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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 433-440, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476335

RESUMO

The spectrometer-based nitrogen (N) nutrition monitoring and diagnosis models for double-cropping rice in Jiangxi is important for recommending precise N topdressing rate, achieving high yield, improving grain quality and increasing economic efficiency. Field experiments were conducted in Jiangxi in 2016 and 2017, involving different early rice and late rice cultivars and N application rates. Plant N accumulation (PNA) and canopy spectral vegetation indices (VIs) were measured at tillering and jointing stages with two spectrometers, i.e., GreenSeeker (an active multispectral sensor containing 780 and 660 nm wavelengths) and crop growth monitoring and diagnosis apparatus (CGMD, a passive multispectral sensor containing 810 and 720 nm wavelengths). The VI-based models of PNA were established from a experimental dataset and then validated using an independent dataset. The N topdressing rates for tillering and jointing stages were calculated using the newly developed N spectral diagnosis model and higher yield cultivation experience of double-cropping rice. The results showed that the VIs from two spectrometers were strongly positively correlated with PNA at both growth stages, with the model performance for tillering or jointing stages was better than that for the early growth stages. The exponential equation of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI(780,660)) from GreenSeeker could be used to estimate PNA with a determination coefficient (R2) in the range of 0.92-0.94, the root mean square error (RMSE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and correlation coefficient (r) of model validation in the range of 3.09-5.96 kg·hm-2, 5.8%-18.5% and 0.92-0.98, respectively. The linear equation of difference vegetation index (DVI(810,720)) from CGMD could be used to estimate PNA with a R2 in the range of 0.90-0.93, the RMSE, RRMSE and r of model validation in the range of 3.71-6.33 kg·hm-2, 11.7%-14.3% and 0.93-0.96, respectively. The recommended N topdressing rate with CGMD was higher than that with GreenSeeker. Compared with conventional farmer's plan, the precision N application plan reduced N fertilizer application rate by 5.5 kg·hm-2, while N agronomic efficiency and net income was improved by 0.8% and 128 yuan·hm-2, respectively. Application of the spectral monitoring and diagnosis method to guiding fertilization could reduce cost and increase grain yield and net income, and thus had great potential for guiding double-cropping rice production.

2.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; : 101454, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370926

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in a companion dog was confirmed based on clinical symptoms, virus isolation, and virus-specific antibody detection. Fever and anorexia began after tick bite. Viremia disappeared within two weeks and antibodies were detected one week after disease onset.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232754, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379795

RESUMO

Analyzing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a source of circulating tumor DNA is useful for diagnosing or monitoring patients with cancer. However, the concordance between cfDNA within liquid biopsy and genomic DNA (gDNA) within tumor tissue biopsy is still under debate. To evaluate the concordance in a clinical setting, we enrolled 54 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and analyzed their plasma cfDNA, gDNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and gDNA from available matched tumor tissues using ultra-deep sequencing targeting 10 genes (38-kb size) recurrently mutated in colorectal cancer. We first established a highly reliable cut-off value using reference material. The sensitivity of detecting KRAS hotspot mutations in plasma was calculated as 100%, according to digital droplet PCR. We could selectively detect clinically important somatic alterations with a variant allele frequency as low as 0.18%. We next compared somatic mutations of the 10 genes between cfDNA and genomic DNA from tumor tissues and observed an overall 93% concordance rate between the two types of samples. Additionally, the concordance rate of patients with the time interval between liquid biopsy and tumor tissue biopsy within 6 months and no prior exposure to chemotherapy was much higher than those without. The patients with KRAS mutant fragments in plasma had poor prognosis than those without the mutant fragments (33 months vs. 63 months; p<0.05). Consequently, the profiling with our method could achieve highly concordant results and may facilitate the surveillance of the tumor status with liquid biopsy in CRC patients.

