect of KDs on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscle development, and sports performance in normal-weight individuals including athletes.Methods: A systematic search of English literature was conducted through electronic databases including PubMed, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar. Upon the use of search criteria, 23 full-text original human studies involving non-obese participants were included in this review. For more stratified and focused analysis, these articles were further categorized based on the outcomes being examined including 1) body mass (BM) and %fat, 2) substrate utilization, 3) blood substrate and hormonal responses, 4) aerobic capacity and endurance performance, and 5) strength, power, and anaerobic capacity.Results: Our review indicates that a non-calorie-restricted KD carried out for ≥3 weeks can produce a modest reduction in BM and %fat, while maintaining fat-free mass. This diet leads to augmented use of fat as fuel, but this adaptation doesn't seem to improve endurance performance. Additionally, ad libitum KDs combined with resistance training will pose no harm to developing strength and power, especially when protein intake is increased modestly.Conclusions: It appears that a non-calorie-restricted KD provides minimal ergogenic benefits in normal-weight individuals including athletes, but can be used for optimizing BM and body composition without compromising aerobic and anaerobic performance. Key teaching pointsKetogenic diets have received increasing attention among athletes and physically active individuals.It remains elusive as to whether ketogenic diets could confer ergogenic benefits for those who are normal weight but want to use the diet to improve fitness and performance.An interesting dilemma exists in that ketogenic diets can reduce body mass and %fat and increase fat oxidation, but they can also decrease glycogen stores and limit sports performance.This review concludes that a non-calorie-restricted ketogenic diet provides minimal ergogenic benefits in normal-weight individuals, but can be used to optimize body mass and composition without compromising athletic performance.This finding can be important for esthetic or weight-sensitive athletes because the diet may allow them to reach a target body mass without having to sacrifice athletic performance.The ketogenic diet-induced metabolic adaptations require a state of ketosis, and thus caution should be taken because an excessive increase in ketone bodies can be detrimental to health.

2.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104417, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707125

RESUMO

Schefflera rubriflora, a plant native to Yunnan Province in China, is often used to treat ailments such as neuropathic pain, tracheitis, and cough. However, the active components imparting these pharmacological effects are largely unexplored. In this study, five novel lignans and three new derivatives of benzoid or pyran were isolated from the leaves and twigs of S. rubriflora. The structures of these compounds were determined by the comprehensive analyses of the 1D and 2D NMR spectra and ESI mass spectra and a comparison of the obtained data with those of the literature data. All the compounds were tested for the inhibition of IL-6 expression. Three of the isolated compounds could inhibit the expression by 52% to 72%.


Assuntos
Araliaceae/química , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Lignanas/farmacologia , Animais , China , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7
3.
Neurol Sci ; 41(1): 57-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is a clinical condition arising from stroke and causes significant changes to memory, thinking, and behavior. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), the metabolite produced by gut microbiota, has mechanistic relevance to atherosclerotic diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether an association existed between elevated plasma TMAO levels and PSCI. METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively enrolled during Jan. 2017 to Dec. 2017. TMAO concentration was measured within 24 h after admission. PSCI was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score after 1 year and defined as MMSE score ≤ 26. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of TMAO level in the prediction of PSCI. RESULTS: Of the 256 patients studied (age, 67.1 ± 11.0 years; male, 54.3%), 86 (33.6%) patients were diagnosed as PSCI. The mean TMAO level was 5.6 ± 2.4 µM, with quartile level as follows: < 3.9 µM (first quartile), 3.9-5.1 µM (second quartile), 5.2-7.4 µM (third quartile), and > 7.4 µM (fourth quartile). After controlling for potential confounders, multivariable logistic analysis showed that higher level of plasma TMAO was an independent predictor for cognitive impairment in post-stroke patients (the quartile 1 was used as reference, the quartile 4 odds ratio, 3.304; 95% confidence intervals, 1.335-8.178; P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that increasing plasma level of TMAO may be associated with PSCI.

