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1.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Straw phonation has been investigated for its vocal warm-up effects on healthy populations and therapeutic effects on voice patients. The purpose of this article was to determine whether it is beneficial for vocal fatigue. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study METHODS: Twenty-five healthy participants were recruited into 1-hour vocal loading tasks followed by 10-minute vocal rest or straw phonation on 2 different days. Various parameters including phonation threshold pressure (PTP), mean airflow, closed quotient (CQ), current speaking effort level (EFFT), and laryngeal discomfort (DISC) were acquired at baseline, after vocal load, and after the intervention. RESULTS: Increased PTP, EFFT, and DISC were observed after vocal load. Decreased PTP, EFFT, and DISC were then acquired after both vocal rest or straw phonation. More significant improvements were obtained in straw phonation when compared with vocal rest. Additionally, significantly increased mean flow and decreased CQ were obtained after straw phonation when compared to vocal rest. CONCLUSIONS: Straw phonation has the potential to adjust aerodynamics within the vocal tract leading to improved vocal efficiency, optimized vibration mode, and attenuated vocal fatigue. This study provided a promising treatment for vocal fatigue that could have wide clinical relevance to voice users with high voice demands. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2020.

2.
Langmuir ; 36(3): 789-795, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815486

RESUMO

We report a facile yet general in situ seed-mediated method for the synthesis of polymer-grafted gold nanoparticles with narrow size distributions (<10%), accurately tunable sizes, and excellent colloidal stability. This method can be extended to a broad range of types and molecular weights of polymer ligands. Nanoparticles with different shapes can also be prepared by using preformed shaped nanoparticles directly as the seeds.

3.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125227, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704522

RESUMO

It is crucial to explore the source, formation process and interdependence of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) to reduce their risk on public health. In this investigation, a source water was chlorinated to evaluate the initial formation rates and the maximum yields of trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) based on a hyperbola model. The results showed that TCM achieved the highest initial formation rate and maximum theoretical concentration compared with DCAA and TCAA. The TCM yield can be used to forecast the yields of DCAA and TCAA throughout the whole reaction process, and the yields of chloral hydrate (CH), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) within the initial reaction stage. Besides, the raw water, settled water and filtered water collected from a drinking water treatment plant were divided into five fractions, respectively, by ultrafiltration membranes to evaluate their DBP formation after chlorination. Compared with the medium molecular weight species, high and low molecular weight organic matters exhibited relatively high specific regulated and unregulated DBP yields (expressed as µg/mg C), respectively. Humic acid-like compositions predominantly contributed to regulated DBP yields, while soluble microbial by-product-like compounds preferentially generated DCAN. The correlation study revealed that the TCM could also serve as an indicator for the measured DBPs from chlorination of sample fractions with different molecular weight. Finally, it was found that the theoretical cytotoxicity was enhanced during chlorination of filtered water compared with chlorination of settled water.

4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(2): 235-240, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reducing the increased number of white adipocyte progenitors (WAP) is considered a novel approach to controlling obesity. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in regulating the WAP resident population is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of omega-3 PUFA on the niche composition of adipose-derived stem cells. METHODS: Stromal vascular cell fraction (SVF) was collected from subcutaneous fat of wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice carrying a fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans (Fat-1 mice), which are capable of synthesizing omega-3 PUFA and have much higher tissue levels of omega-3 PUFA relative to WT mice. The isolated SVF cells were cultured and used for the examination of adipocyte differentiation, adipogenic markers, fatty acid composition, and WAP numbers. RESULTS: SVF isolated from Fat-1 mice (Fat-1-SVF) exhibited markedly fewer differentiated adipocytes with smaller cell size and less lipid content than that of WT mice (WT-SVF). Accordingly, adipogenesis-related genes and the white adipocyte surface marker ASC-1 were downregulated in Fat-1-SVF relative to WT-SVF. Furthermore, WAP numbers and adipose tissue macrophages were lower in Fat-1-SVF than WT-SVF. CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 PUFA can both limit the WAP resident population and suppress their differentiation to white adipocytes, suggesting a new mechanism for the antiobesity effect of omega-3 PUFA.

