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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We compared the rates of hospital-onset secondary bacterial infections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with rates in patients with influenza and controls, and we investigated reports of increased incidence of Enterococcus infections in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: An academic quaternary-care hospital in San Francisco, California. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between October 1, 2019, and October 1, 2020, with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR (N = 314) or influenza PCR (N = 82) within 2 weeks of admission were compared with inpatients without positive SARS-CoV-2 or influenza tests during the study period (N = 14,332). METHODS: National Healthcare Safety Network definitions were used to identify infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP), bloodstream infections (BSIs), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). A multiple logistic regression model was used to control for likely confounders. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of IVAC and PVAP compared to controls, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-13.9) and 10.4 (95 % CI, 2.1-52.1), respectively. COVID-19 patients had higher incidence of BSI due to Enterococcus but not BSI generally, and whole-genome sequencing of Enterococcus isolates demonstrated that nosocomial transmission did not explain the increased rate. Subanalyses of patients admitted to the intensive care unit and patients who required mechanical ventilation revealed similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of IVAC, PVAP, and Enterococcus BSI compared with hospitalized controls, which is not fully explained by factors such as immunosuppressive treatments and duration of mechanical ventilation. The mechanism underlying increased rates of Enterococcus BSI in COVID-19 patients requires further investigation.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490415

RESUMO

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. Methods: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Findings: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. Interpretation: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. Funding: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5152, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446707

RESUMO

The immunological features that distinguish COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from other causes of ARDS are incompletely understood. Here, we report the results of comparative lower respiratory tract transcriptional profiling of tracheal aspirate from 52 critically ill patients with ARDS from COVID-19 or from other etiologies, as well as controls without ARDS. In contrast to a "cytokine storm," we observe reduced proinflammatory gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS when compared to ARDS due to other causes. COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by a dysregulated host response with increased PTEN signaling and elevated expression of genes with non-canonical roles in inflammation and immunity. In silico analysis of gene expression identifies several candidate drugs that may modulate gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS, including dexamethasone and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Compared to ARDS due to other types of viral pneumonia, COVID-19 is characterized by impaired interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and expression of ISGs is decoupled in patients with COVID-19 ARDS when compared to patients with mild COVID-19. In summary, assessment of host gene expression in the lower airways of patients reveals distinct immunological features of COVID-19 ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , RNA/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/genética , Traqueia/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(8): e0478, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345827

RESUMO

Unbiased global metabolomic profiling has not been used to identify distinct subclasses in patients with early sepsis and sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, we examined whether the plasma metabolome reflects systemic illness in early sepsis and in acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Plasma metabolites were measured in subjects with early sepsis. SETTING: Patients were admitted from the emergency department to the ICU in a plasma sample collected within 24 hours of ICU admission. Metabolic profiling of 970 metabolites was performed by Metabolon (Durham, NC). Hierarchical clustering and partial least squares discriminant clustering were used to identify distinct clusters among patients with early sepsis and sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among critically ill patients with early sepsis (n = 197), three metabolically distinct subgroups were identified, with metabolic subtype driven by plasma lipids. Group 1, with 45 subjects (23% of cohort), had increased 60-day mortality (odds ratio, 2; 95% CI, 0.99-4.0; p = 0.04 for group 1 vs all others). This group also had higher rates of vasopressor-dependent shock, acute kidney injury, and met Berlin acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria more often (all p < 0.05). Conversely, metabolic group 3, with 76 subjects (39% of cohort), had the lowest risk of 60-day mortality (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.86; p = 0.01) and lower rates of organ dysfunction as reflected in a lower Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (p < 0.001). In contrast, global metabolomic profiling did not separate patient with early sepsis with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 78) from those with sepsis without acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 75). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma metabolomic profiling in patients with early sepsis identified three metabolically distinct groups that were characterized by different plasma lipid profiles, distinct clinical phenotypes, and 60-day mortality. Plasma metabolites did not distinguish patients with early sepsis who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome from those who did not.