4.
Investig Clin Urol ; 61(3): 304-309, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377607

RESUMO

Purpose: We evaluated changes in the expression of uroplakin (UP) in the urothelium of patients with ulcerative interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Materials and Methods: Bladder samples were collected from 19 patients with ulcerative IC/BPS who were treated with augmentation ileocystoplasty and from 5 control patients. Frequency-volume charts, the pain visual analogue scale (VAS), and the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis symptom index (ICSI) and problem index (ICPI) were used to evaluate the patients' symptoms preoperatively. The expression levels of UP-Ib and UP-III in the urothelium were compared between the IC/BPS patients and control patients. Results: Sixteen women and three men with IC/BPS were evaluated. Their values for preoperative mean voiding frequency, number of nocturia episodes, and functional bladder capacity as recorded in frequency-volume charts were 21.1±12.8, 5.9±4.2, and 151.1±62.7 mL, respectively. The mean pain VAS, ICSI, and ICPI scores were 8.4±1.3, 17.7±2.2, and 14.7±1.8, respectively. Immunofluorescence staining showed that UP-Ib and UP-III were localized in the urothelium. Upon Western blot analysis, the expression of UP-III was significantly increased in the IC/BPS group compared with the control group. However, expression of UP-Ib did not differ significantly between the IC/BPS and control groups. Conclusions: UP-III was significantly upregulated in patients with ulcerative IC/BPS. UP-III is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of ulcerative IC/BPS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is prevalent and outcome-related in lung cancer (LC) patients, yet there are no globally accepted criteria for diagnosing malnutrition. Recently, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria were proposed. However, the role of these criteria in prospective LC cohorts remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, observational cohort study including 1219 LC patients from two institutions in China. Different anthropometric measures were compared for the assessment of reduced muscle mass (RMM) in the GLIM criteria. LASSO and multivariate Cox regressions were performed to analyze the association between the GLIM criteria and survival. Independent prognostic predictors were incorporated to develop a nomogram for individualized survival prediction and decision curve was applied to assess the clinical significance of the nomogram. RESULTS: Patients in the stage II (severe) malnutrition group diagnosed using the combined calf circumference (CC) plus body weight-standardized hand grip strength (HGS/W) criteria had the highest hazard ratio (HR = 2.07, 95%CI = 1.50-2.86) compared to other methods used to evaluate RMM. The GLIM criteria diagnosed malnutrition in 24% of cases (292 patients, using the CC and HGS/W criteria) and were effective for determining the nutritional status of LC patients. GLIM-diagnosed malnutrition was an independent risk factor for survival and the malnutrition severity was monotonically associated with death hazards (P = 0.002). The GLIM nomogram showed good performance in predicting the survival of LC patients and the decision curve analysis demonstrated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSION: These findings support the effectiveness of GLIM in diagnosing malnutrition and predicting survival among LC patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 3615-3622, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316728

RESUMO

Understanding the carrier transport mechanism in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is essential for their device application. Experiments demonstrated that at low carrier density and room temperature, the conductivity in TMDs is dominant by activation hopping transport through localized S-vacancy states. In this work, a multiscale model combining ab initio calculation and the Marcus theory is applied to study such transport. We identify phonon-assisted hopping (PAH) as the most possible mechanism for the activation hopping. It is found that the macroscopic conductivity is mainly contributed by a few microscopic percolation paths. Analysis on the hopping distance indicates nearest-neighbor hopping behavior. The dependence of PAH mobility on defect concentration, temperature, and energy mismatch between defect sites is discussed. It is shown that all these factors can strongly affect the mobility. We further proposed that alloying can be an efficient way to tune the mobility due to increased energy mismatch effect.