5.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125005, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605994

RESUMO

Iron dipicolinamide (Fedpa), as an efficient Fenton-like catalyst, was fabricated to excite hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The unique structures and the electronic properties of Fedpa were contributed to its excellent catalytic performance in alkaline Fenton process. Fe was chelated with dpa by four Fe-N bonds leaved two labile sites, which reduced the oxidation potential of dpa[FeIII/FeII], dpa[FeV/FeIII] or dpa[FeIV/FeII] to 0.316 V and 1.189 V respectively, and made it easily be bound with H2O2 to initiate the reaction. The results showed that 99.5% removal rate of 2,4-DCP (0.58 mM) was achieved by using 0.027 g/L Fedpa and 5.8 mM H2O2 in 60 min at pH 9.9. The coordination between Fe and dpa enhanced the catalytic efficiency of FeII. The active species generated in Fedpa/H2O2 system contained the iron-oxo species (dpaFeV = O or dpaIV = O), O2- and HO. The iron-oxo species was the main non-radical reactive species for the degradation of 2,4-DCP and some degradation intermediates were detected by GC-QTOF. Furthermore, the influence of factors, such as Fedpa loading, solution pH, temperature and anions (F-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) on the catalytic performance of Fedpa were also discussed. This process of complexation between Fe and dpa combined with a green oxidant H2O2 presents a new insight for the use of Fenton-like system in the degradation of refractory organics.

6.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(2): 384-389, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854476

RESUMO

Diabetes and periodontal disease are non-communicable chronic diseases that have a bi-directional relationship. The European Federation of Periodontology and International Diabetes Federation recommend patients with diabetes should be screened for periodontal disease and referred to a dental professional where appropriate. This study investigated the awareness among Paediatric Diabetes Care Teams across England and Wales of diabetes as a risk factor for periodontal disease. The study enquired to the practices, training, and confidence of health care professionals in relation to periodontal disease. A semi-structured online questionnaire was sent to all health care professionals working within Paediatric Diabetes Care Teams across England and Wales. Findings showed that 76.2% of participants were aware that periodontitis is a possible complication of diabetes. Only 5.2% screened for periodontal issues, while 27% of respondents stated that oral advice is not typically given to patients at their clinics and 92.3% said that there is no access to a periodontal service within their clinics. There were 76.4% participants who stated that patients are rarely or never referred to an external dental service for their periodontal health. Only 4.8% of respondents said they have received training for recognizing patients who require dental care for their periodontal health, while 23.2% feel confident identifying children who require referral and 85.4% of participants feel they would benefit from further training in periodontal health. In conclusion, patients are not routinely being informed of the risk of periodontitis or being screened or referred for it. Further training would be perceived as beneficial.

7.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807283

RESUMO

Rapid advances in sequencing technology have led to an explosive increase in the number of genetic variants identified in patients with neurological disease and have also enabled the assembly of a robust database of variants in healthy individuals. A surprising number of variants in the GRIN genes that encode N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamatergic receptor subunits have been found in patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, intellectual disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. This review compares and contrasts the available information describing the clinical and functional consequences of genetic variations in GRIN2A and GRIN2B. Comparison of clinical phenotypes shows that GRIN2A variants are commonly associated with an epileptic phenotype but that GRIN2B variants are commonly found in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. These observations emphasize the distinct roles that the gene products serve in circuit function and suggest that functional analysis of GRIN2A and GRIN2B variation may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms, which will allow more accurate subclassification of clinical phenotypes. Furthermore, characterization of the pharmacological properties of variant receptors could provide the first opportunity for translational therapeutic strategies for these GRIN-related neurological and psychiatric disorders.