4.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 39(1): 39-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012819

RESUMO

Objective: The present study aimed to examine the interactive effect of exercise and energy balance on energy expenditure and substrate utilization.Method: Seven men and 7 women underwent three 2-day experimental protocols in a random order. Each protocol consisted of no exercise (NE), exercise only (EO), or exercise with a matched energy replacement (ER) on day 1 followed by metabolic testing that occurred after a 12-hour overnight fasting on day 2. Both EO and ER involved treadmill running at 60% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) that induced an energy expenditure of ∼ 500 kcal. The replacement meal used in ER contained ∼ 500 kcal made up of 45% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 25% protein. During metabolic testing, oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and rates of carbohydrate (COX) and fat oxidation (FOX) were determined in three successive 15-minute periods including rest and exercise at 50% and 70% VO2max.Results: No differences in VO2 and HR were found at rest among NE, EO, and ER. However, RER was lower in EO than NE (0.840 ± 0.014 vs 0.889 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), COX (g·min-1) was lower in ER than NE (0.144 ± 0.016 vs 0.197 ± 0.019, p < 0.05), and FOX (g·min-1) was higher in EO or ER than NE (0.054 ± 0.010 or 0.057 ± 0.009 vs 0.034 ± 0.007, p < 0.05). No treatment effects were observed for all variables at either intensity.Conclusions: This study demonstrates that an exercise of moderate intensity can increase resting fat oxidation even when the exercise-induced energy expenditure is balanced by energy intake. This finding suggests that muscle action is vital in augmenting fat utilization.

5.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 272, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract (LRT) microbiome has been reported to associate with pulmonary diseases. Unregulated inflammation is an underlying cause of variable lung diseases. The lung microbiome may play an important role in the smoking-induced inflammatory lung diseases. What's more, the function of microbiome may be more important for understanding how microbes interact with host. Our study aims to explore the effects of smoking on the lower respiratory tract microbiome, the association between variation of lower respiratory tract microbiome and inflammation and whether smoking exposure changes the function of lower respiratory tract microbime. METHODS: Forty male mice were randomly divided into smoking group and non-smoking group, and the smoking group was exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 h per day for 90 days. After experiment, the blood samples were collected to measure the concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C reactive protein (CRP) by ELISA. Lung tissue samples were used to detect the community and diversity of lower respiratory tract microbiome through 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing technology. ANOSIM and STAMP were performed to analyze the differences of the microbial community structure between smoking group and non-smoking group. SPSS 24.0 software was used to analyze the correlations between microbiome and inflammation mediators through scatter plots and Spearman correlation coefficient. Microbial metabolic function was predicted by PICRUSt based on the 16 s rRNA gene quantification and sequencing results. PATRIC database was searched for the potential pathogenic bacteria in lower respiratory tract. RESULTS: Our results suggested that smoking had markedly effects on the microbiota structure of lower respiratory tract based on Bray-Curtis distance (R2 = 0.084, p = 0.005) and on unweighted uniFrac distance (R2 = 0.131, p = 0.002). Smoking mainly affected the abundance of microbiome which belong to Proteobacteria phyla and Firmicutes phyla. Moreover, our results also found that smoking increased the abundance of Acinetobacter, Bacillus and Staphylococcus, which were defined as pathogenic bacteria. Inflammatory mediators were observed to associate with certain microbiome at every level. Most of microbiome which were associated with inflammation belonged to Proteobacteria phyla or Firmicutes phyla. Moreover, we found that the decreased microbiome in smoking group, including Oceanospirillales, Desulfuromonadales, Nesterenkonia, and Lactobacillaceae, all were negatively correlated with IL-6 or CRP. Based on the level of inflammation, the abundance of microbiome differs. At genus level, Lactobacillus, Pelagibacterium, Geobacter and Zoogloea were significantly higher in smoking group with lower IL-6 concentration. The abundance of microbiome was not observed any statistical difference in subgroups with different weight. Three dominant genus, defined as pathogen, were found higher in the smoking group. The microbial functional prediction analysis revealed that ABC-type transport systems, transcription factors, amino acide transport and metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism et al. were distinctively decreased in smoking group, while the proportions of replication, recombination and repair, ribosome, DNA repair and recombination proteins were increased in smoking group (q < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Members of Proteobacteria phyla and Firmicutes phyla played an important role in the microbial community composition and keeping a relatively balanced homeostasis. Microbiome dysbiosis might break the balance of immune system to drive lung inflammation. There might exist potential probiotics in lower respiratory tract, such as Lactobacillaceae. The altered function of Lower respiratory tract microbiome under smoking exposure may affect the physiological homeostasis of host.

