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1.
Mem Cognit ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740725

RESUMO

During learning, interleaving exemplars from different categories (e.g., ABCBCACAB) rather than blocking by category (e.g., AAABBBCCC) often enhances inductive learning, especially when the categories are highly similar. However, when allowed to select their own study schedules, learners overwhelmingly tend to block rather than interleave. Category similarity has been shown to moderate the relative benefit of interleaved versus blocked study. We investigated whether learners were sensitive to category similarity when choosing exemplars for study, and whether these choices predicted their learning outcomes. In Experiment 1, learners interleaved more often when the categories were highly similar (difficult to discriminate from each other), compared with when similarity was low. In Experiment 2, learners were presented with two sets of categories to learn; categories within each set were similar to each other, but categories were dissimilar across sets. When learners chose to interleave, they tended to switch to a similar rather than dissimilar category. Importantly, learners' study choices predicted their subsequent categorization performance. Our findings suggest that learners are strategic in their search for commonalities within versus differences among categories and can regulate their study behaviors based on category similarity.

2.
Memory ; 27(8): 1091-1098, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145027

RESUMO

Although previous research on retrieval practice (RP) has predominantly featured stimuli with discrete right-or-wrong answers, continuous measures offer potentially greater sensitivity in assessing the effects of RP on memory precision. The present study used a colour gradient (125 points ranging from magenta to yellow) as a continuous response variable. The colours of different images were learned through either RP or restudy and either one or three cycles of practice after initial study. On a delayed final test, participants' memory was assessed for each item's colour. Participants also created per-item intervals representing the region where they believed the correct colour most likely to have been. We found that repeated rounds of RP enhanced the correspondence between responses and the correct colour. In addition, RP led to participants creating more accurate (correct answers were more likely to be within the participant-specified intervals) and more precise (narrower) intervals relative to restudy, suggesting that RP enhances the precision of memories.


Assuntos
Memória , Rememoração Mental , Prática Psicológica , Adulto , Percepção de Cores , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 21(6): 1544-50, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24744260

RESUMO

If multiple opportunities are available to review to-be-learned material, should a review occur soon after initial study and recur at progressively expanding intervals, or should the reviews occur at equal intervals? Landauer and Bjork (1978) argued for the superiority of expanding intervals, whereas more recent research has often failed to find any advantage. However, these prior studies have generally compared expanding versus equal-interval training within a single session, and have assessed effects only upon a single final test. We argue that a more generally important goal would be to maintain high average performance over a considerable period of training. For the learning of foreign vocabulary spread over four weeks, we found that expanding retrieval practice (i.e., sessions separated by increasing numbers of days) produced recall equivalent to that from equal-interval practice on a final test given eight weeks after training. However, the expanding schedule yielded much higher average recallability over the whole training period.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cognition ; 128(3): 424-30, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23778190

RESUMO

Reviewing information stored in memory will generally strengthen that information, so it seems reasonable that reviews should make it harder to replace the information in memory if it is later found to be erroneous. In Experiment 1, subjects learned three facts about each of 12 topics. On Day 2, the same facts were either reread, tested, or not reviewed; then the facts were "corrected" with new replacement facts. A test on the replacement facts given 1week later disclosed that both rereading and testing the to-be-replaced Day-1 facts enhanced memory for the Day-2 facts which supplanted them, although rereading (but not testing) the Day-1 facts also led to more intrusions of Day-1 facts on the final test. In Experiment 2, subjects were unexpectedly asked (in the final test) to recollect both original and replacement facts; old facts were often retrieved, especially when reviewed. It is suggested that review may promote development of a secondary retrieval route for the corrected information.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 20(6): 1259-65, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23681928

RESUMO

Second language (L2) instruction programs often ask learners to repeat aloud words spoken by a native speaker. However, recent research on retrieval practice has suggested that imitating native pronunciation might be less effective than drill instruction, wherein the learner is required to produce the L2 words from memory (and given feedback). We contrasted the effectiveness of imitation and retrieval practice drills on learning L2 spoken vocabulary. Learners viewed pictures of objects and heard their names; in the imitation condition, they heard and then repeated aloud each name, whereas in the retrieval practice condition, they tried to produce the name before hearing it. On a final test administered either immediately after training (Exp. 1) or after a 2-day delay (Exp. 2), retrieval practice produced better comprehension of the L2 words, better ability to produce the L2 words, and no loss of pronunciation quality.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Idioma , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Vocabulário , Humanos , Multilinguismo
6.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 18(5): 998-1005, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21630113

RESUMO

Is learning of a complex functional relationship enhanced by trying to predict what output will go with a given input, as compared to studying an input-output pair? We examined learning of a bilinear function and transfer to new items outside the trained range. Subjects either saw the input-output pairs (study-only condition) or attempted to guess the output and then saw the pair (test/study condition). The total study times were equated, and motivation was enhanced with a monetary bonus. Performance was markedly better for the test/study condition, both within the trained range and in the transfer test. This benefit of testing during training was observed on a criterial test administered shortly after training. Testing has long been shown to enhance the explicit learning and retention of verbal material; our present findings reveal a novel domain for which testing can also be advantageous-that is, function learning.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação
7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 64(6): 1041-7, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21644189