5.
J Hosp Med ; 16(8): 453-461, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis progresses rapidly and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Bedside risk stratification scores can quickly identify patients at greatest risk of poor outcomes; however, there is lack of consensus on the best scale to use. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), the National Early Warning System (NEWS2), and the Shock Index-which does not require mental status assessment-to predict poor outcomes among patients with suspected sepsis during triage. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of adults presenting to an academic emergency department (ED) from June 2012 to December 2018 who had blood cultures and intravenous antibiotics within 24 hours. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Clinical data were collected from the electronic health record. Patients were considered positive at qSOFA ≥2, Shock Index >0.7, or NEWS2 ≥5 scores. We calculated test characteristics and area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROCs) to predict in-hospital mortality and ED-to-intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: We included 23,837 ED patients; 1,921(8.1%) were qSOFA-positive, 4,273 (17.9%) Shock Index-positive, and 11,832 (49.6%) NEWS2-positive. There were 1,427 (6.0%) deaths and 3,149 (13.2%) ED-to-ICU admissions in the sample. NEWS2 had the highest sensitivity for in-hospital mortality (76.0%) and ED-to-ICU admission (78.9%). qSOFA had the highest specificity for in-hospital mortality (93.4%) and ED-to-ICU admission (95.2%). Shock Index exhibited the highest AUROC for in-hospital mortality (0.648; 95 CI, 0.635-0.662) and ED-to-ICU admission (0.680; 95% CI, 0.617-0.689). Test characteristics were similar among those with sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: Institution priorities should drive score selection, balancing sensitivity and specificity. In our study, qSOFA was highly specific and NEWS2 was the most sensitive for ruling out patients at high risk. Performance of the Shock Index fell between qSOFA and NEWS2 and could be considered because it is easy to implement.


Assuntos
Sepse , Triagem , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico
6.
Thorax ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253679

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Using latent class analysis (LCA), two subphenotypes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have consistently been identified in five randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with distinct biological characteristics, divergent outcomes and differential treatment responses to randomised interventions. Their existence in unselected populations of ARDS remains unknown. We sought to identify subphenotypes in observational cohorts of ARDS using LCA. METHODS: LCA was independently applied to patients with ARDS from two prospective observational cohorts of patients admitted to the intensive care unit, derived from the Validating Acute Lung Injury markers for Diagnosis (VALID) (n=624) and Early Assessment of Renal and Lung Injury (EARLI) (n=335) studies. Clinical and biological data were used as class-defining variables. To test for concordance with prior ARDS subphenotypes, the performance metrics of parsimonious classifier models (interleukin 8, bicarbonate, protein C and vasopressor-use), previously developed in RCTs, were evaluated in EARLI and VALID with LCA-derived subphenotypes as the gold-standard. RESULTS: A 2-class model best fit the population in VALID (p=0.0010) and in EARLI (p<0.0001). Class 2 comprised 27% and 37% of the populations in VALID and EARLI, respectively. Consistent with the previously described 'hyperinflammatory' subphenotype, Class 2 was characterised by higher proinflammatory biomarkers, acidosis and increased shock and worse clinical outcomes. The similarities between these and prior RCT-derived subphenotypes were further substantiated by the performance of the parsimonious classifier models in both cohorts (area under the curves 0.92-0.94). The hyperinflammatory subphenotype was associated with increased prevalence of chronic liver disease and neutropenia and reduced incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Measurement of novel biomarkers showed significantly higher levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 and markers of endothelial injury in the hyperinflammatory subphenotype, whereas, matrix metalloproteinase-9 was significantly lower. CONCLUSION: Previously described subphenotypes are generalisable to unselected populations of non-trauma ARDS.

7.
medRxiv ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791731

RESUMO

Secondary bacterial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), lead to worse clinical outcomes and increased mortality following viral respiratory infections. Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) face an elevated risk of VAP, although susceptibility varies widely. Because mechanisms underlying VAP predisposition remained unknown, we assessed lower respiratory tract host immune responses and microbiome dynamics in 36 patients, including 28 COVID-19 patients, 15 of whom developed VAP, and eight critically ill controls. We employed a combination of tracheal aspirate bulk and single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Two days before VAP onset, a lower respiratory transcriptional signature of bacterial infection was observed, characterized by increased expression of neutrophil degranulation, toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling pathways. When assessed at an earlier time point following endotracheal intubation, more than two weeks prior to VAP onset, we observed a striking early impairment in antibacterial innate and adaptive immune signaling that markedly differed from COVID-19 patients who did not develop VAP. scRNA-seq further demonstrated suppressed immune signaling across monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and T cells. While viral load did not differ at an early post-intubation timepoint, impaired SARS-CoV-2 clearance and persistent interferon signaling characterized the patients who later developed VAP. Longitudinal metatranscriptomic analysis revealed disruption of lung microbiome community composition in patients who developed VAP, providing a connection between dysregulated immune signaling and outgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Together, these findings demonstrate that COVID-19 patients who develop VAP have impaired antibacterial immune defense weeks before secondary infection onset. One sentence summary: COVID-19 patients with secondary bacterial pneumonia have impaired immune signaling and lung microbiome changes weeks before onset.