8.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(1): 76, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872371

RESUMO

Multilayered and porous sodium-doped graphitic carbon nitride (GCN-Na) was prepared and employed to the solid-phase extraction of Sr(II). The sorbent exhibits high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for Sr(II). This is due to its small interplanar stacking distance caused by doping with Na(I) which matches the size of Sr(II) better than blank GCN. An original solid-phase extraction method based on GCN-Na coupled with ICP-OES was established for Sr(II), the calibration plots are linear ranging from 0.05-10 mg·kg-1 with the correlation coefficients (R2) above 0.999, the limits of detection are in the range of 0.57-1.52 µg·kg-1 and the preconcentration factor of 80 is achieved using 48 mL sample. It was successfully applied in the extraction and detection of trace Sr(II) in tap water, rice and sea fish. Graphical abstractA multilayer porous sodium(I) doped graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (GCN-Na) was synthesized and exhibited excellent adsorption capability and selectivity for Sr(II).

9.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886589

RESUMO

Recently, the impacts of noncoding RNAs on the initiation and development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) have aroused wide attention. Herein, we tested the impacts of autophagy-related circular RNA (ACR) on in vitro cell model of DPN. Rat Schwann RSC96 cells underwent high glucose (HG) irritation. The ACR expression, cell viability, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were tested, respectively. Exogenous PLCDH-ACR transfection was utilized for probing the impacts of ACR on HG-irritated Schwann cells 96 (RSC96). Then, whether microRNA-145-3p (miR-145-3p) attended to the impacts of ACR on HG-irritated RSC96 cells was measured. Finally, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway activity was evaluated. HG lowered ACR expression in RSC96 cells. Exogenous PLCDH-ACR transfection relieved HG-aroused RSC96 cell apoptosis, autophagy and ROS generation. Moreover, exogenous PLCDH-ACR transfection declined miR-145-3p expression in HG-irritated RSC96 cells. miR-145-3p engaged in the impacts of ACR on HG-aroused RSC96 cell apoptosis, autophagy, and ROS generation. Besides, exogenous PLCDH-ACR transfection promoted PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation in HG-irritated RSC96 cells through declining miR-145-3p expression. This study disclosed that ACR relieved HG-aroused RSC96 cell apoptosis, autophagy and ROS generation might be via declining miR-145-3p and then promoting PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Both chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and chronic continuous hypoxia (CCH) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which are associated with cardiac systolic function and associated with dysfunction of endothelia and coagulation-fibrinolysis system in the vasculature. However, the different effects of these two hypoxic models are not fully understood. In our study, we systemically compared the effects of CIH and CCH on cardiac function and related factor levels in serum using rat model. METHODS: Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normoxia control (NC), CIH and CCH groups. The rat CIH and CCH models were established, then the blood and tissue samples were collected to analyze the function of endothelium and the coagulation-fibrinolysis system. Also, the ultrasound cardiogram was performed to directly assess myocardial contractility. RESULTS: Both CIH and CCH significantly decreased the NO, eNOS, P-eNOS and AT-III levels in the rat serum but significantly increased the levels of ET-1, vWF, COX-2, NF-κB, FIB, FVIII and PAI-1 in the rat serum (P < 0.05). The expression of ET-1, VWF and ICAM-1 in CIH group were higher than CCH group (P < 0.05), however, the expression of CD62p was increased in CCH group but not in CIH group. The expression of t-PA in CIH group were lower than CCH group (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in CCH group and NC group (P > 0.05). Using transmission electron microscope, we found that the mitochondrial ultrastructure of thoracic aorta endothelial cells in CIH and CCH group were damaged. Moreover, the myocardial contractility in CIH and CCH group were significantly decreased compared with NC group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that CIH and CCH could cause endothelial dysfunction, dysfunction of the coagulation-fibrinolysis system and decreasing of myocardial contractility. Compared with CCH, CIH has greater effect on vasoconstriction and adhesion of vascular endothelial cells, and stronger procoagulant effect.

