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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(5): 658-662, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213268

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the imported risk of COVID-19 in Guangdong province and its cities, and conduct early warning. Methods: Data of reported COVID-19 cases and Baidu Migration Index of 21 cities in Guangdong province and other provinces of China as of February 25, 2020 were collected. The imported risk index of each city in Guangdong province were calculated, and then correlation analysis was performed between reported cases and the imported risk index to identify lag time. Finally, we classified the early warming levels of epidemic by imported risk index. Results: A total of 1 347 confirmed cases were reported in Guangdong province, and 90.0% of the cases were clustered in the Pearl River Delta region. The average daily imported risk index of Guangdong was 44.03. Among the imported risk sources of each city, the highest risk of almost all cities came from Hubei province, except for Zhanjiang from Hainan province. In addition, the neighboring provinces of Guangdong province also had a greater impact. The correlation between the imported risk index with a lag of 4 days and the daily reported cases was the strongest (correlation coefficient: 0.73). The early warning base on cumulative 4-day risk of each city showed that Dongguan, Shenzhen, Zhongshan, Guangzhou, Foshan and Huizhou have high imported risks in the next 4 days, with imported risk indexes of 38.85, 21.59, 11.67, 11.25, 6.19 and 5.92, and the highest risk still comes from Hubei province. Conclusions: Cities with a large number of migrants in Guangdong province have a higher risk of import. Hubei province and neighboring provinces in Guangdong province are the main source of the imported risk. Each city must strengthen the health management of migrants in high-risk provinces and reduce the imported risk of Guangdong province.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124493

RESUMO

Autoimmune blistering skin diseases (AIBD) encompass a group of diseases characterised by cutaneous and/ or mucocutaneous fragility. Multiple risk factors contributing to osteoporosis exist in AIBD patients, including use of long-term systemic corticosteroid therapy (SCT), decreased mobility, and the presence of chronic inflammation. Despite this, there is no consensus on the prophylaxis of osteoporosis in AIBD, especially in the absence of SCT. To systemically review the current literature on the association between osteoporosis/osteopenia and AIBD, a comprehensive literature search was performed on six online databases with search terms related to bone mineral density (BMD) and AIBD. 314 articles were screened by their abstract and/or full text. A total of 20 peer-reviewed full text articles addressing bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with AIBD were identified. Eight articles examined the association between osteoporosis and pemphigus. Only two articles examined the association between osteoporosis and pemphigoid patients. Three articles examined the effectiveness of osteoporosis prophylaxis in AIBD patients. Seven papers examined the levels of vitamin D in AIBD patients. Few case control studies examine osteoporosis in pemphigus in the context of SCT, with consistent findings. However, there is scarce literature examining the risk of osteoporosis in pemphigoid, or in AIBD without SCT. Prophylaxis and screening of osteoporosis in AIBD is suboptimal and more attention in this area is required to avoid future complications related to osteopenia and osteoporosis.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 31(13): 135207, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825904

RESUMO

Active metasurfaces with novel visible and infrared (vis/IR) functionalities represent an exciting, growing area of research. Rectification of vis/IR frequencies would produce needed direct current (DC) with no inherent frequency limitation (e.g. no semiconducting bandgap). However, controlling the materials and functionality of (nano)rectennas for rectifying 100 s of THz to the visible regime is a daunting challenge, because of the small features and simultaneously the need to scale up to large sizes in a scalable platform. An active metasurface of a planar array of nanoscale antennas on top of rectifying vertical diodes is a 'nanorectenna array' or 'microrectenna array' that rectifies very high frequencies in the infrared, or even higher frequencies up to the visible regime. We employ a novel strategy for forming optical nanorectenna arrays using scalable patterning of Au nanowires, demonstrate strong evidence for spectral-selective high-frequency rectification, characteristic of optical antennas. We discover a previously unreported out-of-equilibrium electron energy distribution, i.e. hot electrons arising from plasmonic resonance absorption in an optical antenna characterized by an effective temperature, and how this effect can significantly impact the observed rectification.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is important for patient treatment and infection control. Current molecular diagnostic techniques for TB have insufficient sensitivity to detect samples with low bacterial loads. The sensitivity of molecular testing depends on not only the performance of the assay technique but also the nucleic acid extraction method. Here, we present a novel approach using exosomal DNA (exoDNA) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) platforms to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in clinical samples. METHODS: The ddPCR platform targeting IS6110 was evaluated in parallel using total DNA and exoDNA. The clinical performance of ddPCR method was assessed with 190 respiratory samples from patients with suspected pulmonary TB. RESULTS: Compared with mycobacterial culture, sensitivity and specificity of ddPCR were 61.5% (95% CI 44.6-76.6%) and 98.0% (95% CI 94.3-99.6%) using total DNA, and 76.9% (95% CI 60.7-88.9%) and 98.0% (95% CI 94.3-99.6%) using exoDNA, respectively. Among 15 culture-positive specimens with low concentrations of target molecules (2~99 positive droplets with exoDNA), only 53.3% (8/15), 46.7% (7/15), and 26.7% (4/15) of cases were detected using ddPCR with total DNA, real-time PCR with exoDNA, and real-time PCR with total DNA, respectively. DISCUSSION: Our platform using ddPCR and exoDNA has the potential to provide sensitive and accurate methodology for TB diagnosis.