6.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847639

RESUMO

Purpose/aim of the study: To investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of endurance and resistance training on synaptic plasticity in chronic stressed depression rats.Materials and methods: Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was used to establish depressive rats model. Healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (control, CUMS, AE, and RT). The animals in AE and RT groups were respectively subjected to continuous treadmill running and intermittent weight-bearing treadmill training for 8 weeks after CUMS. Forced swimming test (FST) was used to evaluate behavior of rats. The flow cytometry was used to detect the hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. LTP in hippocampal CA1 region were analyzed by electrophysiology. The expressions of various mRNA and proteins related to synaptic function were measured using RT-PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus.Results: Results shown that rats exhibited depressive behavior after CUMS stimulation, specifically immobility time was increased and swimming time and climbing time were reduced in rats during FST. After training, AE and RT all attenuated CUMS-induced depressive behavior of rats. AE and RT reduced apoptosis rate of hippocampal neuron and increased PS amplitude and fEPSPs slope after CUMS stimulation. After CUMS stimulation, AE promoted mRNA expressions, including BDNF, mTOR, TrkB, Syn, Syp, CaMKIIß, and DRD5, and increased protein expressions, including IGF-1, PGC-1α, ERRß, and FNDC5. While RT promoted mRNA expressions, including IGF-1, mTOR, Akt, Syn, and Syp, and improved protein expressions, including IGF-1, IGF-1R, and p-Akt.Conclusions: In conclusion, AE and RT for 8 weeks improved CUMS-induced depressive behavior, neuron injury and synaptic plasticity through regulating different signaling pathways.

7.
Chaos ; 29(11): 113106, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779342

RESUMO

Deep learning has taken part in the competition since not long ago to learn and identify phase transitions in physical systems such as many-body quantum systems, whose underlying lattice structures are generally regular as they are in Euclidean space. Real networks have complex structural features that play a significant role in dynamics in them, and thus the structural and dynamical information of complex networks cannot be directly learned by existing neural network models. Here, we propose a novel and effective framework to learn the epidemic threshold in complex networks by combining the structural and dynamical information into the learning procedure. Considering the strong performance of learning in Euclidean space, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is used, and, with the help of "confusion scheme," we can identify precisely the outbreak threshold of epidemic dynamics. To represent the high-dimensional network data set in Euclidean space for CNN, we reduce the dimensionality of a network by using graph representation learning algorithms and discretize the embedded space to convert it into an imagelike structure. We then creatively merge the nodal dynamical states with the structural embedding by multichannel images. In this manner, the proposed model can draw the conclusion from both structural and dynamical information. A large number of simulations show a great performance in both synthetic and empirical network data sets. Our end to end machine learning framework is robust and universally applicable to complex networks with arbitrary size and topology.

