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1.
Photoacoustics ; 25: 100313, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804794

RESUMO

Ultraviolet photoacoustic microscopy (UV-PAM) has been investigated to provide label-free and registration-free volumetric histological images for whole organs, offering new insights into complex biological organs. However, because of the high UV absorption of lipids and pigments in tissue, UV-PAM suffers from low image contrast and shallow image depth, hindering its capability for revealing various microstructures in organs. To improve the UV-PAM imaging contrast and imaging depth, here we propose to implement a state-of-the-art optical clearing technique, CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain/body imaging cocktails and computational analysis), to wash out the lipids and pigments from tissues. Our results show that the UV-PAM imaging contrast and quality can be significantly improved after tissue clearing. With the cleared tissue, multilayers of cell nuclei can also be extracted from time-resolved PA signals. Tissue clearing-enhanced UV-PAM can provide fine details for organ imaging.

2.
Photoacoustics ; 25: 100308, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703763

RESUMO

Histological images can reveal rich cellular information of tissue sections, which are widely used by pathologists in disease diagnosis. However, the gold standard for histopathological examination is based on thin sections on slides, which involves inevitable time-consuming and labor-intensive tissue processing steps, hindering the possibility of intraoperative pathological assessment of the precious patient specimens. Here, by incorporating ultraviolet photoacoustic microscopy (UV-PAM) with deep learning, we show a rapid and label-free histological imaging method that can generate virtually stained histological images (termed Deep-PAM) for both thin sections and thick fresh tissue specimens. With the tissue non-destructive nature of UV-PAM, the imaged intact specimens can be reused for other ancillary tests. We demonstrated Deep-PAM on various tissue preparation protocols, including formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedding sections (7-µm thick) and frozen sections (7-µm thick) in traditional histology, and rapid assessment of intact fresh tissue (~ 2-mm thick, within 15 min for a tissue with a surface area of 5 mm × 5 mm). Deep-PAM potentially serves as a comprehensive histological imaging method that can be simultaneously applied in preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative disease diagnosis.

3.
J Safety Res ; 79: 135-147, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Safety is a critical factor in promoting sustainable urban non-motorized travel modes like bicycles. Helmets have shown to be effective in reducing injury severity in bicycle crashes, however, their effects on bicyclists' behaviors still requires deeper understanding, especially amid the emerging trend of using shared bicycles. Risk compensation effects suggest that bicyclists may offset perceived gains in safety from wearing a helmet by increasing risk-taking behaviors. A better understanding of these compensation effects can be useful in assessing various bicycle safety related programs. METHOD: Using a sample of 131 bicyclists from the San Francisco Bay area, this research studies how bicyclists respond with respect to risk-taking behaviors under various urban-street conditions, as a function of helmet use. Study participants were each shown 12 videos, shot in Berkeley, California, from the perspective of a bicyclist riding behind another bicyclist. A fractional factorial experiment design was used to systematically vary contextual attributes (e.g., speed, bike lane facilities, on-street parking, passing vehicles) across the videos. After each video, participants were asked to indicate if they would overtake the bicyclist in the video. With the help of data adaptive estimation techniques, targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) was applied to estimate the average risk difference between helmeted users and non-users, controlling for self-selection effects. Individual-based nonparametric bootstrap was performed to assess the uncertainty associated with the estimator. RESULTS: Our findings suggest, on average, individuals more likely to wear a helmet are 15.6% more likely to undertake a risky overtaking maneuver. Practical Applications: This study doesn't try to oppose mandatory helmet laws, but rather serves as a cautionary warning that road safety programs may need to consider strategies in which unintended impact of bicycle helmet use can be mitigated. Moreover, our findings also provide additional evaluation component when it comes to the cost-benefit assessment of helmet-related laws.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 740456, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858448