6.
Iran J Vet Res ; 20(3): 225-228, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656531

RESUMO

Background: Pericardial effusion (PE) due to secondary metastasis has rarely been reported in dogs. Case description: This case describes clinical signs and further diagnostics regarding metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) in refractory PE of a dog. Findings/treatment and outcome: A nine-year-old, castrated male Shih Tzu dog was referred for evaluation of cough and dyspnea. On presentation, tachypnea, intermittent cough, and muffled heart sounds were noted. Thoracic radiography, electrocardiography, and echocardiography confirmed a PE. No mass lesion was detected at the heart base, aorta, or right atrium (RA). Analysis of the PE showed hemorrhagic cytology, and an idiopathic hemorrhagic PE was tentatively diagnosed. The dog responded to conservative treatment with steroid and diuretics, but the clinical sign recurred. Further evaluation with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) was non-diagnostic. The dog died 457 days after initial presentation. Necropsy and histopathology revealed metastatic CUP origin. Conclusion: This case illustrated a rare cause of recurrent PE in dogs.

7.
J Hosp Infect ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606433

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates (carrying the carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5) of sequence type 16 caused hospital-acquired bloodstream infection or gut colonization in two patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). It was hypothesized that handwashing sinks were the source, and all handwashing sinks in the ICU were sampled. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis revealed that one sink was the source of CRKP colonization/infection in both patients, instead of direct transmission of a common clone between the patients. This study highlights handwashing sinks as an important source of multi-drug-resistant organisms. Sink management, including prohibition of disposal of body fluids and daily disinfection with chlorine, curbed the transmission.

8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1022-1026, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607049

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the quadrivalent influenza vaccine intention of 718 health care workers (HCWs) in the Pearl River Delta region from 2015 to 2017. Method: In May 2018, 718 HCWs from the department related to the diagnosis and treatment of influenza in 17 hospitals (6 tertiary hospitals, 5 secondary hospitals and 6 primary hospitals) from Guangzhou, Jiangmen, Zhuhai and Dongguan were selected by using stratified sampling method. Questionnaire survey and face-to-face interview were used to collect the information of influenza vaccination, the intention of the quadrivalent influenza vaccine, the acceptance of free and required vaccination policies, and recommendations for increasing influenza vaccination intentions from 2015 to 2017. The multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with the vaccination intention. Results: A total of 718 HCWs were surveyed and 147 of them were interviewed face to face. Among them, the vaccination rate of primary hospitals [17.39%(40/230)] was higher than that of other hospitals (χ(2)=15.80, P<0.05). If the vaccine could be free, 84.82% (609/718) of HCWs would like to be vaccinated. The multivariate logistic regression showed that the factors, HCWs who were aged ≥50 years (OR=3.44, 95%CI:1.43-8.28), worked in department of prevention and health care (OR=2.35, 95%CI:1.16-4.75), learned about the quadrivalent influenza vaccine (OR=2.94, 95%CI:2.08-4.18), knowed that HCWs are priority (OR=2.33, 95%CI:1.56-3.48), and had a history of trivalent influenza vaccination from 2015 to 2017 (OR=4.70, 95%CI:3.08-7.15), were associated with the vaccination intention. Conclusion: HCWs in the Pearl River Delta region had weak inclination of getting quadrivalent influenza vaccine. HCWs who were age (≥50 years old), worked in department of prevention and health care, learned about the quadrivalent influenza vaccine, knowed that HCWs are priority, and had a history of trivalent influenza vaccination from 2015 to 2017 were factors positively associated with the vaccination intention.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
9.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(8): 576-581, 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422635

