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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555863

RESUMO

Carbonates cause large uncertainties in determining the concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), as well as EC's light absorption characteristics, in arid locations, such as Central Asia. To investigate this influence, a comparison between acid (HCl)-treated and original total suspended particle (TSP) samples was conducted in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. According to the results, the OC and EC concentrations were overestimated by approximately 22.8 ± 33.8 and 32.5 ± 33.5%, with the actual values being 11.9 ± 3.0 and 5.13 ± 2.24 µg m-3, respectively. It was found that carbonates had a larger influence from May to October than during the other months, which was significantly correlated with the amount of TSPs on the filter. Furthermore, the mass absorption cross-section of EC (MACEC) increased from 4.52 ± 1.32 to 6.02 ± 1.49 m2 g-1; this indicated that carbonates can significantly decrease MACEC, thus causing an underestimation of approximately 23.9 ± 16.7%. This is the first study that quantifies the influence of carbonates on the light-absorbing abilities of EC.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116544, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609859

RESUMO

This study discusses year-long (October 2016-September 2017) observations of atmospheric black carbon (BC) mass concentration, its source and sector contributions using a chemical transport model at a high-altitude (28°12'49.21″N, 85°36'33.77″E, 4900 masl) site located near the Yala Glacier in the central Himalayas, Nepal. During a field campaign, fresh snow samples were collected from the surface of the Yala Glacier in May 2017, which were analysed for BC and water-insoluble organic carbon mass concentration in order to estimate the scavenging ratio and surface albedo reduction. The maximum BC mass concentration in the ambient atmosphere (0.73 µg m-3) was recorded in the pre-monsoon season. The BC and water-insoluble organic carbon analysed from the snow samples were in the range of 96-542 ng g-1 and 152-827 ng g-1, respectively. The source apportionment study using the absorption Ångström exponent from in situ observations indicated approximately 44% contribution of BC from biomass-burning sources and the remainder from fossil-fuel sources during the entire study period. The source contribution study, using model data sets, indicated ∼14% contribution of BC from open-burning and ∼77% from anthropogenic sources during the study period. Our analysis of regional contributions of BC indicated that the highest contribution was from both Nepal and India combined, followed by China, while the rest was distributed among the nearby countries. The surface snow albedo reduction, estimated by an online model - Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation - was in the range of 0.8-3.8% during the pre-monsoon season. The glacier mass balance analysis suggested that BC contributed to approximately 39% of the total mass loss in the pre-monsoon season.

3.
Environ Int ; 146: 106281, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395932

RESUMO

Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC), is an important climate forcing agent and contributes to glacier retreat in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The HTP - the so-called "Third Pole" - contains the most extensive glacial area outside of the polar regions. Considerable research on carbonaceous matter in the HTP has been conducted, although this research has been challenging due to the complex terrain and strong spatiotemporal heterogeneity of carbonaceous matter in the HTP. A comprehensive investigation of published atmospheric and snow data for HTP carbonaceous matter concentration, deposition and light absorption is presented, including how these factors vary with time and other parameters. Carbonaceous matter concentrations in the atmosphere and glaciers of the HTP are found to be low. Analysis of water-insoluable organic carbon and BC from snowpits reveals that concentrations of OC and BC in the atmosphere and glacier samples in arid regions of the HTP may be overestimated due to contributions from inorganic carbon in mineral dust. Due to the remote nature of the HTP, carbonaceous matter found in the HTP has generally been transported from outside the HTP (e.g., South Asia), although local HTP emissions may also be important at some sites. This review provides essential data and a synthesis of current thinking for studies on atmospheric transport modeling and radiative forcing of carbonaceous matter in the HTP.

4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111228, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890952

