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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(23): e2201896, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661447

RESUMO

Activation of oxygen redox during the first cycle has been reported as the main trigger of voltage hysteresis during further cycles in high-energy-density Li-rich 3d-transition-metal layered oxides. However, it remains unclear whether hysteresis only occurs due to oxygen redox. Here, it is identified that the voltage hysteresis can highly correlate to cationic reduction during discharge in the Li-rich layered oxide, Li1.2 Ni0.4 Mn0.4 O2 . In this material, the potential region of discharge accompanied by hysteresis is apparently separated from that of discharge unrelated to hysteresis. The quantitative analysis of soft/hard X-ray absorption spectroscopies discloses that hysteresis is associated with an incomplete cationic reduction of Ni during discharge. The galvanostatic intermittent titration technique shows that the inevitable energy consumption caused by hysteresis corresponds to an overpotential of 0.3 V. The results unveil that hysteresis can also be affected by cationic redox in Li-rich layered cathodes, implying that oxygen redox cannot be the only reason for the evolution of voltage hysteresis. Therefore, appropriate control of both cationic and anionic redox of Li-rich layered oxides will allow them to reach their maximum energy density and efficiency.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(17): 10498-10508, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899859

RESUMO

Topochemical reactions involving ionic exchange have been used to assess a large number of metastable compositions, particularly in layered metal oxides. This method encompasses complex reactions that are poorly explored, yet are of prime importance to understand and control the materials' properties. In this work, we embark on investigating the reactions involved during the ionic exchange between a layered Na-titanate (lepidocrocite-type structure) and an acidic solution (HCl), leading to a protonic (H3O+) titanate (trititanate structure). The reactions involve an ionic exchange provoking a structural change from the lepidocrocite-type to the trititanate structure as shown by real-space refinements of ex situ pair distribution function data. Mobile Na+ ions are exchanged by hydronium ions inducing high proton mobility in the final structure. Moreover, the reaction was followed by ex situ23Na and 1H solid-state MAS NMR which allowed, among other things, confirming that the Na+ ions are in the interlayer space and specifying their local environment. Strikingly, the ionic exchange reaction induces progressive exfoliation of the Na-titanate particles leading to 2-5 nm thin elongated crystallites. To further understand the different steps associated with the ionic exchange, the evolution of the electrolytic conductivity, using conductimetric titration, has been monitored upon HCl addition, enabling characterization of the intercalation(H+)/de-intercalation(Na+) reactions and assessing kinetic parameters. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the exfoliation of the particles is due to the accumulation of charges at the particle level in relation to the rapid intercalation of protons. This work provides novel insights into ionic exchange reactions involved in layered oxide compounds.

3.
Int J Pharm ; 319(1-2): 130-8, 2006 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16713152

RESUMO

This aim of this study was to encapsulate retinol into chitosan nanoparticles and reconstitute it into aqueous solution. Retinol-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles were prepared for application of cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Retinol-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticle has a spherical shape and its particle sizes were around 50-200 nm according to the drug contents. Particle size was increased according to the increase of drug contents. Solubility of retinol is able to increase by encapsulation into chitosan nanoparticles more than 1600-fold. It was suggested that retinol was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles by ion complex as a result of FT-IR spectra. Specific peak of chitosan at 1590 cm(-1) was divided to semi-doublet due to the electrostatic interaction between amine group of chitosan and hydroxyl group of retinol. At (1)H NMR spectra, specific peaks of retinol disappeared when retinol-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles were reconstituted into D(2)O while specific peaks both of retinol and chitosan appeared at D(2)O/DMSO (1/4, v/v) mixture. XRD patterns also showed that crystal peaks of retinol were disappeared by encapsulation into chitosan nanoparticles. Retinol-encapsulated nanoparticles were completely reconstituted into aqueous solution as same as original aqueous solution and zeta potential of reconstituted chitosan nanoparticles was similar to their original solution. At HPLC study, retinol was stably and efficiently encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Nanopartículas , Solventes/química , Vitamina A/química , Vitaminas/química , Água/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
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