8.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(5): L892-L902, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355521

RESUMO

Sepsis is a heterogeneous syndrome clinically and biologically, but biomarkers of distinct host response pathways for early prognostic information and testing targeted treatments are lacking. Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4), a matrix glycoprotein of neutrophil-specific granules, defines a distinct neutrophil subset that may be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in sepsis. We hypothesized that increased percentage of OLFM4+ neutrophils on sepsis presentation would be associated with mortality. In a single-center, prospective cohort study, we enrolled adults admitted to an academic medical center from the emergency department (ED) with suspected sepsis [identified by 2 or greater systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and antibiotic receipt] from March 2016 through December 2017, followed by sepsis adjudication according to Sepsis-3. We collected 200 µL of whole blood within 24 h of admission and stained for the neutrophil surface marker CD66b followed by intracellular staining for OLFM4 quantitated by flow cytometry. The predictors for 60-day mortality were 1) percentage of OLFM4+ neutrophils and 2) OLFM4+ neutrophils at a cut point of ≥37.6% determined by the Youden Index. Of 120 enrolled patients with suspected sepsis, 97 had sepsis and 23 had nonsepsis SIRS. The mean percentage of OLFM4+ neutrophils was significantly increased in both sepsis and nonsepsis SIRS patients who died (P ≤ 0.01). Among sepsis patients with elevated OLFM4+ (≥37.6%), 56% died, compared with 18% with OLFM4+ <37.6% (P = 0.001). The association between OLFM4+ and mortality withstood adjustment for age, sex, absolute neutrophil count, comorbidities, and standard measures of severity of illness (SOFA score, APACHE III) (P < 0.03). In summary, OLFM4+ neutrophil percentage is independently associated with 60-day mortality in sepsis and may represent a novel measure of the heterogeneity of host response to sepsis.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/sangue , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255164

RESUMO

Background: Alternative tobacco product (ATP) use has bee linked to critical illness, however, few studies have examined the use of these substances in critically ill populations. We sought to examine ATP use within critically ill patients and to define barriers in accurately assessing use within this population. Methods: We prospectively studied 533 consecutive patients from the Early Assessment of Renal and Lung Injury study, enrolled between 2013 and 2016 at a tertiary referral center and a safety-net hospital. ATP use information (electronic cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookahs/waterpipes, and snus/chewing tobacco) was obtained from the patient or surrogate using a detailed survey. Reasons for non-completion of the survey were recorded, and differences between survey responders vs. non-responders, self- vs. surrogate responders, and ATP users vs. non-users were explored. Results: Overall, 80% (n = 425) of subjects (56% male) completed a tobacco product use survey. Of these, 12.2% (n = 52) reported current ATP use, while 5.6% reported using multiple ATP products. When restricted to subjects who were self-responders, 17% reported ATP use, while 10% reported current cigarette smoking alone. The mean age of ATP users was 57 ± 17 years. Those who did not complete a survey were sicker and more likely to have died during admission. Subjects who completed the survey as self-responders reported higher levels of ATP use than ones with surrogate responders (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: ATP use is common among critically ill patients despite them being generally older than traditional users. Survey self-responders were more likely than surrogate responders to report use. These findings highlight the importance of improving our current methods of surveillance of ATP use in older adults in the outpatient setting.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The duration of an opioid prescribed at hospital discharge does not intrinsically account for opioid needs during a hospitalization. This discrepancy may lead to patients receiving much larger supplies of opioids on discharge than they truly require. OBJECTIVE: Assess a novel discharge opioid supply metric that adjusts for opioid use during hospitalization, compared to the conventional discharge prescription signature. DESIGN, SETTING, & PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective study using electronic health record data from June 2012 to November 2018 of adults who received opioids while hospitalized and after discharge from a single academic medical center. MEASURES & ANALYSIS: We ascertained inpatient opioids received and milligrams of opioids supplied after discharge, then determined days of opioids supplied after discharge by the conventional prescription signature opioid-days ("conventional days") and novel hospital-adjusted opioid-days ("adjusted days") metrics. We calculated descriptive statistics, within-subject difference between measurements, and fold difference between measures. We used multiple linear regression to determine patient-level predictors associated with high difference in days prescribed between measures. RESULTS: The adjusted days metric demonstrates a 2.4 day median increase in prescription duration as compared to the conventional days metric (9.4 vs. 7.0 days; P<0.001). 95% of all adjusted days measurements fall within a 0.19 to 6.90-fold difference as compared to conventional days measurements, with a maximum absolute difference of 640 days. Receiving a liquid opioid prescription accounted for an increased prescription duration of 135.6% by the adjusted days metric (95% CI 39.1-299.0%; P = 0.001). Of patients who were not on opioids prior to admission and required opioids during hospitalization but not in the last 24 hours, 325 (8.6%) were discharged with an opioid prescription. CONCLUSIONS: The adjusted days metric, based on inpatient opioid use, demonstrates that patients are often prescribed a supply lasting longer than the prescription signature suggests, though with marked variability for some patients that suggests potential under-prescribing as well. Adjusted days is more patient-centered, reflecting the reality of how patients will take their prescription rather than providers' intended prescription duration.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Idoso , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Medicina de Precisão , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5854, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203890