8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 395: 114981, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240662

RESUMO

What factors and underlying mechanisms influence the occurrence of the atopic march remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that exposure to diisononyl phthalate (DINP) might be associated with the occurrence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and asthma. However, little is known about the role of DINP exposure in the atopic march. In this study, we investigated the effect of DINP exposure on the progression from AD to asthma, and explored the potential mechanisms. We built an atopic march mouse model from AD to asthma, by exposure to DINP and sensitization with OVA. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and SB203580 were used to block NF-κB and p38 MAPK respectively, to explore the possible molecular mechanisms. The data showed that DINP aggravated airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AhR) in the progression from AD to asthma, induced a sharp increase in IL-33, IgE, Th2 and Th17 cytokines, and resulted in an increase in the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and in the number of inflammatory cells. Blocking NF-κB inhibited AD-like lesions, and the production of IL-33 and TSLP in the progression of AD, while alleviating airway remodeling, AhR, and the expression of Th2 and Th17 cytokines in both the progression of AD and the asthmatic phenotype. Blocking p38 MAPK in the progression of asthma, inhibited airway remodeling, AhR, and the expression of Th2 and Th17 cytokines. The results demonstrated that exposure to DINP enhanced the immune response to memory CD4+ T helper cells through the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, leading to an aggravation of the atopic march.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251447

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that the efficacy of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) is associated with the immune microenvironment within the tumor. We aimed to explore radiologic phenotyping using a radiomics approach to assess the immune microenvironment in NSCLC. Two independent NSCLC cohorts (training and test sets) were included. Single-sample gene set enrichment analysis was used to determine the tumor microenvironment, where type 1 helper T (Th1) cells, type 2 helper T (Th2) cells, and cytotoxic T cells were the targets for prediction with computed tomographic (CT) radiomic features. Multiple algorithms were in the modeling followed by final model selection. The training dataset comprised 89 NSCLCs and the test set included 60 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. A total of 239 CT radiomic features were used. A linear discriminant analysis model was selected for the final model of Th2 cell group prediction. The area under the curve value of the final model on the test set was 0.684. Predictors of the linear discriminant analysis model were skewness (total and outer pixels), kurtosis, variance (subsampled from delta [subtraction inner pixels from outer pixels]), and informational measure of correlation. The performances of radiomics on test set of Th1 and cytotoxic T cell were not accurate enough to be predictable. A radiomics approach can be used to interrogate an entire tumor in a noninvasive manner and provide added diagnostic value to identify the immune microenvironment of NSCLC, in particular, Th2 cell signatures.

10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(11)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220842

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the sporicidal effect of a krypton-chlorine (KrCl) excilamp against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores and to compare its inactivation mechanism to that of a conventional UV lamp containing mercury (Hg). The inactivation effect of the KrCl excilamp was not significantly different from that of the Hg UV lamp for A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice despite the 222-nm wavelength of the KrCl excilamp having a higher absorption coefficient in apple juice than the 254-nm wavelength of the Hg UV lamp; this is because KrCl excilamps have a fundamentally greater inactivation effect than Hg UV lamps, which is confirmed under ideal conditions (phosphate-buffered saline). The inactivation mechanism analysis revealed that the DNA damage induced by the KrCl excilamp was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that induced by the Hg UV lamp, while the KrCl excilamp caused significantly higher (P < 0.05) lipid peroxidation incidence and permeability change in the inner membrane of A. acidoterrestris spores than did the Hg UV lamp. Meanwhile, the KrCl excilamp did not generate significant (P > 0.05) intracellular reactive oxygen species, indicating that the KrCl excilamp causes damage only through the direct absorption of UV light. In addition, after KrCl excilamp treatment with a dose of 2,011 mJ/cm2 to reduce A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice by 5 logs, there were no significant (P > 0.05) changes in quality parameters such as color (L*, a*, and b*), total phenolic compounds, and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity.IMPORTANCE Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores, which have high resistance to thermal treatment and can germinate even at low pH, are very troublesome in the juice industry. UV technology, a nonthermal treatment, can be an excellent means to control heat-resistant A. acidoterrestris spores in place of thermal treatment. However, the traditionally applied UV sources are lamps that contain mercury (Hg), which is harmful to humans and the environment; thus, there is a need to apply novel UV technology without the use of Hg. In response to this issue, excilamps, an Hg-free UV source, have been actively studied. However, no studies have been conducted applying this technique to control A. acidoterrestris spores. Therefore, the results of this study, which applied a KrCl excilamp for the control of A. acidoterrestris spores and elucidated the inactivation principle, are expected to be utilized as important basic data for application to actual industry or conducting further studies.