RESUMO

Atmospheric heavy metals have important environmental and health threats. To investigate atmospheric deposition and contamination of heavy metal elements in the glaciers of the eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP), we collected the surface snow (cryoconites) samples in the Lenglongling Glacier (LG), the Gannan Snowpack (GS), the Dagu Glacier (DG), the Hailuogou Glacier (HG) and Yulong Snow-mountain Glacier (YG) in summer 2017. Samples were analyzed for concentrations and enrichment factors (EFs) of Al and trace elements (Pb, Co, Cd, Ba, Mn, Ga, Sc, V, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sb, Cs, As, Mo, Li) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that the concentrations and EFs of heavy metals (e.g. Sb, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, Mo) were generally high value in YG, GS and LG, while were relatively low value in DG and HG, implying that ETP glaciers may have been affected by atmospheric anthropogenic pollutants deposition to varying degrees. Comparing the heavy metal concentrations in the glaciers with those in the precipitation of middle/eastern China cities and also the South Asian cities, we find that the glacial heavy metal concentrations were generally low level, though the anthropogenic pollutants were still significantly enriched. Taking the spatial distribution of As and Ni concentration/EFs in the glaciers and surrounding urban precipitation as an example, we find that the heavy metal pollutants were probably transported to the glaciers through three routes from the surrounding densely populated area of Asia. The MODIS AOD and NCEP/NCAR wind vector also demonstrated that the atmospheric pollutants originated from anthropogenic emissions of urban areas of both South Asia, and northwest and east China, mainly caused by the large scale atmospheric circulation (e.g. the South Asian Monsoon, westerlies and Eastern Asian Summer Monsoon). Therefore, control of these potential pollution emission sources of the surrounding densely populated areas in Asia could be important to ETP glaciers in future perspectives.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Camada de Gelo/química , Metais Pesados/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Estações do Ano , Neve/química , Tibet , Oligoelementos/análise , Vento
5.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116195, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333406

RESUMO

This study used a regional climate-chemistry transport model, WRF-Chem v3.9.1, to evaluate the impact of South Asian biomass burning on black carbon (BC) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its climatic effects for an entire year. The simulation, which was validated by comparing surface meteorological parameters and BC concentration against in-situ observations over South Asia and the TP, provided a perspective on the seasonal variations and regional spatial patterns of BC concentration. Using a sensitivity simulation where BC emissions from biomass burning were removed from South Asia, this study found South Asian biomass burning emissions contributed up to 90% of BC mass over the TP during the pre-monsoon season, specifically emissions from western India for the simulated year. The emissions led to reduced surface radiative forcing, causing the temperature to decrease accordingly. However, column cloud water was increased. This study suggested that the biomass burning emissions from South Asia have significant impact on atmospheric BC over the TP, especially during the pre-monsoon season. Therefore, reducing biomass burning emissions from South Asia is potentially important for alleviating the effects of BC on climatic and environmental conditions over the TP and surrounding regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ásia , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Tibet
6.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116234, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333409

RESUMO

The deposition of light absorbing impurities (LAIs) (e.g., black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust (MD)) on snow is an important attribution to accelerate snowmelt across the northern Xinjiang, China. At present, there is still a lack of understanding of the LAIs concentration, elution and enrichment process in snow cover over Xinjiang. Based on these, continuously sampling during two years carried out to investigate the concentrations, impacts and potential sources of LAIs in snow at Kuwei Station in the southern Altai Mountains. The average concentrations of BC, OC and MD in the surface snow were 2787 ± 2334 ng g-1, 6130 ± 6127 ng g-1, and 70.03 ± 62.59 µg g-1, respectively, which dramatically increased along with snowmelt intensified, reflecting a significant enrichment process of LAIs at the snow surface. Besides, high LAIs concentrations also found in the subsurface and melting layers of the snowpit, reflecting the elution and redistribution of LAIs. With the simulation of the SNow ICe Aerosol Radiative model, BC was the main dominant factor in reducing snow albedo and radiative forcing (RF), its impact was more remarkable in the snowmelt period. The average contribution rates of BC, MD and BC + MD to snow albedo reduction increased by 20.0 ± 1.9%, 13.0 ± 0.2%, and 20.5 ± 2.3% in spring compared with that in winter; meanwhile, the corresponding average RFs increased by 15.8 ± 3.4 W m-2, 4.7 ± 0.3 W m-2 and 16.4 ± 3.2 W m-2, respectively. Changes in the number of snowmelt days caused by BC and MD decreased by 3.0 ± 0.4 d to 8.3 ± 1.3 d. It indicated that surface enrichment of LAIs during snow melting might accelerate snowmelt further. Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry model showed that the resident emission was the main potential source of BC and OC in snow. This implied that the mitigation of intensive snowmelt needs to mainly reduce resident emission of LAIs in the future.