RESUMO

"Breeding on mountains, cultivation in dam areas" is a unique propagation method for the vegetatively propagated plant Ligusticum chuanxiong, including two transplants between the mountain and the dam area. It is well known that the environment can influence the endophytic community structure of plants. However, the change of host endophytic flora caused by transplanting in different places and its influence on asexual reproduction are still poorly understood. We carried out three cycles of cultivation experiments on L. chuanxiong and collected stem nodes (LZ), immature rhizomes (PX), medicinal rhizomes (CX), and rhizosphere. High-throughput sequencing was performed to analyze the endophytic fungi in all samples. We observed that the diversity and richness of endophytic fungi in L. chuanxiong increased as a result of transplanting cultivation from dam areas to mountains. Local transplantation caused minor changes in the endophytic fungus structure of L. chuanxiong, while remote transplantation caused significant changes. Compared with LZ after breeding in the dam area, the LZ after breeding on mountains has more abundant Gibberella, Phoma, Pericona, Paraphoma, and Neocosmospora. The regular pattern of the relative abundance of endophytic fungi is consistent with that of the fungus in the soil, while there are also some cases that the relative abundance of endophytic fungi is the opposite of that of soil fungi. In addition, there is a significant correlation among certain kinds of endophytic fungi whether in the soil or the plants. We have isolated more gibberellin-producing and auxin-producing fungi in the LZ cultivated in the mountains than that in the LZ cultivated in the dam area. The results of pot experiments showed that the three fungi isolated from LZ cultivated in mountainous areas can promote the development of shoots, stem nodes, and internodes of LZ, and increase the activity of plant peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and other enzymes. We can conclude that transplantation leads to the recombination of the host endophytic fungus, the more significant the difference in the environment is, the greater the reorganization caused by transplanting. Reorganization is determined by the soil environment, hosts, and the interaction of microorganisms. Remote transplantation is a crucial opportunity to reshuffle the micro-ecological structure of the asexual reproduction of plants, and regulate the growth, development, and resistance of plants, and prevent germplasm degradation caused by asexual reproduction.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2102358, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747142

RESUMO

Rapid and high-resolution histological imaging with minimal tissue preparation has long been a challenging and yet captivating medical pursuit. Here, the authors propose a promising and transformative histological imaging method, termed computational high-throughput autofluorescence microscopy by pattern illumination (CHAMP). With the assistance of computational microscopy, CHAMP enables high-throughput and label-free imaging of thick and unprocessed tissues with large surface irregularity at an acquisition speed of 10 mm2 /10 s with 1.1-µm lateral resolution. Moreover, the CHAMP image can be transformed into a virtually stained histological image (Deep-CHAMP) through unsupervised learning within 15 s, where significant cellular features are quantitatively extracted with high accuracy. The versatility of CHAMP is experimentally demonstrated using mouse brain/kidney and human lung tissues prepared with various clinical protocols, which enables a rapid and accurate intraoperative/postoperative pathological examination without tissue processing or staining, demonstrating its great potential as an assistive imaging platform for surgeons and pathologists to provide optimal adjuvant treatment.

6.
Cancer Control ; 28: 10732748211051557, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies on the prognostic significance of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) up-regulation in tumors have different outcomes. The inconsistency originated from various studies looking into the association between LSD1 and tumor cells has prompted the decision of this quantitative systematic review to decipher how up-regulated LSD1 and overall survival (OS) or recurrence-free survival (RFS) or disease-free survival (DFS) are linked in tumor patients. METHODS: Articles were searched from online databases such as Embase, Web of Science Core, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. The extraction of the hazard ratios (HR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was attained and survival data of 3151 tumor patients from 17 pieces of related research were used for this meta-analysis. RESULTS: To shed light on the link between LSD1 up-regulation and the prognosis of diverse tumors, the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. In this meta-analysis, it was observed that LSD1 up-regulation is linked with poor OS (HR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.66-2.61, P < .01) and RFS (HR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.81-5.26, P < .01) in tumor patients. However, LSD1 up-regulation was not linked to DFS (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: .83-2.69, P = .18) in tumor patients. The subcategory examination grouped by tumor type and ethnicity showed that LSD1 up-regulation was linked with a poor outcome in the esophageal tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma and Asian patients, respectively. For clinical-pathological factors, up-regulated LSD1 was significantly linked with Lymph node status. CONCLUSION: Despite the shortfall of the present work, this meta-analysis proposes that LSD1 up-regulation may be a prognostic biomarker for patients with tumors including esophageal tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma. We propose that large-scale studies are vital to substantiate these outcomes.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812454