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the methods of optometric refraction adopted for adolescents in spectacles stores in Anyang city of Henan Province and the professional performance of optometric refraction. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Maps and yellow pages were used to collect the information of 131 spectacles stores in Anyang city. A questionnaire was used to investigate spectacles stores that had optometry equipment and can provide refraction prescription and spectacles in this city. The questionnaire covered (1) the process of optometric refraction, including whether cycloplegic refraction was conducted for adolescents and children if it was their first-time optometry and the type of cycloplegics,and (2) the opticians' knowledge on optometric refraction for adolescents and children, such as necessity of cycloplegic refraction for adolescents and children and age cut-offs. According to whether they used a comprehensive refractometer, the optometry methods were divided into conventional optometry and medical optometry. Results: Of 131 spectacles stores in Anyang city, 127 were enrolled. A total of 127 questionnaires were distributed and returned with an effective rate of 100%. Conventional optometric refraction was performed in 53 stores (41.73%), and medical optometric refraction was performed in 74 stores (58.27%). Cycloplegic refraction was conducted in only 4 spectacles stores (3.15%) for adolescents and children upon their first-time optometry. The fogging method of refraction was adopted in 31 stores (24.41%), while optometric refraction was directly conducted in 92 stores (72.44%) without controlling accommodation. As for the use of cycloplegia at initial optometric refraction of children, cycloplegia was objected to in 4 stores,and thought to be no need in 28 stores including 6 stores in which the fogging method was used to replace cycloplegia. In 68 stores, cycloplegia was performed if wanted, or children could go to a hospital for it. In 12 stores, the use of cycloplegics was determined by children's vision and diopters. In 5 stores, children were suggested to go to a hospital for cycloplegic refraction. Cycloplegic refraction was required in only 4 stores. As to the age cut-offs of cycloplegic refraction, 6 years old, 12 years old, and 18 years old were considered as the boundary in 7 stores, 33 stores, and 9 stores, respectively.In 11 stores, age was only considered for amblyopia and hyperopia, and in 67 stores, it was not realized. Conclusions: Cycloplegic refraction was found to be conducted for adolescents and children in only 3% of the spectacles stores in Anyang city. Moreover, most of the spectacles store opticians did not support to use cycloplegia before optometric refraction for adolescents and children and lacked knowledge on the age cut-offs of cycloplegic refraction.Standardized training of cycloplegic refraction should be further strengthened. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2019, 55: 576-581).


Assuntos
Optometria , Refração Ocular , Erros de Refração , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Óculos , Humanos , Midriáticos
10.
J Dent Res ; 98(10): 1150-1158, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340691

RESUMO

Oral mucosa provides the first line of defense against a diverse array of environmental and microbial irritants by forming the barrier of epithelial cells interconnected by multiprotein tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions, desmosomes, and gap junction complexes. Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2), an epithelial-specific transcription factor, may play a role in the formation of the mucosal epithelial barrier, as it regulates the expression of the junction proteins. The current study investigated the role of GRHL2 in the Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg)-induced impairment of epithelial barrier functions. Exposure of human oral keratinocytes (HOK-16B and OKF6 cells) to Pg or Pg-derived lipopolysaccharides (Pg LPSs) led to rapid loss of endogenous GRHL2 and the junction proteins (e.g., zonula occludens, E-cadherin, claudins, and occludin). GRHL2 directly regulated the expression levels of the junction proteins and the epithelial permeability for small molecules (e.g., dextrans and Pg bacteria). To explore the functional role of GRHL2 in oral mucosal barrier, we used a Grhl2 conditional knockout (KO) mouse model, which allows for epithelial tissue-specific Grhl2 KO in an inducible manner. Grhl2 KO impaired the expression of the junction proteins at the junctional epithelium and increased the alveolar bone loss in the ligature-induced periodontitis model. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed increased epithelial penetration of oral bacteria in Grhl2 KO mice compared with the wild-type mice. Also, blood loadings of oral bacteria (e.g., Bacteroides, Bacillus, Firmicutes, ß-proteobacteria, and Spirochetes) were significantly elevated in Grhl2 KO mice compared to the wild-type littermates. These data indicate that Pg bacteria may enhance paracellular penetration through oral mucosa in part by targeting the expression of GRHL2 in the oral epithelial cells, which then impairs the epithelial barrier by inhibition of junction protein expression, resulting in increased alveolar tissue destruction and systemic bacteremia.