Assuntos
Neve , Fuligem , Aerossóis/análise , China , Poeira , Fuligem/análise
7.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115442, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254682

RESUMO

The atmospheric circulation plays a critical role in the global transport and deposition of atmospheric pollutants such as mercury (Hg). Desert dust emissions contribute to nearly 60-95% of the global dust budget and thus, desert dust may facilitate atmospheric Hg transport and deposition to the downwind regions worldwide. The role of desert dust in biogeochemical cycling of Hg, however, has not been well recognized by the Hg research community. In this study, we measured the concentration of particulate bound Hg (HgP) in total suspended particulate (TSP) collected from China's largest desert, Taklimakan Desert, between 2013 and 2017. The results show that HgP concentrations over the Taklimakan Desert atmosphere are remarkably higher than those observed from background sites in China and are even comparable to those measured in most of the Chinese metropolitan cities. Moreover, HgP concentrations in the Taklimakan Desert exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern peaking during dust storm outbreak periods in spring and summer (March to August). A preliminary estimation demonstrates that export of total Hg associated with atmospheric dust from the Taklimakan Desert could be 59.7 ± 60.3 (1SD) Mg yr-1. The unexpectedly high HgP concentrations during duststorms, together with consistent seasonal pattern of Hg revealed from the snow/ice, clearly demonstrate that Asian desert dust could act as a significant carrier of atmospheric Hg to the cryosphere of Western China and even can have further global reach.

8.
Environ Pollut ; : 116000, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199066

RESUMO

Carbonaceous particles play an important role in climate change, and an increase in their emission and deposition causes glacier melting in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau (HTP). This implies that studying their basic characteristics is crucial for a better understanding of the climate forcing observed in this area. Thus, we investigated characteristics of carbonaceous particles at a typical remote site of southeastern HTP. Organic carbon and elemental carbon concentrations at this study site were 1.86 ± 0.84 and 0.18 ± 0.09 µg m-3, respectively, which are much lower than those reported for other frequently monitored stations in the same region. Thus, these values reflect the background characteristics of the study site. Additionally, the absorption coefficient per mass (α/ρ) of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) at 365 nm was 0.60 ± 0.19 m2 g-1, with the highest and lowest values corresponding to the winter and monsoon seasons, respectively. Multi-dimensional fluorescence analysis showed that the WSOC consisted of approximately 37% and 63% protein and humic-like components, respectively, and the latter was identified as the component that primarily determined the light absorption ability of the WSOC, which also showed a significant relationship with some major ions, including SO2-4, K+, and Ca2+, indicating that combustion activities as well as mineral dust were two important contributors to WSOC at the study site.

9.
Chemosphere ; : 128900, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234306

RESUMO

Solid wastes are generated from human activities which could cause damage to the ecological environment and human beings. In recent years, there has been extensive research on solid wastes utilized as precursors, aggregates, fibers, etc. to prepare the geopolymers, which has invariably been a research hotspot. This review classifies the solid wastes utilized for geopolymers into three main categories: industrial waste, agricultural waste, and municipal waste. Accordingly, we systematically dissert solid wastes-based geopolymer from the perspectives of structure, properties, and application. The chemical composition, morphology, particle size, thermal conductivity, and other characteristics of solid wastes can trigger changes in the specific properties of geopolymers. On this account, solid wastes-based geopolymers have great potential in the domain of concrete, fireproof materials, impermeable materials, catalysts, adsorbents, and energy storage materials, etc. More importantly, geopolymers have obvious advantages in immobilizing heavy metals in solid wastes. Therefore, it can demonstrate geopolymer is a sustainable and environmentally friendly "green material". However, it still confronts the challenges of solid wastes utilized in geopolymer (technology, economy, administration). It requires the government, enterprises, and the public to work together for co-governance to accomplish industrialization and commercialization of solid wastes-based geopolymer.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143634, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243498

RESUMO

Microplastics are globally prevalent on a large scale in various marine and terrestrial environments, including Arctic snow and precipitation in protected areas of the United Sates. However, reports of microplastics from glaciers are rare, especially for the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which is widely known as the world's Third Pole and Asian Water Tower. Adjacent to human settlements in South Asia, East China, and Central Asia, the TP features regular cross-border air pollution (e.g., black carbon and mercury), which can affect its vulnerable and pristine environments. In previous studies, abundant microplastics have been reported from Tibetan rivers/lakes water and sediments, and surface soils. We detected microplastics in glacier surface snow on the TP, which were isolated from the impact of human activities, indicating that microplastics can be transported over long distances. This evidence is expected to be significant for understanding the atmospheric transport of microplastics to the TP, and provides a global perspective on the microplastic cycle.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115906, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120333