RESUMO

Benefiting from the planar π-conjugated (HxC3N3O3)x-3 (x = 0-3) groups, cyanurate crystals have recently become a research hotspot in birefringent materials. Herein, by combining the (HxC3N3O3)x-3 (x = 0-3) group with the (CN3H6)+ cationic group, two metal-free cyanurates, GU(H2C3N3O3) (I) and GU3(H2C3N3O3)3(H3C3N3O3) (II), were obtained by the hydrothermal method. These compounds have wide band gaps (∼5 eV) and a large birefringence (∼0.40@400 nm), demonstrating their potential to be ultraviolet birefringent crystals. Moreover, first-principles calculations indicate that their large birefringence values originated from the synergistic effect of the (CN3H6)+ cations and (HxC3N3O3)x-3 (x = 0-3) groups. These findings provide a new design strategy for exploring low-cost UV birefringent crystals with a large birefringence.

8.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 394, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles have potential applications as a vaccine adjuvant and delivery system due to its unique advantages as biodegradability and biocompatibility. EXPERIMENTAL: We fabricated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles using PLGA and dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB), followed by loading of model antigen OVA (antigen ovalbumin, OVA257-264) to form an OVA@DDAB/PLGA nano-vaccine. And we investigated the intracellular signaling pathway in dendritic cells in vitro and antigen transport pathway and immune response in vivo mediated by an OVA@DDAB/PLGA nano-vaccine. RESULTS: In vitro experiments revealed that the antigen uptake of BMDCs after nanovaccine incubation was two times higher than pure OVA or OVA@Al at 12 h. The BMDCs were well activated by p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, the nano-vaccine induced antigen escape from lysosome into cytoplasm with 10 times increased cross-presentation activity than those of OVA or OVA@Al. Regarding the transport of antigen into draining lymph nodes (LNs), the nano-vaccine could rapidly transfer antigen to LNs by passive lymphatic drainage and active DC transport. The antigen+ cells in inguinal/popliteal LNs for the nano-vaccine were increased over two folds comparing to OVA@Al and OVA at 12 h. Moreover, the antigen of nano-vaccine stayed in LNs for over 7 days, germinal center formation over two folds higher than those of OVA@Al and OVA. After immunization, the nano-vaccine induced a much higher ratio of IgG2c/IgG1 than OVA@Al. It also effectively activated CD4+ T, CD8+ T and B cells for immune memory with a strong cellular response. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that DDAB/PLGA NP was a potent platform to improve vaccine immunogenicity by p38 signaling pathway in BMDCs, enhancing transport of antigens to LNs, and higher immunity response.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677626

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Abnormal CD38 expression in some hematologic malignancies, including lymphoma, has made it a biomarker for targeted therapies. Daratumumab (Dara) is the first FDA-approved CD38-specific monoclonal antibody, enabling successfully immunoPET imaging over the past years. Radiolabeled Dara however has a long blood circulation and delayed tumor uptake which can limit its applications. The focus of this study is to develop 64Cu-labeled Dara-F(ab')2 for the visualization of CD38 in lymphoma models. METHODS: F(ab')2 fragment was prepared from Dara using an IdeS enzyme and purified with Protein A beads. Western blotting, flow cytometry, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) were performed for in vitro assay. Probes were labeled with 64Cu after the chelation of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA). Small animal PET imaging and quantitative analysis were performed after injection of 64Cu-labeled Dara-F(ab')2, IgG-F(ab')2, and Dara for evaluation in lymphoma models. RESULTS: Flow cytometry and SPR assay proved the specific binding ability of Dara-F(ab')2 and NOTA-Dara-F(ab')2 in vitro. Radiolabeling yield of [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-Dara-F(ab')2 was over 90% and with a specific activity of 4.0 ± 0.6 × 103 MBq/µmol (n = 5). PET imaging showed [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-Dara-F(ab')2 had a rapid and high tumor uptake as early as 2 h (6.9 ± 1.2%ID/g) and peaked (9.5 ± 0.7%ID/g) at 12 h, whereas [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-Dara reached its tumor uptake peaked at 48 h (8.3 ± 1.4%ID/g, n = 4). In comparison, IgG-F(ab')2 and HBL-1 control groups found no noticeable tumor uptake. [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-Dara-F(ab')2 had significantly lower uptake in blood pool, bone, and muscle than [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-Dara and its tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios were significantly higher than controls. CONCLUSIONS: [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-Dara-F(ab')2 showed a rapid and high tumor uptake in CD38-positive lymphoma models with favorable imaging contrast, showing its promise as a potential PET imaging agent for future clinical applications.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699351