11.
Biol Open ; 8(12)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640974

RESUMO

Planarians are the earliest free-living platyhelminthe with triploblastic and bilateral-symmetry. As an integral component of tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remodeling occurs constantly in the general planarian life history. In the present study, we isolate three planarian Dugesia japonica Atg8 genes (Djatg8-1, Djatg8-2, Djatg8-3) that show high sequence similarity with Atg8 from yeast and human. Results from whole-mount in situ hybridization indicate that Djatg8-2 and Djatg8-3 are strongly expressed in blastemas during Dugesia japonica regeneration. Using RNA interference, inhibition of Djatg8-1 gene expression has no obvious effect on planarian morphological changes. Interestingly, downregulation of Djatg8-2 gene expression in planarians results in defects in blastema regeneration and tissue regression. Furthermore, loss of Djatg8-3 expression leads to tissue degradation. Taken together, our results suggest that Djatg8-2 and Djatg8-3 play important roles in planarian remodeling during regeneration.

12.
J Lipid Res ; 60(12): 2034-2049, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586017

RESUMO

Ethanol (EtOH)-induced alterations in intestinal homeostasis lead to multi-system pathologies, including liver injury. ω-6 PUFAs exert pro-inflammatory activity, while ω-3 PUFAs promote anti-inflammatory activity that is mediated, in part, through specialized pro-resolving mediators [e.g., resolvin D1 (RvD1)]. We tested the hypothesis that a decrease in the ω-6:ω-3 PUFA ratio would attenuate EtOH-mediated alterations in the gut-liver axis. ω-3 FA desaturase-1 (fat-1) mice, which endogenously increase ω-3 PUFA levels, were protected against EtOH-mediated downregulation of intestinal tight junction proteins in organoid cultures and in vivo. EtOH- and lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of INF-γ, Il-6, and Cxcl1 was attenuated in fat-1 and WT RvD1-treated mice. RNA-seq of ileum tissue revealed upregulation of several genes involved in cell proliferation, stem cell renewal, and antimicrobial defense (including Alpi and Leap2) in fat-1 versus WT mice fed EtOH. fat-1 mice were also resistant to EtOH-mediated downregulation of genes important for xenobiotic/bile acid detoxification. Further, gut microbiome and plasma metabolomics revealed several changes in fat-1 versus WT mice that may contribute to a reduced inflammatory response. Finally, these data correlated with a significant reduction in liver injury. Our study suggests that ω-3 PUFA enrichment or treatment with resolvins can attenuate the disruption in intestinal homeostasis caused by EtOH consumption and systemic inflammation with a concomitant reduction in liver injury.

13.
J Endod ; 45(11): 1403-1404, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570174
14.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619022

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have been associated with reduced breast cancer risk; however, the exact mechanism remains elusive. Female wildtype (WT) and fat-1 mice were fed a 10% safflower diet until 6 weeks of age. Mammary gland epithelial cells (EC) were isolated and EC populations were determined by CD24 surface expression. Fat-1 mice expressed 65%, 20%, and 15% while WT mice expressed 65%, 26% and 9% for non-, myo- and luminal ECs, respectively. The luminal EC population was significantly greater in fat-1 mice (p ≤ 0.05), while the total number of mammary ECs were similar between groups (p = 0.79). Caveolae was isolated from ECs and Her-2/neu, ER-α and cav-1 protein expression was determined by Western blotting. Fat-1 mice had a two-fold greater ER-α (p ≤ 0.05) and a 1.5-fold greater cav-1 (p ≤ 0.05) expression than WT with a similar amount of Her-2/neu protein (p = 0.990) between groups. Overall, this study provides novel mechanistic evidence by which n-3 PUFA modifies early mammary gland development that may potentially reduce breast cancer risk later in life.

