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1.
Environ Res ; 207: 112640, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and ambient air pollution are independent risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however, the evidence regarding their joint associations on T2DM was sparsely studied in low-middle income countries. METHODS: A total of 38,841 participants were selected from Henan Rural Cohort study which was carried out during 2015-2017. Obesity was identified by body mass index (BMI), WC (waist circumstance), WHR (waist-to-hip ratio), WHtR (waist-to-height ratio), BFP (body fat percent), and VFI (visceral fat index). Three-year averaged-concentrations of NO2, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were assessed by using the method of spatiotemporal model incorporated into the satellites data. The independent associations of obesity indicators and exposure to air pollutants on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and T2DM were assessed by generalized linear and logistic regression model, respectively, and their interaction associations on T2DM were quantified by using relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and synergy index (S). RESULTS: Positive associations of six obesity measures and four air pollutants with FBG levels and prevalent T2DM were observed. Obese participants measured by BMI plus high exposure to NO2, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were related to a 2.96-fold (2.66-3.29), 2.87-fold (2.58-3.20), 2.98-fold (2.67-3.32) and 3.01-fold (2.70-3.35) increased risk for prevalent T2DM, respectively; similarity of joint associations of the other obesity measures and air pollutants on T2DM were observed. The additive associations of different obesity measures and air pollutants with prevalent T2DM were further found. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic associations of obesity and air pollutants on FBG levels and prevalent T2DM were observed, indicating that obese participants were at high risk for prevalent T2DM in highly polluted rural regions.

3.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(11): 5402-5414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873468

RESUMO

m6A methylation has been demonstrated to be one of the most important epigenetic regulation mechanisms in cell differentiation and cancer development especially m6A derived diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers have been identified in the past several years. However, systemic investigation to the interaction between germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and m6A has not been conducted yet. In this study, we collected previous identified significant thyroid cancer associated SNPs from UKB cohort (358 cases and 407,399 controls) and ICR cohort (3,001 patients and 287,550 controls) and thyroid eQTL (sample size = 574 from GTEx project) and m6A-SNP (N = 1,678,126) were applied to prioritize the candidate SNPs. Finally, five candidate genes (PLEKHA8, SMUG1, CDC123, RMI2, ACSM5) were identified to be thyroid cancer associated m6A-related genetic susceptibility. Loss and gain function studies of m6A writer proteins confirm that ACSM5 is regulated by m6A methylation of mRNA. Moreover, ACSM5 is downregulated in thyroid cancer and inversely correlated with PTC malignancy and patient survival. Together, our study highlight mRNA-seq and m6A-seq double analysis provided a novel approach to identify cancer biomarkers and understanding the heterogeneity of human cancers.

4.
Transl Oncol ; 15(1): 101305, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890967

RESUMO

Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are often aberrantly expressed in cancer stem cells (CSCs) which are responsible for tumor metastasis. Rec8 meiotic recombination protein (REC8), a member of CTAs, shares distinct roles in various cancers, while its contribution to CSCs and colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. We found that overexpression of REC8 facilitated the migration and invasion of CRC cells (DLD-1 and SW480 cells) in vitro and promoted the liver metastasis of CRC in vivo. Moreover, REC8 is highly expressed in CRC stem-like cells and is required for the maintenance of CSC stemness. Mechanistic studies suggested that REC8 mediated through the activation of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). Inhibition of BTK by ibrutinib not only suppressed the migration and invasion-promoting ability, but also declined the increased expression of p-BTK, p-Akt, ß-catenin, and CSC markers upon REC8 overexpression. Importantly, high expression of REC8 in cancerous tissues was related to advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of 62 CRC patients, and REC8 was enriched in the cancerous cells positive for CSC markers. Collectively, our results indicate that REC8 promotes CRC metastasis by increasing cell stemness through BTK/Akt/ß-catenin pathway.

5.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(6): 818-827, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966645

RESUMO

Background and Aims: This study aimed to determine the performance of the non-invasive score using noncontrast-enhanced MRI (CHESS-DIS score) for detecting portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Methods: In this international multicenter, diagnostic study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03766880), patients with cirrhosis who had hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement and noncontrast-enhanced MRI were prospectively recruited from four university hospitals in China (n=4) and Turkey (n=1) between December 2018 and April 2019. A cohort of patients was retrospectively recruited from a university hospital in Italy between March 2015 and November 2017. After segmentation of the liver on fat-suppressed T1-weighted MRI maps, CHESS-DIS score was calculated automatically by an in-house developed code based on the quantification of liver surface nodularity. Results: A total of 149 patients were included, of which 124 were from four Chinese hospitals (training cohort) and 25 were from two international hospitals (validation cohort). A positive correlation between CHESS-DIS score and HVPG was found with the correlation coefficients of 0.36 (p<0.0001) and 0.55 (p<0.01) for the training and validation cohorts, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of CHESS-DIS score in detection of clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) was 0.81 and 0.9 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients for assessing the inter- and intra-observer agreement were 0.846 and 0.841, respectively. Conclusions: A non-invasive score using noncontrast-enhanced MRI was developed and proved to be significantly correlated with invasive HVPG. Besides, this score could be used to detect CSPH in patients with cirrhosis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787742