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by peak viral load in the upper airway prior to or at the time of symptom onset, an unusual feature that has enabled widespread transmission of the virus and precipitated a global pandemic. How SARS-CoV-2 is able to achieve high titer in the absence of symptoms remains unclear. Here, we examine the upper airway host transcriptional response in patients with COVID-19 (n = 93), other viral (n = 41) or non-viral (n = 100) acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Compared with other viral ARIs, COVID-19 is characterized by a pronounced interferon response but attenuated activation of other innate immune pathways, including toll-like receptor, interleukin and chemokine signaling. The IL-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways are markedly less responsive to SARS-CoV-2, commensurate with a signature of diminished neutrophil and macrophage recruitment. This pattern resembles previously described distinctions between symptomatic and asymptomatic viral infections and may partly explain the propensity for pre-symptomatic transmission in COVID-19. We further use machine learning to build 27-, 10- and 3-gene classifiers that differentiate COVID-19 from other ARIs with AUROCs of 0.981, 0.954 and 0.885, respectively. Classifier performance is stable across a wide range of viral load, suggesting utility in mitigating false positive or false negative results of direct SARS-CoV-2 tests.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral
12.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(6): F979-F987, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044866

RESUMO

Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex clinical disorder associated with inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and dysregulated coagulation. With standard regression methods, collinearity among biomarkers may lead to the exclusion of important biological pathways in a single final model. Best subset regression is an analytic technique that identifies statistically equivalent models, allowing for more robust evaluation of correlated variables. Our objective was to identify common clinical characteristics and biomarkers associated with sepsis-associated AKI. We enrolled 453 septic adults within 24 h of intensive care unit admission. Using best subset regression, we evaluated for associations using a range of models consisting of 1-38 predictors (composed of clinical risk factors and plasma and urine biomarkers) with AKI as the outcome [defined as a serum creatinine (SCr) increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL within 48 h or ≥1.5× baseline SCr within 7 days]. Two hundred ninety-seven patients had AKI. Five-variable models were found to be of optimal complexity, as the best subset of five- and six-variable models were statistically equivalent. Within the subset of five-variable models, 46 permutations of predictors were noted to be statistically equivalent. The most common predictors in this subset included diabetes, baseline SCr, angiopoetin-2, IL-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. The models had a c-statistic of ∼0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.75). In conclusion, using best subset regression, we identified common clinical characteristics and biomarkers associated with sepsis-associated AKI. These variables may be especially relevant in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/complicações , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Sepse/complicações , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/urina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos
13.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511476

RESUMO

We studied the host transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 by performing metagenomic sequencing of upper airway samples in 238 patients with COVID-19, other viral or non-viral acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Compared to other viral ARIs, COVID-19 was characterized by a diminished innate immune response, with reduced expression of genes involved in toll-like receptor and interleukin signaling, chemokine binding, neutrophil degranulation and interactions with lymphoid cells. Patients with COVID-19 also exhibited significantly reduced proportions of neutrophils and macrophages, and increased proportions of goblet, dendritic and B-cells, compared to other viral ARIs. Using machine learning, we built 26-, 10- and 3-gene classifiers that differentiated COVID-19 from other acute respiratory illnesses with AUCs of 0.980, 0.950 and 0.871, respectively. Classifier performance was stable at low viral loads, suggesting utility in settings where direct detection of viral nucleic acid may be unsuccessful. Taken together, our results illuminate unique aspects of the host transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to other respiratory viruses and demonstrate the feasibility of COVID-19 diagnostics based on patient gene expression.