8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 59-106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677140

RESUMO

So far, more than 20 species of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) fungi have been studied, including G. lucidum, G. sinense, G. japonicum, G. capense, G. australe, G. tsugae, G. applanatum, G. tropicus, G. boniense, G. duropora, G. resinaceum, G. theaecolum, G. cochlear, G. atrum, G. formosanum, G. boninense, G. colossum, G. concinna, G. amboinense, G. pfeifferi, and G. orbiforme. Over 600 compounds were isolated and identified from the genus Ganoderma. The components in Ganoderma contained triterpenes, meroterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and polysaccharides, in which triterpenes were the main compounds, and more than 300 triterpenes obtained from it. With the use of new technology of separation and purification, the other types of compounds, such as meroterpenoids, alkaloids, nucleosides, and polysaccharides were reported in recent years. Herein, the structural classifications and characteristics and separation methods were summarized.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Ganoderma/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 135-155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677142

RESUMO

The components in Ganoderma, including triterpenes, polysaccharides, nucleosides or nucleobases, steroids, and ergothioneine, were quantitatively analyzed. Among them, the quantitative analysis of triterpenes and polysaccharides were recorded in US Pharmacopeia. HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS are the most popular quantitative methods for all of these compounds.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Triterpenos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Polissacarídeos
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(98): 14729-14732, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690911

RESUMO

A palladium-promoted oxidative annulation reaction for the synthesis of structurally diverse naphthoquinone-containing heterocycles has been developed, providing switchable access to 1,2-naphthofuroquinones and densely functionalized cyclobutene-fused 1,4-naphthofuroquinones by selective enol/enolate-directed processes. The synthetic application was extended by late-stage functionalization of an anti-HIV drug. The practical value of 1,2-naphthofuroquinone synthesis was highlighted in endothelial protective lead compound development.


Assuntos
Naftoquinonas/química , Paládio/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catálise , Ciclização , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Naftoquinonas/síntese química , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Oxirredução
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3672-3683, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602939

RESUMO

Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenoids composed of three isoprene units( 15 carbons). Sesquiterpenoids possess a variety of different structures,including acyclic sesquiterpenes,monocyclic sesquiterpenoids,bicyclic sesquiterpenoids,tricyclic sesquiterpenoids,tetracyclic sesquiterpenoids and macrocyclic sesquiterpenoids. Among them,a large number of monocyclic sesquiterpenoids were isolated and display extensive bioactivities,such as cytotoxic,antioxidant,anti-inflammatory,antibacterial and other activities. In this review,we summarized the progress about the phytochemistry and biological activities of monocyclic sesquiterpenoids( a total of161 compounds) reported from 2014 to 2018( 5 years),including megastigmanes,monocyclofarnesol-type,bisabolane-type,germacrane-type,and other types of monocyclic sesquiterpenoids. Furthermore,several future research perspectives and development of sesquiterpenoids as potential therapeutic agents were discussed as well.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular
12.
Stem Cells Int ; 2019: 9807978, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565061

RESUMO

Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to permanent, complete paraplegia and places considerable mental and economic burdens on patients, compared with mild to moderate SCI. However, the dose-related effects of the neural stem/precursor cell (NSPC) transplantation on the injury microenvironment, NSPC survival, axonal growth, neuronal distribution, the composition of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes in the lesion area and functional recovery have not yet been quantitatively evaluated in the context of severe SCI. In our study, we acutely transplanted 2.5 × 104 or 1.5 × 105 NSPCs/µl into the site of transection SCI. We found that high-dose NSPC transplantation exerted immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects in the acute phase of severe SCI. In addition, one week later, a remarkable positive relationship was observed between the transplantation dose and the number of surviving NSPCs in severe SCI. At 8 weeks postgrafting, subjects that received the higher cell dose exhibited abundant nerve regeneration, extensive neuronal distribution, increased proportions of neurons and oligodendrocytes, and nascent functional neural network formation in the lesion area. Notably, a significant functional recovery was also observed. Our data suggest that it is important to consider potential dose-related effects on donor cell survival, neuronal distribution, and locomotor recovery in the development of preclinical NSPC transplantation therapy for severe SCI.