RESUMO

Fluorescence spectroscopy is a commonly used technique to analyze dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments. Given the high sensitivity and non-destructive analysis, fluorescence has recently been used to study water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in atmospheric aerosols, which have substantial abundance, various sources and play an important role in climate change. Yet, current research on WSOC characterization is rather sparse and limited to a few isolated sites, making it challenging to draw fundamental and mechanistic conclusions. Here we presented a review of the fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC reported in various field and laboratory studies, to discuss the current advances and limitations of fluorescence applications. We highlighted that photochemical reactions and relevant aging processes have profound impacts on fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC, which were previously unnoticed for organic matter in aquatic environments. Furthermore, we discussed the differences in sources and chemical compositions of fluorescent components between the atmosphere and hydrosphere. We concluded that the commonly used fluorescence characteristics derived from aquatic environments may not be applicable as references for atmospheric WSOC. We emphasized that there is a need for more systematic studies on the fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC and to establish a more robust reference and dataset for fluorescence studies in atmosphere based on extensive source-specific experiments.

12.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115907, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120351

RESUMO

To understand the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants in Xinjiang, a region with one of the largest sand-shifting deserts in the world and significant natural dust emissions, the concentrations of six air pollutants monitored in 16 cities were analyzed for the period January 2013-June 2019. The annual mean PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 concentrations ranged from 51.44 to 59.54 µg m-3, 128.43-155.28 µg m-3, 10.99-17.99 µg m-3, 26.27-31.71 µg m-3, 1.04-1.32 mg m-3, and 55.27-65.26 µg m-3, respectively. The highest PM concentrations were recorded in cities surrounding the Taklimakan Desert during the spring season and caused by higher amounts of wind-blown dust from the desert. Coarse PM (PM10-2.5) was predominant, particularly during the spring and summer seasons. The highest PM2.5/PM10 ratio was recorded in most cities during the winter months, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions in winters. The annual mean PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations in the study area exceeded the annual mean guidelines recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) by a factor of ca. ∼5-6 (∼7-8). Very high ambient PM concentrations were recorded during March 19-22, 2019, that gradually influenced the air quality across four different cities, with daily mean PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations ∼8-54 (∼26-115) times higher than the WHO guidelines for daily mean concentrations, and the daily mean coarse PM concentration reaching 4.4 mg m-3. Such high PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations pose a significant risk to public health. These findings call for the formulation of various policies and action plans, including controlling the land degradation and desertification and reducing the concentrations of PM and other air pollutants in the region.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115274, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891045

RESUMO

Inorganic particulate nitrate (p-NO3-), gaseous nitric acid (HNO3(g)) and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), as main atmospheric pollutants, have detrimental effects on human health and aquatic/terrestrial ecosystems. Referred to as the 'Third Pole' and the 'Water Tower of Asia', the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has attracted wide attention on its environmental changes. Here, we evaluated the oxidation processes of atmospheric nitrate as well as traced its potential sources by analyzing the isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) in the aerosols collected from the Mt. Everest region during April to September 2018. Over the entire sampling campaigns, the average of δ15N(NO3-), δ18O(NO3-), and Δ17O(NO3-) was -5.1 ± 2.3‰, 66.7 ± 10.2‰, and 24.1 ± 3.9‰, respectively. The seasonal variation in Δ17O(NO3-) indicates the relative importance of O3 and HO2/RO2/OH in NOx oxidation processes among different seasons. A significant correlation between NO3- and Ca2+ and frequent dust storms in the Mt. Everest region indicate that initially, the atmospheric nitrate in this region might have undergone a process of settling; subsequently, it got re-suspended in the dust. Compared with the Δ17O(NO3-) values in the northern TP, our observed significantly higher values suggest that spatial variations in atmospheric Δ17O(NO3-) exist within the TP, and this might result from the spatial variations of the atmospheric O3 levels, especially the stratospheric O3, over the TP. The observed δ15N(NO3-) values predicted remarkably low δ15N values in the NOx of the sources and the N isotopic fractionation plays a crucial role in the seasonal changes of δ15N(NO3-). Combined with the results from the backward trajectory analysis of air mass, we suggest that the vehicle exhausts and agricultural activities in South Asia play a dominant role in determining the nitrate levels in the Mt. Everest region.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ásia , Ecossistema , Nitratos/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140056, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927540