RESUMO

Handwritten Text Recognition has achieved an impressive performance in public benchmarks. However, due to the high inter- and intra-class variability between handwriting styles, such recognizers need to be trained using huge volumes of manually labeled training data. To alleviate this labor-consuming problem, synthetic data produced with TrueType fonts has been often used in the training loop to gain volume and augment the handwriting style variability. However, there is a significant style bias between synthetic and real data which hinders the improvement of recognition performance. To deal with such limitations, we propose a generative method for handwritten text-line images, which is conditioned on both visual appearance and textual content. Our method is able to produce long text-line samples with diverse handwriting styles. Once properly trained, our method can also be adapted to new target data by only accessing unlabeled text-line images to mimic handwritten styles and produce images with any textual content. Extensive experiments have been done on making use of the generated samples to boost Handwritten Text Recognition performance. Both qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the current state of the art.

11.
Chemistry ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505722

RESUMO

Van der Waals (vdW) deep-UV (DUV) nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal is an important material system recently developed. Herein, we review its concept and original intention, and then summarized the discovery process of related materials, including the role of A-site cations and the resulting two-/one-dimensional vdW DUV NLO systems. Finally, we evaluate the practical DUV NLO performance and prospected the opportunities and challenges.

12.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1392-1402, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493868

RESUMO

Despite early domestication around 3000 BC, the evolutionary history of the ancient allotetraploid species Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss remains uncertain. Here, we report a chromosome-scale de novo assembly of a yellow-seeded B. juncea genome by integrating long-read and short-read sequencing, optical mapping and Hi-C technologies. Nuclear and organelle phylogenies of 480 accessions worldwide supported that B. juncea is most likely a single origin in West Asia, 8,000-14,000 years ago, via natural interspecific hybridization. Subsequently, new crop types evolved through spontaneous gene mutations and introgressions along three independent routes of eastward expansion. Selective sweeps, genome-wide trait associations and tissue-specific RNA-sequencing analysis shed light on the domestication history of flowering time and seed weight, and on human selection for morphological diversification in this versatile species. Our data provide a comprehensive insight into the origin and domestication and a foundation for genomics-based breeding of B. juncea.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Domesticação , Mostardeira/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genoma de Planta/genética , Hibridização Genética/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
13.
Mol Pharm ; 18(10): 3750-3762, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491767

RESUMO

Arg-Arg-Leu (RRL) is a potent tumor-homing tripeptide. However, the binding target is unclear. In this study, we intended to identify the binding target of RRL and evaluate the tumor targeting of 99mTc-MAG3-RRL in vivo. Biotin-RRL, 5-TAMRA-RRL, and 99mTc-MAG3-RRL were designed to trace the binding target and tumor lesion. Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry was conducted to identify the candidate proteins and determination of the subcellular localization was also performed. A pull-down assay was performed to demonstrate the immunoprecipitate. Fluorescence colocalization and cell uptake assays were performed to elucidate the correlation between the selected binding protein and RRL, and the internalization mechanism of RRL. Biodistribution and in vivo imaging were performed to evaluate the tumor accumulation and targeting of 99mTc-MAG3-RRL. The target for RRL was screened to be heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). The prominent uptake distribution of RRL was concentrated in the membrane and cytoplasm. A pull-down assay demonstrated the existence of HSP70 in the biotin-RRL captured complex. Regarding fluorescence colocalization and cell uptake assays, RRL may interact with HSP70 at the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Clathrin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis could be a vital internalization mechanism of RRL. In vivo imaging and biodistribution both demonstrated that 99mTc-MAG3-RRL can trace tumors with satisfactory accumulation in hepatoma xenograft mice. The radioactive signals accumulated in tumor lesions can be blocked by VER-155008, which can bind to the NBD of HSP70. Our findings revealed that RRL may interact with HSP70 and that 99mTc-MAG3-RRL could be a prospective probe for visualizing overexpressed HSP70 tumor sections.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(9): 799, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404767