13.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443210

RESUMO

Licorice is a popular sweetener and a thirst quencher in many food products particularly in Europe and the Middle East and also one of the oldest and most frequently used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. As a wide application of food additive, it is necessary to clarify bioactive chemical ingredients and the mechanism of action of licorice. In this study, a network pharmacology approach that integrated drug-likeness evaluation, structural similarity analysis, target identification, network analysis, and KEGG pathway analysis was established to elucidate the potential molecular mechanism of licorice. First, we collected and evaluated structural information of 282 compounds in licorice and found 181 compounds that met oral drug rules. Then, structural similarity analysis with known ligands of targets in the ChEMBL database (similarity threshold = 0.8) was applied to the initial target identification, which found 63 compounds in licorice had 86 multi-targets. Further, molecular docking was performed to study their binding modes and interactions, which screened out 49 targets. Finally, 17 enriched KEGG pathways (p < 0.01) of licorice were obtained, exhibiting a variety of biological activities. Overall, this study provided a feasible and accurate approach to explore the safe and effective application of licorice as a food additive and herb medicine.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Glycyrrhiza/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Phytochemistry ; 167: 112096, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470169

RESUMO

Although Morinda umbellata L. has been used in numerous folk medicines, there is a lack of phytochemical studies on this plant. Sixteen undescribed quinones, namely, ten anthraquinones (umbellatas A-J), one naphthohydroquinone (umbellata K), one naphthohydroquinone dimer (umbellata L), and four dinaphthofuran quinones (umbellatas M-P), were isolated from the aerial parts of Morinda umbellata L. (Rubiaceae). The structures of all the isolated quinones were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods. Four of the unknown quinones (umbellatas A, H, K and M) showed potent cytotoxic effects against A431, A2780, NCI-H460, HCT116, HepG2, and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 1.3-7.1 µM. These results reveal potential lead compounds for the development of new anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Morinda/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Quinonas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Quinonas/química
15.
Neurol Sci ; 40(12): 2491, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463680

RESUMO

The above article was published online with incorrect author name. The right spelling should be Xiangming Wang instead of Xiangmin Wang. The correct name is presented here. The original article has been corrected.

16.
Neurol Sci ; 40(12): 2479-2489, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392640

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the accuracy of neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NM-MRI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis using a meta-analysis method. In PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Google Scholar, the literatures were searched for the diagnostic value of neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging in PD. The literatures were screened in the light of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Data analysis was processed by Stata 12.0 software to obtain meta-analysis, heterogeneity analysis, and publication bias. Meta-analysis results showed by using NM-MRI observed substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) on PD, the pooled diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74-0.87) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.73-0.89), respectively. And the pooled positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were 4.58 (95% CI, 3.08-6.82) and 0.22 (95% CI, 0.16-0.31), respectively. Moreover, subgroup analysis according to the measurement criteria of SNpc showed the SNpc volume should be used as good a marker for diagnosing PD. Finally, Fagan test demonstrated that when PLR was equal to 5, the posterior probability is significantly enhanced to 53%, compared with prior probability (20%). As for NLR (0.22), the prior probability is 20%, while the posterior probability remarkably dropped to 5%. In conclusion, SNpc signal detected by NM-MRI exhibited high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of PD, which was a high-performance imaging diagnostic method for PD. We recommend NM-MRI imaging technology to be widely used in Parkinson's diagnosis.

17.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1341-1348, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336430

RESUMO

Acetic acid is indirectly involved in cell center metabolism, and acetic acid metabolism is the core of central metabolism, affecting and regulating the production of bacteriocin. Bacteriocin is a natural food preservative that has been used in the meat and dairy industries and winemaking. In this paper, the effects of acetic acid on bacteriocin produced by Gram-positive bacteria were reviewed. It was found that acetic acid in the undissociated state can diffuse freely through the hydrophobic layer of the membrane and dissociate, affecting the production, yield, and activity of bacteriocin. In particular, the effect of acetic acid on cell membranes is summarized. The link between acetic acid metabolism, quorum sensing, and bacteriocin production mechanisms is also highlighted.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/biossíntese , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Percepção de Quorum
18.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 51(8): 1361-1370, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214954