RESUMO

Clinically significant portal hypertension is associated with an increased risk of developing gastroesophageal varices and hepatic decompensation. Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement and esophagogastroduodenoscopy are the gold-standard methods for assessing clinically significant portal hypertension and gastroesophageal varices, respectively. However, invasiveness, cost, and feasibility limit their widespread use, especially if repeated and serial evaluations are required to assess the efficacy of pharmacotherapy. Artificial intelligence describes a range of techniques that allow machines to perform tasks typically thought to require human reasoning and problem-solving skills. Artificial intelligence has made great strides in the field of medicine, and is also involved in portal hypertension diagnosis. Artificial intelligence tools will potentially transform our practice by leveraging massive amounts of data to personalize care to the right patient, in the right amount, at the right time. This review focuses on the recent advances in artificial intelligence for the noninvasive diagnosis of portal hypertension and gastroesophageal varices and monitoring of risk assessment of its complications in clinical practice.

7.
Aust J Rural Health ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether General Practice placement experience or locations (urban/metropolitan vs non-metropolitan) promote student interest in pursuing general practice. DESIGN: SurveyMonkey was used in the design of the survey. SETTING: The study was conducted online. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 520 and 705 clinical-year students were surveyed in 2009 and 2019, respectively. The study was conducted online, using SurveyMonkey, and the participants were mostly non-indigenous Australian medical students, between the ages of 18 and 30. INTERVENTIONS: Students were recruited from the General Practice Students' Network membership database to complete the survey online. Chi-squared testing, Pearson's correlation and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the correlation between general practice placements and intention to become a general practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The association and causation between general practice placement location, student experience and students' intended career outcomes. RESULTS: In 2009, majority of students rated their general practice experience 'mostly positive' while most metropolitan participants and majority of non-metropolitan placement participants in the 2019 survey responded with 'mostly positive' in 2019. Based on 2009 and 2019 data, general practice placement location had no association with the likelihood of pursuing general practice as a career, while student experience had a stronger positive correlation with the likelihood of pursuing general practice as a career. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that students' overall experience with their general practice placements significantly encourages medical students to pursue the general practice pathway. As such, increasing both metropolitan and non-metropolitan placement experiences can potentially overcome general practice shortage.

8.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(18): 1428, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733980

RESUMO

Background: Detection of E6 and E7 mRNA load of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection during pregnancy was compared with conventional cytopathology and DNA detection by pathological examination as colposcopy to evaluate the application of E6 and E7 mRNA detection in the diagnosis and management in HR-HPV infection for high -grade cervical lesions during pregnancy. Methods: From January 2014 to June 2019, 1,058 pregnant women of childbearing age who were filed for regular obstetrics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, were separately assessed using cervical liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection. If the results were abnormal, colposcopy was performed as a follow-up. The presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA fragments was detected through the HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA test, and monitored at the same time as colposcopy. The diagnostic efficacy of the HR-HPV DNA test versus the HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA test for high-grade cervical lesions during pregnancy was compared. Results: The positive rate of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection in the overall cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and above during pregnancy was lower than that with HR-HPV DNA detection, and there was a significant statistical difference between the two methods. In CIN I and normal or inflammatory results, the positive rate of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection was lower than that of HR-HPV DNA detection, while in the results of CIN II and CIN III, the positive rate of the two was not significantly different. HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection is the same as HR-HPV DNA detection, both of which increased with the severity of cervical lesions, and the positive rate increased. In cases of maintenance or progression of cervical lesions, the positive rate of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection during pregnancy can reach 81.8%. High-grade cervical lesions during pregnancy had a higher rate of reversal to a lower level after delivery. Conclusions: The results suggested that the use of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection in cases of positive HR-HPV DNA detection can significantly improve the diagnostic specificity of CIN II and above high-grade cervical lesions.