11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007813, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196487

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection. Despite a gradual increase of SFTS cases and high mortality in endemic regions, no specific viral therapy nor vaccine is available. Here, we developed a single recombinant plasmid DNA encoding SFTSV genes, Gn and Gc together with NP-NS fusion antigen, as a vaccine candidate. The viral antigens were fused with Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand (Flt3L) and IL-12 gene was incorporated into the plasmid to enhance cell-mediated immunity. Vaccination with the DNA provides complete protection of IFNAR KO mice upon lethal SFTSV challenge, whereas immunization with a plasmid without IL-12 gene resulted in partial protection. Since we failed to detect antibodies against surface glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, in the immunized mice, antigen-specific cellular immunity, as confirmed by enhanced antigen-specific T cell responses, might play major role in protection. Finally, we evaluated the degree of protective immunity provided by protein immunization of the individual glycoprotein, Gn or Gc. Although both protein antigens induced a significant level of neutralizing activity against SFTSV, Gn vaccination resulted in relatively higher neutralizing activity and better protection than Gc vaccination. However, both antigens failed to provide complete protection. Given that DNA vaccines have failed to induce sufficient immunogenicity in human trials when compared to protein vaccines, optimal combinations of DNA and protein elements, proper selection of target antigens, and incorporation of efficient adjuvant, need to be further investigated for SFTSV vaccine development.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-12/administração & dosagem , Phlebovirus/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Camundongos Knockout , Phlebovirus/genética , Plasmídeos/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética
12.
J Org Chem ; 85(7): 5087-5096, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159960

RESUMO

A reaction method is described for the one-step synthesis of 2-alkynylpyrimidines from 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1H-2-thiones (DHPMs) via dehydrosulfurative Sonogashira cross-coupling with concomitant oxidative dehydrogenation using a Pd/Cu catalytic system. Together with the ready availability of DHPMs possessing various substituents at the C4-C6 positions, this transformation offers rapid and general access to diverse 2-alkynylpyrimidine derivatives.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 43(5): 1118-1125, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a controversy over the association between obesity and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in people with or without type 2 diabetes; therefore, we examined the effect of BMI on the risk of ESRD according to glycemic status in the Korean population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study monitored 9,969,848 participants who underwent a National Health Insurance Service health checkup in 2009 from baseline to the date of diagnosis of ESRD during a follow-up period of ∼8.2 years. Obesity was categorized by World Health Organization recommendations for Asian populations, and glycemic status was categorized into the following five groups: normal, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), newly diagnosed diabetes, diabetes <5 years, and diabetes ≥5 years. RESULTS: Underweight was associated with a higher risk of ESRD in all participants after adjustment for all covariates. In the groups with IFG, newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, diabetes duration <5 years, and diabetes ≥5 years, the hazard ratio (HR) of the underweight group increased with worsening glycemic status (HR 1.431 for IFG, 2.114 for newly diagnosed diabetes, 4.351 for diabetes <5 years, and 6.397 for diabetes ≥5 years), using normal weight with normal fasting glucose as a reference. The adjusted HRs for ESRD were also the highest in the sustained underweight group regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes (HR 1.606 for nondiabetes and 2.14 for diabetes). CONCLUSIONS: Underweight showed more increased HR of ESRD according to glycemic status and diabetes duration in the Korean population. These associations also persisted in the group with sustained BMI during the study period.