15.
J Voice ; 33(5): 809.e11-809.e18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to quantify the effects of vocal loading and vocal rest using aerodynamic, acoustic, and self-rating measurements. METHODS: Ten participants were recruited to perform vocal loading tasks lasting 60 minutes, followed by 30 minutes of vocal rest. Objective parameters (phonation threshold pressure, fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio) and subjective parameters (current speaking effort level and laryngeal discomfort) were taken at different time intervals: before vocal loading (baseline), after 15 minutes (L15), 30 minutes (L30), 45 minutes (L45), and 60 minutes (L60) of vocal loading, as well as after 5 minutes (R5), 10 minutes (R10), 20 minutes (R20), and 30 minutes (R30) of vocal rest. RESULTS: Phonation threshold pressure was found to increase significantly within the first 15 minutes of the vocal loading task (P = 0.032), followed by a relatively gentle increase in the subsequent 45 minutes. Subjective self-ratings increased significantly after 30 minutes of loud reading (P < 0.05). Phonation threshold pressure recovered faster than subjective parameters after the vocal loading activity had finished. Fundamental frequency was found to consistently increase during vocal loading but return to baseline rapidly within 5 minutes of vocal rest. However, no significant changes in jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio were observed after vocal loading. CONCLUSIONS: Phonation threshold pressure and self-ratings may have the potential to track vocal fatigue and recovery. Furthermore, a dynamic monitor of vocal fatigue was presented, which may further provide a guide for appropriate voice use.

16.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 10(10): 4394-4406, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513369

RESUMO

Lipids, including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs), modulate brain-intrinsic inflammation during systemic inflammation. The vascular organ of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) is a brain structure important for immune-to-brain communication. We, therefore, aimed to profile the distribution of several lipids (e.g., phosphatidyl-choline/ethanolamine, PC/PE), including n-3-PUFA-carrying lipids (esterified in phospholipids), in the OVLT during systemic lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced inflammation. We injected wild type and endogenously n-3-PUFA producing fat-1 transgenic mice with LPS (i.p., 2.5 mg/kg) or PBS. Brain samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and high-resolution atmospheric-pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orbital trapping mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI-MSI) for spatial resolution of lipids. Depending on genotype and treatment, several distinct distribution patterns were observed for lipids [e.g., lyso(L)PC (16:0)/(18:0)] proposed to be involved in inflammation. The distribution patterns ranged from being homogeneously disseminated [LPC (18:1)], absent/reduced signaling within the OVLT relative to adjacent preoptic tissue [PE (38:6)], either treatment- and genotype-dependent or independent low signal intensities [LPC (18:0)], treatment- and genotype-dependent [PC 38:6)] or independent accumulation in the OVLT [PC (38:7)], and accumulation in commissures, e.g., nerve fibers like the optic nerve [LPE (18:1)]. Overall, screening of lipid distribution patterns revealed distinct inflammation-induced changes in the OVLT, highlighting the prominent role of lipid metabolism in brain inflammation. Moreover, known and novel candidates for brain inflammation and immune-to-brain communication were detected specifically within this pivotal brain structure, a window between the periphery and the brain. The biological significance of these newly identified lipids abundant in the OVLT and the adjacent preoptic area remains to be further analyzed.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109680, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546204

RESUMO

The freshwater planarian mostly lives in the upper reaches of springs and rivers. Generally, it is realized as a suitable warning indicator of environmental toxicants. The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a powerful regenerative capability and can regenerate a new individual including a complete central nervous system in one week. Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mammalian TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex-1) and used in the treatment of some diseases like cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. However, the roles of rapamycin in the regulation of planarian regeneration remain to be elucidated. In present study, freshwater planarians D. japonica were firstly treated with 1 µM rapamycin for 18 h exposures and the expression patterns of Djtor was analyzed by the whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). Our results indicated rapamycin could strongly inhibit Djtor expression in planarian D. japonica and cause asymmetric blastemas and neuronal defects in planarians. Furthermore, knockdown of Djtor gene in planarians using RNA interference resulted in the suppression of downstream autophagy genes. These findings suggested that rapamycin might regulate freshwater planarian regeneration via Djtor signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Planárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/toxicidade , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios , Planárias/genética , Planárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Planárias/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Regeneração/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487848