RESUMO

Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs), including black carbon (BC) and mineral dust, in snow can trigger a positive feedback. In this study, we estimate the contribution of BC and dust to glacial melting in Central Asia. Average BC and dust concentrations in the surface snow of the Muz Taw glacier are 1788 ± 1754 ng g-1 and 172 ± 178 µg g-1, respectively. Simulation using the Snow Ice and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model indicates that the combined effect of BC and dust reduces the snow albedo by approximately 6.24% to 50.4% relative to clean snow. Radiative forcing (RF) induced by BC and dust deposited in snow ranges from 1.61 to 32.69 W m-2, with an average of 16.74 W m-2 for the central scenario. Thus, glacier melting can be enhanced by 36.37 cm w.e. by BC and dust in snow, accounting for about 16.3% of the total glacier melt. LAIs deposited on the Muz Taw glacier mostly originate from Central Asia, West Siberia and local emissions during the study period. More than 80% of BC deposited is attributed to anthropogenic emissions. These results strengthen the important role of BC and dust in glacier melting in Central Asia, and further highlights the potential benefits of mitigation of BC emissions.

15.
Microb Ecol ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918153

RESUMO

Comprehensive knowledge of bacterial ecology mainly in supraglacial habitats is pivotal particularly at the frontier of accelerated glacier retreat. In this study, bacterial diversity and community composition in glacial soil and meltwater runoff at the frontier of Baishui Glacier No.1 were evaluated using high throughput sequencing. Significant variations in the physiochemical parameters formed an ecological gradient between soil and meltwater runoff. Based on the richness and evenness indexes, the bacterial diversity was relatively higher in soil compared with meltwater runoff. Hierarchical clustering and bi-plot ordination revealed that the taxonomic composition of soil samples was highly similar and significantly influenced by the ecological parameters than the meltwater runoff. The overall relative abundance trend of bacterial phyla and genera were greatly varied in soil and water samples. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was higher in water runoff samples (40.5-87%) compared with soil samples (32-52.7%). Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and a little part of Cyanobacteria occupied a major portion of water runoff while the soil was dominated by Acidobacteria (6-16.2%), Actinobacteria (5-16%), Bacteroidetes (0.5-8.8%), and Cyanobacteria (0.1-8.3%) besides Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Higher numbers of biomarkers were found in soil group compared with the water group. The study area is diverse in terms of richness, while community structures are not evenly distributed. This study provides a preliminary understanding of the bacterial diversity and shifts in community structure in soil and meltwater runoff at the frontier of the glacial. The findings revealed that the environmental factors are a significantly strong determinant of bacterial community structures in such a closely linked ecosystem.

16.
Environ Int ; 144: 106045, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919285

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosols are a branch of active research in recent decades. The deposition of light-absorbing substances on high-altitude glaciers causes substantial adverse impacts on the cryospheric environment, cryosphere-hydrology, and climate system. Although, the concentrations of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in snow/ice on glaciers of Tibetan Plateau (TP) have been reported, their transfer processes and optical properties in the context of summer precipitation-atmosphere-snow-river water continuum are seldom studied. In this study, we have systematically examined some scientific issues associated with WSOC concentrations and light absorption properties of WSOC in various forms of samples from the Mt. Yulong region. Statistical results demonstrate that the spatial distribution of WSOC in the snow of Baishui glacier was heterogeneous. The average WSOC concentrations of each snowpit were significantly decreased, and its light-absorbing properties were significantly elevated with the time extension. Aerosol WSOC concentrations and light absorption have distinct spatial disparity and seasonal variation. Pre-monsoon and monsoon have the highest and lowest WSOC content, respectively. Whereas the light-absorbing properties present contrasting seasonal trends. Rivers of which runoff was supplied by glacier meltwater have significantly lower WSOC concentrations (e.g., 0.42 ± 0.03 mg L-1) compared with other forms of water bodies. Mass absorption cross-section of WSOC (MAC-WSOC) in multiple snow and meltwater samples was significantly different and type-dependent. Atmospheric aerosol has the lowest MAC-WSOC value among the four types of samples, which was likely associated with exhaust emissions from private vehicles and tour buses. Statistical results indicated that the average AAE330-400 values of various snow/ice samples are subequal. Snow of glaciers supplies a desirable platform for the deposition of gaseous materials which experienced long-range transport in high altitude zones. Biomass-burning emissions made an immense contribution to the WSOC deposition over the study area, as demonstrated by the distribution of active fire points. However, this preliminary study represents the first systematic investigation of WSOC deposition in southeastern TP. Further robust in-situ field investigations and laboratory measurements are urgently necessary to improve our understanding of the transfer process and optical property of WSOC.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(18): 11344-11355, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822538