11.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 270: 103256, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351138

RESUMO

It has been proposed that oxygen capture by the human lungs depends on four determinants: ventilation, cardiac output, oxygen partial pressure in the inspired air and the venous blood. Indeed, the theoretical-numerical model proposed recently by Kang et al. was able to interpret the known empirical relation between the average of the determinants and the average oxygen capture called VO2. This method is tested here at the individual level in a group of 31 subjects submitted to standard pulmonary function testing and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. For this, an inverse method is used in which individual cardiac output is predicted from the clinical test data. Comparison to the cardiac output deduced from Fick principle confirms that the dynamic model is a "microscopic" justification of the "macroscopic" Fick principle. It shows that in addition to the four determinants, two secondary determinants, namely hemoglobin concentration and Bohr effect, expressed here through P50, play significant roles.

12.
Mol Neurobiol ; 56(12): 8336-8344, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230260

RESUMO

Beginning in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the hippocampus reduces its functional connections to other cortical regions due to synaptic depletion. However, little is known regarding connectivity abnormalities within the hippocampus. Here, we describe rostral-caudal hippocampal convergence (rcHC), a metric of the overlap between the rostral and caudal hippocampal functional networks, across the clinical spectrum of AD. We predicted a decline in rostral-caudal hippocampal convergence in the early stages of the disease. Using fMRI, we generated resting-state hippocampal functional networks across 56 controls, 48 early MCI (EMCI), 35 late MCI (LMCI), and 31 AD patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort. For each diagnostic group, we performed a conjunction analysis and compared the rostral and caudal hippocampal network changes using a mixed effects linear model to estimate the convergence and differences between these networks, respectively. The conjunction analysis showed a reduction of rostral-caudal hippocampal convergence strength from early MCI to AD, independent of hippocampal atrophy. Our results demonstrate a parallel between the functional convergence within the hippocampus and disease stage, which is independent of brain atrophy. These findings support the concept that network convergence might contribute as a biomarker for connectivity dysfunction in early stages of AD.

13.
Oncogene ; 38(22): 4427-4428, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718918

RESUMO

The original version of this article contained error in Figure 2e. In Figure 2e, the 6th colony image of T47D cells treated with shMSI2 was inadvertently replaced with a duplicate of 7th colony image. However, the conclusions reported in the manuscript are not affected by figure replacement. The authors regret that these errors were made and apologize for the confusion and inconvenience. The correct version of this figure panel appears in the Author Correction associated with this Article.

14.
Eur J Neurol ; 26(2): 261-267, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The P2Y12 receptor, a well-known factor in the platelet activation pathway, plays a role in thrombosis as well as systemic inflammation. Clopidogrel, a prototype P2Y12 receptor antagonist, reportedly decreases inflammation and systemic infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether clopidogrel use decreases the risk of post-stroke infection following ischaemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 1643 patients with acute ischaemic stroke (within 7 days after onset) were included for analysis between March 2010 and December 2015. Patients were categorized into two groups (clopidogrel users versus clopidogrel non-users), and clinical characteristics and risks of post-stroke infection were compared between the two groups. The inverse probability of treatment weighting using propensity scores for baseline imbalance adjustments was applied. RESULTS: Of the included patients (mean age 67.7 years; men 60.6%), 670 (40.8%) patients were clopidogrel users and 164 (10.0%) patients had post-stroke infection. The proportion of patients with post-stroke infection was significantly lower in clopidogrel users compared to clopidogrel non-users (6.7% vs. 12.2%, P ≤ 0.001). Moreover, clopidogrel users were less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (13.3% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.006). A multivariate analysis with inverse probability of treatment weighting revealed that clopidogrel users exhibited a lower risk of post-stroke infection (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.75) and intensive care unit admission (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.53). CONCLUSIONS: The study suggested that clopidogrel users exhibit a lower risk of infection and develop less severe infections after ischaemic stroke. Further prospective studies are needed.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
15.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 23(1): 79-83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569073