9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 167, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a common but intractable disease that appears to involve lipid metabolic disorders. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that high blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are closely associated with ONFH, there is limited evidence to explain the pathological role of LDL. Pathological and in vitro studies were performed to investigate the role of disordered metabolism of LDL and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) in the femoral head in the pathology of ONFH. METHODS: Nineteen femoral head specimens from patients with ONFH were obtained for immunohistochemistry analysis. Murine long-bone osteocyte Y4 cells were used to study the effects of LDL/ox-LDL on cell viability, apoptosis, and metabolism process of LDL/ox-LDL in osteocytes in normoxic and hypoxic environments. RESULTS: In the pathological specimens, marked accumulation of LDL/ox-LDL was observed in osteocytes/lacunae of necrotic regions compared with healthy regions. In vitro studies showed that ox-LDL, rather than LDL, reduced the viability and enhanced apoptosis of osteocytes. Pathological sections indicated that the accumulation of ox-LDL was significantly associated with impaired blood supply. Exposure to a hypoxic environment appeared to be a key factor leading to LDL/ox-LDL accumulation by enhancing internalisation and oxidation of LDL in osteocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The accumulation of LDL/ox-LDL in the necrotic region may contribute to the pathology of ONFH. These findings could provide new insights into the prevention and treatment of ONFH.

10.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 592043, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744561

RESUMO

Objectives: The study aimed to explore the association between Ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level Scale (EQ-5D-5L) among rural population. Methods: This study included 20,683 participants aged 18-79 years from "the Henan Rural Cohort study". Generalized linear and Tobit regression models were employed to explore the associations of ICH with EQ-5D-5L utility scores and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, respectively. Results: The mean EQ-5D-5L utility scores and VAS scores were 0.962 ± 0.095 and 79.52 ± 14.02, respectively. Comparing with poor CVH participants (EQ-5D-5L utility scores and VAS scores: 0.954 ± 0.111 and 78.44 ± 14.29), people with intermediate and ideal CVH had higher EQ-5D-5L utility scores (0.969 ± 0.079 and 0.959 ± 0.099) and VAS scores (80.43 ± 13.65 and 79.28 ± 14.14). ICH scores were positively correlated with EQ-5D-5L utility scores (0.007 (0.004, 0.009)) and VAS scores (0.295 (0.143, 0.446)), respectively. Conclusions: Higher ICH scores is positive associated with better HRQoL in rural population, which suggests that improvement of cardiovascular health may help to enhance HRQoL among rural population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(43): 901-905, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745688

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic?: Silica dust and coal dust are the main occupational hazards in coal-fired thermal power plants, which mainly exist in coal transportation workplaces, combustion milling workplaces, and ash removal workplaces. What is added by this report?: The overall environmental and personal dust exposure levels decrease with an increase in the capacity of coal-fired thermal power plants, the overall dust hazard risk level of the workforce in coal-fired is Medium. What are the implications for public health practice?: Dust management should be conducted in the coal-fired thermal power plant in 300 million watt units because it has the highest dust exposure level, and ash removal workplaces and combustion milling workplaces are key control points for dust hazards.

12.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(44): 923-928, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745693

RESUMO

What is known about this topic?: H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as a dominant avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype in southern China. The increasing genetic diversity and geographical distribution of H5N6 pose a serious threat to the poultry industry and human health. What is added by this report?: A total of 2 cases of H5N6 that occurred from February 2021 to July 2021 in Guangxi, China were reported in this study. Phylogenetic analysis of gene was constructed, and some mutations of HA gene, PB2 gene, PA gene, M1 gene, NS1 gene, the receptor-binding site were detected. The evolutionary origins of the internal genes were different. What are the implications for public health practice?: As a multi-source reassortant virus, the H5N6 highly pathogenic AIV is continuously evolving. There is an urgent need to strengthen the surveillance of drug-resistant strains and novel variants.

13.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(12): 3333-3335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746406

RESUMO

The mitogenome of the Greytail angelfish Chaetodontoplus poliourus (Pomacanthidae) was decoded using next-generation sequencing techniques. The de novo assembled mitogenome consists of 16,961 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes. The gene arrangement is identical to the other available Pomacanthidae mitogenomes submitted to NCBI. The overall base composition of the C. poliourus mitogenome was estimated to be 28.0% A, 30.9% C, 15.8% G and 25.3% T. The phylogenetic analysis of the C. poliourus mitogenome suggests a closer genetic relationship with Vermiculated angelfish Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus as expected from their similar color patterns. The overall pairwise identity except D-loop is 93.7% for these two sister species. The decoding of the C. poliourus mitogenome has enriched gene database for further evolutionary studies and conservation assessments of this uncommon and newly described marine angelfish.

14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 759444, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778190

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has alienated people from urban green spaces (UGSs) that have various health outcomes for humans. However, little is known about the influential factors of perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the key factors that influence perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs and to assess the mediating role of place attachment in relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese megacities. Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire survey from December 2020 to March 2021 in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China. Six multiple regression models were constructed to investigate the main factors by which UGSs influence citizens' perceived health benefits and use behaviors. Four mediation models were established using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method to explore the mediating effect of place attachment. Results: A total of 628 questionnaires were included in the analysis. The results revealed that some UGS components (green space access, maintenance, and soundscape) significantly affected perceived health benefits for citizens (physical, mental, and social health) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conversely, use behaviors (frequency of visits, duration of visits, and activity intensity) were mainly affected by the sociodemographic context but less affected by UGS components. In addition, UGS components were found to significantly predict place attachment, which in turn influenced the perceived health benefits, frequency, and duration of visits. Conclusions: This study distinguished the key factors that affect perceived health benefits and use behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: green space access, maintenance, soundscape, and sociodemographic characteristics. Place attachment still needs to be considered when discussing how to encourage citizens to visit UGSs during the pandemic. These findings provide implications for policymakers and landscape planners regarding design and management measures for UGSs that are conducive to coping with pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 710203, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616726