14.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 437-443, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Resistance to chemo-radiation therapy is a substantial obstacle that compromises treatment of advanced cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate if a proteomic panel associated with radioresistance could predict survival of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: A total of 181 frozen tissue samples were prospectively obtained from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer before chemoradiation. Expression levels of 22 total and phosphorylated proteins were evaluated using well-based reverse phase protein arrays. Selected proteins were validated with western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry. Performances of models were internally and externally validated. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering stratified patients into three major groups with different overall survival (OS, P = 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS, P = 0.003) based on detection of BCL2, HER2, CD133, CAIX, and ERCC1. Reverse-phase protein array results significantly correlated with western blotting results (R2 = 0.856). The C-index of model was higher than clinical model in the prediction of OS (C-index: 0.86 and 0.62, respectively) and PFS (C-index: 0.82 and 0.64, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a dose-dependent prognostic significance of risk score for PFS and OS. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model confirmed that the risk score was an independent predictor of PFS (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-1.9; P < 0.001) and OS (HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.7-2.5; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A proteomic panel of BCL2, HER2, CD133, CAIX, and ERCC1 independently predicted survival in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. This prediction model can help identify chemoradiation responsive tumors and improve prediction for clinical outcome of cervical cancer patients.

15.
Cancer Res Treat ; 52(2): 645-654, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of four types of antihypertensive medications, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta blockers (BBs; both selective and non-selective), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and thiazide diuretics (TDs) on survival outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-institutional retrospective chart review of 878 patients with EOC was performed. Survival was compared according to use of the four antihypertensive medications during primary treatment. Propensity score matching (ratio 1:3) was performed to control possible associated covariates, such as age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, residual status after primary debulking surgery, and co-morbidity. RESULTS: Among 878 patients, 56 patients (6.4%) were ARB users, 62 (7.1%) were BB users, 107 (12.2%) were CCBs users and 32 (3.6%) used TDs. Median progression-free survival (PFS) for ARB, BB, and CCB users was 37.8, 27.2, and 23.6 months compared with 33.6 months for non-users. ARB was associated with 35% decreased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.99; p=0.046) in multivariate analysis. After propensity score matching, median PFS for ARB users was 37.8 months and ARB use remained to be associated with lower recurrence rate in univariate (p=0.035) and multivariate analysis (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.93; p=0.022). CONCLUSION: In this study, ARBs use during primary treatment is associated with lower recurrence in EOC patients. However, CCBs, BBs, and TDs did not show beneficial impact.

16.
Sci Adv ; 6(4): eaay4045, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042900

RESUMO

Achieving perovskite-based high-color purity blue-emitting light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is still challenging. Here, we report successful synthesis of a series of blue-emissive two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper phase single crystals and their high-color purity blue-emitting LED demonstrations. Although this approach successfully achieves a series of bandgap emissions based on the different layer thicknesses, it still suffers from a conventional temperature-induced device degradation mechanism during high-voltage operations. To understand the underlying mechanism, we further elucidate temperature-induced device degradation by investigating the crystal structural and spectral evolution dynamics via in situ temperature-dependent single-crystal x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) characterization, and density functional theory calculation. The PL peak becomes asymmetrically broadened with a marked intensity decay, as temperature increases owing to [PbBr6]4- octahedra tilting and the organic chain disordering, which results in bandgap decrease. This study indicates that careful heat management under LED operation is a key factor to maintain the sharp and intense emission.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(5): 2949-2954, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951237

RESUMO

Using first-principles calculations, the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of single-layered calcium fluoride (CaF2) are investigated. The dynamical stability of 1T-CaF2 is confirmed by the phonon dispersions. Raman active vibrational modes of 1T-CaF2 enable its characterization via Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the calculated electronic properties of 1T-CaF2 confirmed insulating behavior with an indirect wide band gap which is larger than that of a well-known single-layered insulator, h-BN. Moreover, one-dimensional nanoribbons of CaF2 are investigated for two main edge orientations, namely zigzag and armchair, and it is revealed that both structures maintain the 1T nature of CaF2 without any structural edge reconstructions. Electronically, both types of CaF2 nanoribbons display robust insulating behavior with respect to the nanoribbon width. The results show that both the 2D and 1D forms of 1T-CaF2 show potential in nanoelectronics as an alternative to the widely-used insulator h-BN with its similar properties and wider electronic band gap.