RESUMO

Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a critical component of the glycolytic pathway, relates to the development of various cancers, including thyroid cancer. However, the regulatory mechanism of LDHA inhibition and the physiological significance of the LDHA inhibitors in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) are unknown. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays a vital role in tumor growth and progression. Here, we identified a novel lncRNA LINC00671 negatively correlated with LDHA, downregulating LDHA expression and predicting good clinical outcome in thyroid cancer. Moreover, hypoxia inhibits LINC00671 expression and activates LDHA expression largely through transcriptional factor STAT3. STAT3/LINC00671/LDHA axis regulates thyroid cancer glycolysis, growth, and lung metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. In thyroid cancer patients, LINC00671 expression is negatively correlated with LDHA and STAT3 expression. Our work established STAT3/LINC00671/LDHA as a critical axis to regulate PTC growth and progression. Inhibition of LDHA or STAT3 or supplement of LINC00671 could be potential therapeutic strategies in thyroid cancer.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(28)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260393

RESUMO

Electrostimulation has been recognized as a promising nonpharmacological treatment in orthopedics to promote bone fracture healing. However, clinical applications have been largely limited by the complexity of equipment operation and stimulation implementation. Here, we present a self-powered implantable and bioresorbable bone fracture electrostimulation device, which consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator for electricity generation and a pair of dressing electrodes for applying electrostimulations directly toward the fracture. The device can be attached to irregular tissue surfaces and provide biphasic electric pulses in response to nearby body movements. We demonstrated the operation of this device on rats and achieved effective bone fracture healing in as short as 6 wk versus the controls for more than 10 wk to reach the same healing result. The optimized electrical field could activate relevant growth factors to regulate bone microenvironment for promoting bone formation and bone remodeling to accelerate bone regeneration and maturation, with statistically significant 27% and 83% improvement over the control groups in mineral density and flexural strength, respectively. This work provided an effective implantable fracture therapy device that is self-responsive, battery free, and requires no surgical removal after fulfilling the biomedical intervention.

16.
Hepatology ; 74(6): 3213-3234, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oxaliplatin (OXA) is one of the most common chemotherapeutics in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the resistance of which poses a big challenge. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in chemoresistance. Therefore, elucidating the underlying mechanisms and identifying predictive lncRNAs for OXA resistance is needed urgently. METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to investigate the OXA-resistant (OXA-R) lncRNAs. Survival analysis was performed to determine the clinical significance of homo sapiens long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA 1134 (LINC01134) and p62 expression. Luciferase, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP) assays were used to explore the mechanisms by which LINC01134 regulates p62 expression. The effects of LINC01134/SP1/p62 axis on OXA resistance were evaluated using cell viability, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function and morphology analysis. Xenografts were used to estimate the in vivo regulation of OXA resistance by LINC01134/SP1/p62 axis. ChIP, cell viability, and xenograft assays were used to identify the demethylase for LINC01134 up-regulation in OXA resistance. RESULTS: LINC01134 was identified as one of the most up-regulated lncRNAs in OXA-R cells. Higher LINC01134 expression predicted poorer OXA therapeutic efficacy. LINC01134 activates anti-oxidative pathway through p62 by recruiting transcription factor SP1 to the p62 promoter. The LINC01134/SP1/p62 axis regulates OXA resistance by altering cell viability, apoptosis, and mitochondrial homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the demethylase, lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) was responsible for LINC01134 up-regulation in OXA-R cells. In patients with HCC, LINC01134 expression was positively correlated with p62 and LSD1 expressions, whereas SP1 expression positively correlated with p62 expression. CONCLUSIONS: LSD1/LINC01134/SP1/p62 axis is critical for OXA resistance in HCC. Evaluating LINC01134 expression in HCC will be effective in predicting OXA efficacy. In treatment-naive patients, targeting the LINC01134/SP1/p62 axis may be a promising strategy to overcome OXA chemoresistance.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(58): 7176-7179, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190249

RESUMO

Investigating green and effective means for ammonia synthesis is an important but challenging task. Electrochemical ammonia synthesis (EAS) from an indirect route (N2 → NOx → NH3) provides a feasible alternative strategy. The key step in this route is the reduction of NOx to NH3 instead of N2, which requires the investigation of efficient catalysts with high selectivity of NH3. Herein, we initially demonstrate a highly efficient electrochemical reduction of NO2- to NH3 with nickel phosphide (Ni2P) as the catalyst. The system exhibits low onset potential (0.2 V vs. RHE) and high faradaic efficiency (>90%) for EAS. Experimental results and theoretical calculations reveal that the in situ generated hydrogen atoms on the surface of Ni2P greatly promote the reduction of NO2- to NH3.