RESUMO

Sarcopenia, defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with age, is an important health issue in aging society. We tried to investigate the relationship between blood pressure variability and skeletal muscle mass in nation-wide large population cohort. This cross-sectional study was based on data acquired in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), conducted from 2009 to 2011 by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We included 14,481 participants (age ≥ 20 years, male 6,302) for the analysis who had both blood pressure and whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan data. As an intra-individual within-visit blood pressure variability index, we calculated standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and maximum minus minimum BP difference (MMD) of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which was measured 3 times. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was the sum of lean masses of both arms and legs. We adjusted ASM by body mass index. Significant inverse relationship was observed between blood pressure variability index (SD, CV, and MMD) and adjusted ASM. Blood pressure variability index were significantly higher in the lowest ASM quintile group both in male and female participants (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, blood pressure variability index were significantly associated with ASM, even after adjusting confounding factors (p<0.001). In conclusion, hemodynamic influence may play an important role in the development of sarcopenia.

16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 22(23): 8237-8247, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer has been become the fourth most prevalent cancer in whole world and the third most common cancer in Asian countries. This study aimed to discuss the invasive and migration mechanisms of gastric cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human gastric cancer line, BGC-823 cell, was treated with hypoxia and divided into Hypoxia-12 h, Hypoxia-24 h, Hypoxia-36 h, Hypoxia-48 h and Hypoxia-72 group. Meanwhile, blank BGC-823 cells were assigned as Normal group. mRNA and protein expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), Twist, E-cadherin and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated by using quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot assay, respectively. Invasion and migration of BGC-823 cells were also examined in this study. RESULTS: Hypoxia treatment significantly enhanced invasion and migration ability of BGC-823 cells compared to that of Normal group (p<0.05). Hypoxia treatment significantly reduced E-cadherin and NDRG2 expression compared to that of Normal group (p<0.05). Hypoxia treatment significantly increased Twist and HIF-1α expression compared to that of Normal group (p<0.05). HIF-1α inhibitor, YC-1, significantly suppressed the effects of hypoxia treatment on E-cadherin and Twist expression (p<0.05). Meanwhile, YC-1 treatment also significantly suppressed the effects of hypoxia treatment on NDRG2 and HIF-1α expression. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia promoted the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cell BGC-823 by activating HIF-1α and inhibiting NDRG2 associated signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Hipóxia Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/genética , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/metabolismo
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(11): 1413-1425, 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462947

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and its complications. Currently, China has licensed trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), including split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine. In most parts of China, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients need to pay for it. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and the operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC), Influenza Vaccine Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2014 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2018-2019)" , based on most recent existing scientific evidences. The main updates include: epidemiology and disease burden of influenza, types of influenza vaccines, northern hemisphere influenza vaccination composition for the 2018-2019 season, and, IIV3 and IIV4 vaccines'major immune responses, durability of immunity, immunogenicity, vaccine efficacy, effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. The recommendations include: Points of Vaccination clinics (PoVs) should provide influenza vaccination to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications. No preferential recommendation is made for any influenza vaccine product for persons who can accept ≥1 licensed, recommended, and appropriate products. To decrease the risk of severe infections and complications due to influenza virus infection among high risk groups, the recommendations prioritize seasonal influenza vaccination for children aged 6-60 months, adults ≥60 years of age, persons with specific chronic diseases, healthcare workers, the family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women or women who plan to pregnant during the influenza season. Children aged 6 months to 8 years old require 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart during their first season of vaccination for optimal protection. If they were vaccinated in previous influenza season, 1 dose is recommended. People ≥ 9 years old require 1 dose of influenza vaccine. It is recommended that people receive their influenza vaccination by the end of October. Influenza vaccination should be offered as soon as the vaccination is available. Influenza vaccination should continue to be available for those unable to be vaccinated before the end of October during the whole season. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for use in pregnant women during any trimester. These guidelines are intended for CDC members who are working on influenza control and prevention, PoVs members, healthcare workers from the departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases, and members of maternity and child care institutions at all levels.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Vacinação
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 52(11): 1101-1114, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419692