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel in-line modal interferometer for refractive index (RI) sensing is proposed and experimentally fabricated by cascading single-taper and multimode-double- cladding-multimode (MDM) fiber structure. Owing to evanescent field in taper area, the ultra-sensitive and linear intensity-responses to the varied surrounding RI are gained in both single- and double-pass structures. Moreover, the crosstalk from temperature can be effectively discriminated and compensated by means of the RI-free nature of MDM. The experimental results show that the RI sensitivities in single- and double-pass structures, respectively, reach 516.02 and 965.46 dB/RIU (RIU: refractive index unit), both with the slight wavelength shift (~0.2 nm). The temperature responses with respect to wavelength and intensity are 68.9 pm°C-1/0.103 dB°C-1 (single-pass structure) and 103 pm°C-1/0.082 dB·°C-1 (double-pass structure). So the calculated cross-sensitivity of intensity is constrained within 8.49 × 10-5 RIU/°C. In addition, our sensor presents high measurement-stability (~0.99) and low repeatability error (<4.8‱). On account of the ~620 µm size of taper, this compact sensor is cost-efficient, easy to fabricate, and very promising for the applications of biochemistry and biomedicine.

19.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 37(9): 532-538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503536

RESUMO

Background: Photobiomodulation (PBM) is increasingly used in dermatology and dentistry due to its benefit of promoting wound healing and relieving pain; however, there is no corresponding research report on the application of PBM to vocal fold wound healing. Objective: To assess the potential wound-healing effects of PBM on the vocal folds via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Materials and methods: In in vitro study, vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) were irradiated under a diode laser with wavelength of 635 nm at energy density of 8 J/cm2. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to study the viability of VFFs, and the gene expressions of COL1A2, COL3A1, IL-6, HAS2, and COX-2 were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In in vivo study, 15 rabbits were used. Lamina propria of the left vocal folds of 12 rabbits was unilaterally stripped, and 6 of them were treated with PBM. The remaining three rabbits served as normal controls. After 3 months, all animals were sacrificed to obtain histological results. We used laryngoscope to record images of the healing phase. Results: Irradiation with energy density of 8 J/cm2 resulted in a 2.8% increase in cell proliferation (p < 0.05). However, the difference between the experimental and the control group became larger after 48 and 72 h of subsequent irradiation. RT-PCR results showed that the expression of COL1A2, COL3A1, and HAS2 was higher, and the expression of IL-6 and COX-2 was lower. Histological examination showed that, compared with the injury group, hyaluronic acid (HA) increased significantly, collagen deposition decreased, and the configuration of collagen was more organized after PBM treatment. Conclusions: PBM can inhibit inflammatory reaction and promote the secretion of HA to decrease the deposition of collagen and regenerate vocal fold tissue without scar.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e029946, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged and elderly people with an advanced arterial stiffness index as indicated by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was conducted from September 2015 to May 2017 at the geriatrics department of a provincial medical centre in China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 580 patients aged 50 and over were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the group was 64.82±11.4 years, and 63.1% were male. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations of age with CAVI values and BMD. Associations between BMD and CAVI values. RESULTS: With increasing age, CAVI values gradually increased (p<0.001) and the femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) BMD gradually decreased (p<0.001, all). In the bivariate correlation analyses between the covariates and CAVI values, age and CAVI values showed the greatest positive correlation (r=0.631, p<0.001), and CAVI values were negatively correlated with FN BMD (r=-0.229, p<0.001) and TH BMD (r=-0.218, p<0.001). In the linear regression analyses, TH BMD (B=-1.812 (95% CI -2.475 to -1.149), p<0.001) and FN BMD (B=-1.968 (95% CI -2.651 to -1.284), p<0.001) were negatively correlated with CAVI values. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, history of diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood uric acid, fibrinogen and estimated glomerular filtration rate, only TH BMD was still negatively correlated with CAVI values (B=-0.843 (95%CI -1.454 to -0.232), p=0.007). However, there was no consistent and significant correlation between lumbar spine BMD and CAVI values. CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional study, a significant correlation between TH BMD and CAVI values was observed in middle-aged and elderly Chinese inpatients. However, our cohort was a small sample of inpatients, and prospective studies from more centres are expected.

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