RESUMO

Background: Regulation of gene expression is critical for stem cell differentiation, tissue development, and human health maintenance. Recently, epigenetic modifications of histone and chromatin remodeling have been verified as key controllers of gene expression and human diseases. Objective: In this study, we review the role of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) proteins in stem cell differentiation, cell fate decision, and several known human developmental disorders and cancers. Conclusion: CHD proteins play a crucial role in stem cell differentiation and human diseases.

18.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 244, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports regarding health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of hypertensive individuals commonly concentrated on urban population. This study focused on rural population and aimed to explore the influencing factors of HRQoL. METHODS: Date were derived from Henan Rural Cohort study. The HRQoL of participants were assessed via European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level Scale (EQ-5D-5L) instrument. Tobit regression model and generalized linear model were employed to explore the influencing factors of HRQoL. Another binary logistic regression was utilized to examine the robustness of our results. RESULTS: Among 23,485 rural population, 8128 participants were identified with hypertension. The mean (SD) utility index and VAS score of non-hypertension group were 0.96 (0.09) and 79.66 (14.20), respectively, while in hypertension group were 0.94 (0.14) and 75.88 (15.50), respectively. Pain/discomfort was the most common self-reported problem (23.05%) for patients. Aging and suffering with other diseases were negatively associated with HRQoL among rural patients, while high socioeconomic status and healthy lifestyles corresponded with high HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension did push considerable pressures on patients' HRQoL. Maintaining healthy lifestyles and improving the socioeconomic status of patients were advisable ways to reduce this burden. Trial registration The Henan Rural Cohort Study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699). http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=11375.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , População Rural
19.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the associations of cortisol-to-cortisone ratio (F/E) and 11-deoxycortisol (S) in hypertension and blood pressure among Chinese rural population. METHODS: A total of 6233 participants from the Henan Rural Cohort Study were included. Serum cortisol (F), cortisone (E), and S were assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Generalized linear model (GLM) and logistic regression model were performed to assess the associations of F, E, F/E, and S with blood pressure and hypertension. Moreover, the sex specificity of the associations was assessed. RESULTS: Serum F, F/E, and S were positively associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP), while E was negatively associated with SBP and PP. There were no statistically significant associations of F and E with the prevalence of hypertension, while F/E and S were positively associated with hypertension [odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of F/E and S were 1.28 (1.13, 1.44) and 1.10 (1.04, 1.17), respectively. Also, the combination of high F/E and S was significantly associated with hypertension. The blood pressure indicators and the prevalence of hypertension increased with an incremental in the serum concentration of F, F/E, and S (all Ptrend < 0.05). In addition, the positive association between F/E and SBP was stronger in women than that in men, and F/E was strongly positively associated with hypertension only in women (all Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum F/E and S were positively associated with hypertension and blood pressure. Additionally, their combination has a synergistic effect on hypertension. Moreover, the associations of F and F/E with hypertension and blood pressure were in a sex-specific manner.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1911, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There were few studies exploring the associations between depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the general population, especially in resource limited area. The aims of this study were to assess the associations between depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, their comorbidity and HRQoL in rural area. METHODS: A total of 23,496 eligible participants from Henan rural cohort were included. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) were employed to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. HRQoL was measured via European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level Scale (EQ-5D-5L). Tobit regression and generalized linear model were utilized to explore the associations between depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, their comorbidity and HRQoL. RESULTS: A total of 1320 individuals were identified as depressive symptoms with a prevalence rate of 5.62%, while 1198 participants were classified as anxiety symptoms with a prevalence rate of 5.10%. After multiple adjustment, the regression coefficients (ß) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of utility index for depressive and anxiety symptoms were - 0.166 (- 0.182, - 0.149) and - 0.132 (- 0.149, - 0.114), respectively. The ß and 95% CI of VAS score for depressive and anxiety symptoms were - 7.65 (- 8.60, - 6.70) and - 5.79 (- 6.78, - 4.80), respectively. Additionally, the comorbidity was strongly associated with low utility index and VAS score. These findings were observed robustly in men and women. CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and their comorbidity were associated with low HRQoL in rural population, which needed further efforts on preventive and treatment interventions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Henan Rural Cohort Study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699 ). Date of registration: 06 July, 2015.


Assuntos
Depressão , Qualidade de Vida , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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