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from infection. Currently, China has licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), including split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine. Except for a few major cities, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients must pay for it. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccine Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2014 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2018-2019)" . The main updates in this version include: epidemiology, disease burden, types of influenza vaccines, northern hemisphere influenza vaccination composition for the 2018-2019 season, IIV3 and IIV4 immune response, durability of immunity, immunogenicity, vaccine efficacy, effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. The influenza vaccine TWG provided the recommendations for influenza vaccination for the 2018-2019 influenza season based on existing scientific evidence. The recommendations described in this report include the following: Points of Vaccination clinics (PoVs) should provide influenza vaccination to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended, and appropriate product is available. To decrease the risk of severe infections and complications due to influenza virus infection among high risk groups, the recommendations prioritize seasonal influenza vaccination for children aged 6-59 months, adults ≥60 years of age, persons with specific chronic diseases, healthcare workers, the family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women or women who plan to become pregnant during the influenza season. Children aged 6 months through 8 years require 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart during their first season of vaccination for optimal protection. If they were vaccinated in 2017-2018 influenza season or a prior season, 1 dose is recommended. People more than 8 years old require 1 dose of influenza vaccine. It is recommended that people receive their influenza vaccination by the end of October. Influenza vaccination should be offered as soon as the vaccination is available. For the people unable to be vaccinated before the end of October, influenza vaccination will continue to be offered for the whole season. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for use in pregnant women during any trimester. These guidelines are intended for use by staff members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels who work on influenza control and prevention, PoVs staff members, healthcare workers from the departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases, and staff members of maternity and child care institutions at all levels.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estações do Ano
19.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 39(11): 2088-2094, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Follow-up with MRA for intracranial aneurysms after stent-assisted coiling is complicated by imaging artifacts. We evaluated the usefulness of an alternative method: vessel wall MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective review of medical records of 47 patients who underwent 3D TOF-MRA, vessel wall MRI, and DSA after stent-assisted coiling between March 2016 and January 2018. We evaluated the mean value of the signal intensity in the stented artery and the contralateral normal artery on vessel wall MRI. The quality of visualization was further compared between TOF-MRA and vessel wall MRI. Furthermore, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy and concordance rate of TOF-MRA and vessel wall MRI for assessing the patency of the stented parent artery. DSA was used as a reference test. RESULTS: The mean signal intensities of the stented and normal arteries on vessel wall MRI were not significantly different (P = .133). The mean scores for the visualization of the stented parent artery on vessel wall MRI were significantly superior to those of TOF-MRA images (P < .001). Vessel wall MRI reached an excellent positive predictive value (100%). However, TOF-MRA had a poor positive predictive value (11%; 95% CI, 9%-12%). The likelihood ratios of vessel wall MRI and TOF-MRA were 27.36 (P < .001) and 2.98 (P = .225), respectively. The concordance rate of vessel wall MRI and TOF-MRA with DSA for evaluating the state of the stented artery was 100% (κ = 1) and 28% (κ = 0.038), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Vessel wall MRI may be useful in evaluating the patency of stented arteries after stent-assisted coil embolization for intracranial aneurysms.


Assuntos
Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Digital/métodos , Prótese Vascular , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(8): 1045-1050, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180426

RESUMO

Influenza can be prevented through annual appropriate vaccination against the virus concerned. In China, influenza vaccine is categorized as "Class Ⅱ" infectious diseases which the cost is paid out of the user's pockets. The annual coverage of influenza vaccination had been 2%-3%. The main reasons for the low coverage would include the following factors: lacking awareness on both the disease and vaccine, poor accessibility of vaccination service, and the cost of vaccination. To reduce the health and economic burden associated with influenza, comprehensive policies should be improved, targeting the coverage of seasonal influenza vaccination. These items would include: ① Different financing reimbursement schemes and mechanisms to improve the aspiration on vaccination and on the vaccine coverage in high-risk groups, as young children, elderly, people with underlying medical conditions; ② to ameliorate equality of vaccination services; ③ to improve knowledge of the health care workers (HCWs) and the public on influenza and related vaccines; ④ to improve clinical and preventive medical practice and vaccination among HCWs through revising clinical guidelines, pathway and consensus of experts; ⑤ to provide more convenient, accessible and normative vaccination service system; ⑥ to strengthen research and development as well as marketing on novel influenza vaccines; ⑦ to revise items regarding the contraindication for influenza vaccine on pregnancy women, stated in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Idoso , Conscientização , Criança , China , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Masculino , Gravidez
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