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and duration of dialysis in dialysis patients is conflicting, this meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate the association between duration of dialysis and HP infection status in dialysis patients, and subgroup study was conducted to explore its influencing factors. Furthermore, our study aims to provide advice on the treatment of dialysis patients. METHODS: Articles published up to 30 September 2018 were searched from PubMed, Embase, Sinomed, Medline, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI) and Wang fang database. Two researchers independently identified whether studies met the eligibility criteria. The adjusted relative risk (RR) or the weighted mean difference (WMD) and their 95% CI were estimated. I2 was performed to evaluate the statistical heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using Egger's test and a funnel plot. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included involving 2087 dialysis patients, 815 of them were HP positive, 1272 of them were HP negative. Quantitative data and qualitative data were analyzed, respectively. For quantitative data, statistical differences were observed in the association between HP infection and duration of dialysis (P = 0.008), also in the hemodialysis subgroup (P = 0.006). After stratifying by detection methods, differences still existed in groups with different detection methods (P = 0.001, P = 0.033). For qualitative data, there was no statistical difference in the association between HP infection rate and duration of dialysis (P = 0.295). Furthermore, we found that the age was higher in HP positive patients than in HP negative patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis found that HP infection rate was negatively correlated with accumulative dialysis time, and methods of HP detection did not influence the association between HP infection and accumulative dialysis time. We also found that age was the risk factor of HP infection in dialysis patients. Further studies need to be performed to elucidate the mechanism of the correlation between HP infection and duration of dialysis, to explore which timing period of dialysis is most susceptible to HP infection, then, improve the prognosis of patients with renal diseases.

19.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 4535-4543, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study evaluated the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the assessment of skeletal muscle perfusion in diabetes mellites. MATERIAL AND METHODS Electronic databases (Embase, Google Scholar, Ovid, and PubMed) were searched for required articles, and studies were selected by following pre-determined eligibility criteria. Meta-analyses of mean differences or standardized mean differences (SMD) were performed to evaluate the significance of difference in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography measured muscle perfusion indices between patients with diabetes and healthy individuals or between basal and final values of perfusion indices after insulin manipulation or physical exercise in patients with diabetes or healthy individuals. RESULTS There were 15 studies included, with 279 patients with diabetes and 230 healthy individuals in total. The age of the study patients with diabetes mellitus was 55.8 years (95% CI: 49.6 years, 61.9 years) and these patients had disease for 11.4 years (95% CI: 7.7 years, 15.1 years). The percentage of males in group of patients with diabetes was 66% (95% CI: 49%, 84%), body mass index was 29.4 kg/m² (95% CI: 26.5 kg/m², 32.3 kg/m²), hemoglobin A1c was 7.3% (95% CI: 6.7%, 7.9%), and fasting plasma glucose was 149 kg/m² (95% CI: 118 kg/m², 179 kg/m²). Time to peak intensity after provocation was significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in healthy individuals (SMD 1.18 [95% CI: 0.60, 1.76]; P<0.00001). In patients with diabetes, insulin administration did not improve contrast-enhanced ultrasonography measured muscle perfusion indices but exercise improved muscle perfusion but at a level that was statistically non-significant (SMD between basal and post-exercise values (1.03 [95% CI: -0.14, 2.20]; P=0.08). In healthy individuals, lipids in addition to insulin administration was associated with significantly reduced blood volume and blood flow. CONCLUSIONS Our review showed that the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed that diabetes mellitus was associated with altered muscle perfusion in which insulin-mediated metabolic changes played an important role.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Meios de Contraste , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Exercício , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ultrassonografia/métodos
20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(53): 7635-7638, 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198913

RESUMO

A mild and efficient nickel-catalyzed direct monofluoromethylation of (hetero)aryl bromides by reductive cross-coupling has been developed. This method exhibits good efficiency, wide functional-group compatibility, and suitability for aryl and heteroaryl bromides with abundant industrial raw material BrCH2F. This strategy provides an efficient way to synthesize monofluoromethylated molecules for drug discovery.

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