18.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187972

RESUMO

The aneuploidy chromosome addition lines with individual chromosomes of one species into the whole genome of another species developed from interspecific or intergeneric crosses are ideal for studying the gene expression regulation under asymmetrical genome interactions. Here, we chose two rapeseed-radish addition lines (2n=40, AACC+2R) with all chromosomes of rapeseed and one pair of radish chromosomes carrying 25S rDNA loci and both 5S and 25S rDNA loci, respectively. Transcriptome sequencing of these two rapeseed-radish addition lines, together with two parents (Brassica napus, 2n=38, AACC; Raphanus sativus, 2n=18, RR), was performed to assess gene expression changes due to the aneuploidy effect. Our results showed that the global gene expression perturbations in two addition lines showed asymmetric distributions between A and C subgenomes, for more downregulated genes located in the C subgenome. Moreover, several dysregulated domains occurred in the addition lines and majority of them were clustered in C subgenome, further revealing that C subgenome was more inclined to be repressed by the aneuploidy. Homoeolog expression was slightly biased toward C subgenome in the parent B. napus, but had no preference to either of A or C subgenome in the addition lines. The total number of biased genes increased sharply and most of them were shared only by two addition lines, indicating that aneuploidy could change the extent and direction of homoeolog expression. The triplicated subgenomes which were orthologs to the chromosomes of Arabidopsis thaliana also exhibited dramatic alternations in two additions. Together, our results revealed that the addition of individual radish chromosomes could induce dramatically transcriptomic disturbances and those expression changes gave asymmetric distributions between two subgenomes in B. napus. The possible mechanisms including the uniparental expression of rRNA genes in the allopolyploids and additions for the findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Raphanus/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Hibridização Genética/genética
19.
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control ; 68(10): 3135-3142, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043508

RESUMO

Shear horizontal (SH) waves are commonly generated by periodic permanent magnet (PPM) electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) in metallic media. Conventional PPM EMATs generate ultrasonic waves, which simultaneously propagate both forward and backward. This can be an undesirable characteristic, since the backward wave can be eventually reflected, reaching the receiver transducer where it can mix with the signal of interest. This limitation can be overcome using two side-shifted PPM arrays and racetracks coils to generate SH waves in a single direction. That design relies on the EMAT wavefront diffraction to produce constructive and destructive interference, but produces unwanted backward traveling sidelobes. Here, we present a different design, which uses a conventional PPM array and a dual linear-coil array. The concept was numerically simulated, the main design parameters were assessed and the unidirectional EMAT was experimentally evaluated on an aluminum plate, generating the SH0-guided wave mode nominally in a single direction. The amplitude ratio of the generated waves at the enhanced to the weakened side is above 20 dB. Since the wavefronts from the two sources are perfectly aligned, no obvious backward sidelobes are present in the acoustic field, which can significantly reduce the probability of false alarm of an EMAT detection system.

20.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(10): 2001879, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026426

RESUMO

Lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with varying clinical manifestations and outcomes. Many subtypes of lymphoma, such as Burkitt's lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, are highly aggressive with dismal prognosis even after conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As such, exploring specific biomarkers for lymphoma is of high clinical significance. Herein, a potential marker, CD38, is investigated for differentiating lymphoma. A CD38-targeting monoclonal antibody (mAb, daratumumab) is then radiolabeled with Zr-89 and Lu-177 for theranostic applications. As the diagnostic component, the Zr-89-labeled mAb is highly specific in delineating CD38-positive lymphoma via positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, while the Lu-177-labeled mAb serves well as the therapeutic component to suppress tumor growth after a one-time administration. These results strongly suggest that CD38 is a lymphoma-specific marker and prove that 89Zr/177Lu-labeled daratumumab facilitates immunoPET imaging and radioimmunotherapy of lymphoma in preclinical models. Further clinical evaluation and translation of this CD38-targeted theranostics may be of significant help in lymphoma patient stratification and management.

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