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a globally spread trace metal due to its long atmospheric residence time. Yet, our understanding of atmospheric processes (e.g., redox reactions and deposition) driving Hg cycling is still limited, especially in polar regions. The Antarctic continent, by virtue of its remoteness, is the perfect location to investigate Hg atmospheric processes in the absence of significant local anthropogenic impact. Here, we present the first 2 year record (2016-2017) of total suspended particulate mercury (PHg) concentrations along with a year-round determination of an Hg stable isotopic composition in particles collected at Zhongshan Station (ZSS), eastern Antarctic coast. The mean PHg concentration is 21.8 ± 32.1 pg/m3, ranging from 0.9 to 195.6 pg/m3, and peaks in spring and summer. The negative mass-independent fractionation of odd Hg isotopes (odd-MIF, average -0.38 ± 0.12‰ for Δ199Hg) and the slope of Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg with 0.91 ± 0.12 suggest that the springtime isotope variation of PHg is likely caused by in situ photo-oxidation and reduction reactions. On the other hand, the increase of PHg concentrations and the observed odd-MIF values in summer are attributed to the transport by katabatic winds of divalent species derived from the oxidation of elemental Hg in the inland Antarctic Plateau.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139836, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526422

RESUMO

Strengthening the research of riverine mercury (Hg) export is of great significance for understanding the regional and global Hg cycle, especially for the data lacking trans-Himalayan rivers. In this study, three systematic sampling campaigns were conducted in the Koshi River Basin (KRB) during the post-monsoon, pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Hg speciation and distribution of river water were analyzed among the different seasons for a total of 88 water samples. The total Hg (THg) concentration of surface water in the KRB ranged from 0.64 to 32.96 ng·L-1 with an average of 5.83 ± 6.19 ng·L-1 and decreased in the order of post-monsoon (8.79 ± 7.32 ng·L-1) > monsoon (6.68 ± 6.12 ng·L-1) > pre-monsoon (2.18 ± 1.29 ng·L-1). Particulate Hg (PHg) accounted for 63% of THg on average and had a positive correlation with THg among all the three sampling seasons, indicating that the differences in PHg concentration were likely one of the main factors leading to the seasonal and spatial variations in THg in the KRB surface water. The annual Hg exports and fluxes were estimated to be 339.04 kg and 3.88 µg·m-2·yr-1, respectively. Furthermore, Hg export from the KRB had significant seasonal variation and decreased in the order of monsoon (259.47 kg) > post-monsoon (61.18 kg) > winter (9.31 kg) > pre-monsoon (9.08 kg), and this pattern was mainly related to seasonal changes in river runoff. The annual Hg export is projected to increase in the future, especially in the post-monsoon season. Therefore, more attention should be paid to river runoff observations and riverine Hg research for water resources management in the Himalaya.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497948

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of the study on columnar aerosol optical and physical properties and radiative effects directly observed over Dushanbe, the capital city of Tajikistan, a NASA AERONET site (equipped with a CIMEL sunphotometer) in Central Asia. The average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) during the observation period from July 2010 to April 2018 were found to be 0.28 ± 0.20 and 0.82 ± 0.40, respectively. The highest seasonal AOD (0.32 ± 0.24), accompanied by the lowest average AE (0.61 ± 0.25) and fine-mode fraction in AOD (0.39), was observed during summer due to the influence of coarse particles like dust from arid regions. Fine particles were found in significant amounts during winter. The 'mixed aerosol' was identified as the dominant aerosol type with presence of 'dust aerosol' during summer and autumn seasons. Aerosol properties like volume size distribution, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter and refractive index suggested the influence of coarse particles (during summer and autumn). Most of the air masses reaching this site transported local and regional emissions, including from beyond Central Asia, explaining the presence of various aerosol types in Dushanbe's atmosphere. The seasonal aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ARFE) in the atmosphere was found high (>100 Wm-2) and consistent throughout the year. Consequently, this resulted in similar seasonally coherent high atmospheric solar heating rate (HR) of 1.5 K day-1 during summer-autumn-winter, and ca. 0.9 K day-1 during spring season. High ARFE and HR values indicate that atmospheric aerosols could exert significant implications to regional air quality, climate and cryosphere over the central Asian region and downwind Tianshan and Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau mountain regions with sensitive ecosystems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano , Tadjiquistão
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