RESUMO

Sereno, O'Donnell, and Sereno (2009) reported that words are recognized faster in a lexical decision task when their referents are physically large than when they are small, suggesting that "semantic size" might be an important variable that should be considered in visual word recognition research and modelling. We sought to replicate their size effect, but failed to find a significant latency advantage in lexical decision for "big" words (cf. "small" words), even though we used the same word stimuli as Sereno et al. and had almost three times as many subjects. We also examined existing data from visual word recognition megastudies (e.g., English Lexicon Project) and found that semantic size is not a significant predictor of lexical decision performance after controlling for the standard lexical variables. In summary, the null results from our lab experiment--despite a much larger subject sample size than Sereno et al.--converged with our analysis of megastudy lexical decision performance, leading us to conclude that semantic size does not matter for word recognition. Discussion focuses on why semantic size (unlike some other semantic variables) is unlikely to play a role in lexical decision.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Semântica , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mem Cognit ; 38(8): 1009-17, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21156865

RESUMO

Studies examining the beneficial effect of testing on memory have relied almost exclusively on verbal materials. Whether testing can improve the learning of novel, abstract visuospatial information was investigated, using Chinese characters as study stimuli. Subjects with no prior Chinese language experience studied English words paired with their Chinese equivalents. Subsequently, they either restudied the pairs twice or attempted to retrieve covertly the Chinese characters twice (with feedback provided afterward). The durations of the study and the retrieval/feedback trials were equated. On a final test given after 10 min (Experiment 1) or 24 h (Experiment 2), the subjects who had practiced retrieval were more accurate at writing/drawing the Chinese characters than were those who had studied repeatedly. The same result was replicated when learning condition was manipulated within subjects (Experiment 3). In predictions of future performance made after training, however, the subjects seemed unaware that retrieval practice was more effective than repeated studying. Testing enhances visuospatial learning, with potential implications for learning a foreign language that uses a writing script different from one's language: Repeated retrieval from memory trumps repeated studying.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Multilinguismo , Orientação , Aprendizagem por Associação de Pares , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Prática Psicológica , Semântica , Conscientização , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Julgamento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Retenção Psicológica , Redação
9.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 35(6): 1477-86, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19857018

RESUMO

Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) reported a series of experiments in which processing unrelated words in terms of their relevance to a grasslands survival scenario led to better retention relative to other semantic processing tasks. The impetus for their study was the premise that human memory systems evolved under the selection pressures of our ancestral past. In 3 experiments, we extended this functional approach to investigate the congruity effect-the common finding that people remember items better if those items are congruent with the way in which they are processed. Experiment 1 was a replication of Nairne et al.'s (2007) experiment and showed congruity effects in the survival processing paradigm. To avoid potential item-selection artifacts from randomly selected words, we manipulated congruence between words and processing condition in Experiments 2 and 3. As expected, final recall was highest when the type of processing and the materials were congruent, indicating that people remember stimuli better if the stimuli are congruent with the goals associated with their processing. However, contrary to our predictions, no survival processing advantage emerged between the 2 congruent conditions or for a list of irrelevant words. When congruity was controlled in a mixed list design, the survival processing advantage disappeared.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Semântica , Análise de Variância , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Distribuição Aleatória , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Vocabulário
10.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 16(4): 692-8, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19648454

RESUMO

The extent to which readers can exert strategic control over oral reading processes is a matter of debate. According to the pathway control hypothesis, the relative contributions of the lexical and nonlexical pathways can be modulated by the characteristics of the context stimuli being read, but an alternative time criterion model is also a viable explanation of past results. In Experiment 1, subjects named high- and low-frequency regular words in the context of either low-frequency exception words (e.g., pint) or nonwords (e.g., flirp). Frequency effects (faster pronunciation latencies for high-frequency words) were attenuated in the nonword context, consistent with the notion that nonwords emphasize the characteristics of the frequency-insensitive nonlexical pathway. Importantly, we also assessed memory for targets, and a similar attenuation of the frequency effect in recognition memory was observed in the nonword condition. Converging evidence was obtained in a second experiment in which a variable that was more sensitive to the nonlexical pathway (orthographic neighborhood size) was manipulated. The results indicated that both speeded pronunciation performance and memory performance were relatively attenuated in the low-frequency exception word context in comparision with the nonword context. The opposing influences of list context type for word frequency and orthographic neighborhood size effects in speeded pronunciation and memory performance provide strong support for the pathway control model, as opposed to the time criterion model.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Fonética , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal , Atenção , Discriminação Psicológica , Humanos , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação
11.
Mem Cognit ; 36(6): 1151-6, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18927033

RESUMO

Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) proposed that our memory systems serve an adaptive function and that they have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information. In a series of experiments, they demonstrated that processing words according to their survival relevance resulted in better retention than did rating them for pleasantness, personal relevance, or relevance to moving to a new house. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the advantage of survival processing could be replicated, using a control condition that was designed to match the survival processing task in arousal, novelty, and media exposure--the relevance to planning a bank heist. We found that survival processing nonetheless yielded better retention on both a recall (Experiment 1) and a recognition (Experiment 2) test. This mnemonic advantage of survival processing was also obtained when words were rated for their relevance to a character depicted in a video clip (Experiment 3). Our findings provide additional evidence that the mnemonic benefit of survival processing is a robust phenomenon, and they also support the utility of adopting a functional perspective in investigating memory.


Assuntos
Atenção , Retenção Psicológica , Sobrevida/psicologia , Aprendizagem Verbal , Nível de Alerta , Aprendizagem por Associação , Humanos , Imaginação , Rememoração Mental , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação , Enquadramento Psicológico
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