18.
Waste Manag ; 103: 240-250, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901617

RESUMO

Management of solid recovered fuel (SRF) in South Korea is unique from most other countries in that it is based on a single standard. All SRFs are distributed at the same price irrespective of their performance, resulting in utilization problems and a low degree of acceptance among consumers. Moreover, the difficulty of temperature maintenance during transportation, excessive ash content, and the use of inappropriate microwave acid digestion methods pose challenges to SRF reliability. To address these issues, we compared the relevant management statuses in South Korea with those of the international community and reviewed the effects of the transportation temperature, ash content, and microwave acid digestion technique. The moisture, ash, sulfur, and chlorine contents as well as the lower heating values (LHVs) of all the samples from South Korea were found to be below the standard [international] thresholds, and they were barely influenced by the transportation temperature. In addition, 5 g samples were found to be more appropriate for ash content analysis than the 20 g samples used in South Korea, with the former producing smaller standard deviations. The optimal microwave acid digestion conditions were also determined to be a reaction time with nitric acid of >10 min, temperature of 180 °C, and microwave power of 600 W. The results of this study highlight the need for revising the SRF test methods used in South Korea, to boost the market and enhance quality reliability.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Cloro , Calefação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia
19.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(5): 152835, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983568

RESUMO

Development of molecular technology has led to the expansion of next generation sequencing (NGS) in area of diagnostic pathology. Here we present a case in which a lung tumor, which resembled an atypical carcinoid tumor, was revealed as metastatic breast cancer by next generation sequencing. A 50-year-old female, who had received modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, presented with a 2.1 cm sized lung mass. The mass was well-defined, well-enhanced, and showed endobronchial component by computed tomography. Under the impression of carcinoid tumor, right upper lobectomy was performed. Tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin and CD56, but negative for cytokeratin 7 and GCDFP-15. Initially, the patient was diagnosed with atypical carcinoid tumor. However, subsequent NGS test revealed GATA3 mutation (p.Ala333fs) of the lung tumor. After a thorough review of literature and public cancer genome data about GATA3 mutation, the diagnosis was revised to metastatic invasive carcinoma from breast.

20.
J Virol ; 94(7)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941779

RESUMO

Stress granules (SGs) are formed in the cytoplasm under environmental stress, including viral infection. Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a highly pathogenic virus which can cause serious respiratory and neurological diseases. At present, there is no effective drug or vaccine against EV-D68 infection, and the relationship between EV-D68 infection and SGs is poorly understood. This study revealed the biological function of SGs in EV-D68 infection. Our results suggest that EV-D68 infection induced the accumulation of SG marker proteins Ras GTPase-activated protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1), T cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1), and human antigen R (HUR) in the cytoplasm of infected host cells during early infection but inhibited their accumulation during the late stage. Simultaneously, we revealed that EV-D68 infection induces HUR, TIA1, and G3BP1 colocalization, which marks the formation of typical SGs dependent on protein kinase R (PKR) and eIF2α phosphorylation. In addition, we found that TIA1, HUR, and G3BP1 were capable of targeting the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of EV-D68 RNA to inhibit viral replication. However, the formation of SGs in response to arsenite (Ars) gradually decreased as the infection progressed, and G3BP1 was cleaved in the late stage as a strategy to antagonize SGs. Our findings have important implications in understanding the mechanism of interaction between EV-D68 and the host while providing a potential target for the development of antiviral drugs.IMPORTANCE EV-D68 is a serious threat to human health, and there are currently no effective treatments or vaccines. SGs play an important role in cellular innate immunity as a target with antiviral effects. This manuscript describes the formation of SGs induced by EV-D68 early infection but inhibited during the late stage of infection. Moreover, TIA1, HUR, and G3BP1 can chelate a specific site of the 3' UTR of EV-D68 to inhibit viral replication, and this interaction is sequence and complex dependent. However, this inhibition can be antagonized by overexpression of the minireplicon. These findings increase our understanding of EV-D68 infection and may help identify new antiviral targets that can inhibit viral replication and limit the pathogenesis of EV-D68.

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