14.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging data on the clinical presentation, diagnostics, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 have largely been presented as case series. Few studies have compared these clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 to other acute respiratory illnesses. METHODS: We examined all patients presenting to an emergency department in San Francisco, California between February 3 and March 31, 2020 with an acute respiratory illness who were tested for SARS-CoV-2. We determined COVID-19 status by PCR and metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS). We compared demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, vital signs, and laboratory results including viral diagnostics using PCR and mNGS. Among those hospitalized, we determined differences in treatment (antibiotics, antivirals, respiratory support) and outcomes (ICU admission, ICU interventions, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac injury). FINDINGS: In a cohort of 316 patients, 33 (10%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2; 31 patients, all without COVID-19, tested positive for another respiratory virus (16%). Among patients with additional viral testing, no co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 were identified by PCR or mNGS. Patients with COVID-19 reported longer symptoms duration (median 7 vs. 3 days), and were more likely to report fever (82% vs. 44%), fatigue (85% vs. 50%), and myalgias (61% vs 27%); p<0.001 for all comparisons. Lymphopenia (55% vs 34%, p=0.018) and bilateral opacities on initial chest radiograph (55% vs. 24%, p=0.001) were more common in patients with COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 were more often hospitalized (79% vs. 56%, p=0.014). Of 186 hospitalized patients, patients with COVID-19 had longer hospitalizations (median 10.7d vs. 4.7d, p<0.001) and were more likely to develop ARDS (23% vs. 3%, p<0.001). Most comorbidities, home medications, signs and symptoms, vital signs, laboratory results, treatment, and outcomes did not differ by COVID-19 status. INTERPRETATION: While we found differences in clinical features of COVID-19 compared to other acute respiratory illnesses, there was significant overlap in presentation and comorbidities. Patients with COVID-19 were more likely to be admitted to the hospital, have longer hospitalizations and develop ARDS, and were unlikely to have co-existent viral infections. These findings enhance understanding of the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in comparison to other acute respiratory illnesses. .

15.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): 830-837, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The acute respiratory distress syndrome is common in critically ill patients. Recognition is crucial because acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a high mortality rate, and low tidal volume ventilation improves mortality. However, acute respiratory distress syndrome often goes unrecognized. Risk factors for under-recognition and trends over time have not been fully described. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome from a prospective cohort study of critically ill patients. For each patient's ICU stay, we searched the chart for terms that indicated that acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed, in the differential diagnosis, or treated with low tidal volume ventilation. SETTING: ICUs at a tertiary hospital at the University of California, San Francisco between 2008 and 2016. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome was recognized in 70% of patients, and recognition increased from 60% in 2008-2009 to 92% in 2016 (p = 0.004). Use of tidal volumes less than 6.5 mL/kg also increased (p < 0.001) from 20% to 92%. Increased acute respiratory distress syndrome severity (p = 0.01) and vasopressor use (p = 0.04) were associated with greater recognition. Clinician diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome and inclusion of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the differential diagnosis were associated with tidal volumes less than 6.5 mL/kg (51% use of tidal volume ≤ 6.5 mL/kg if acute respiratory distress syndrome recognized vs 15% if not recognized; p = 0.002). Diagnosing acute respiratory distress syndrome was associated with lower tidal volume in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute respiratory distress syndrome recognition and low tidal volume ventilation use have increased over time, they remain less than universal. Clinician recognition of acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with both systemic and respiratory severity of illness and is also associated with use of low tidal volume ventilation.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Fatores Etários , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , São Francisco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(6): 1222-1231, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206845

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies assessing impact of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on mortality have shown conflicting results. We sought to assess the independent association of ARDS with in-hospital mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis. METHODS: We studied two prospective sepsis cohorts drawn from the Early Assessment of Renal and Lung Injury (EARLI; n = 474) and Validating Acute Lung Injury markers for Diagnosis (VALID; n = 337) cohorts. ARDS was defined by Berlin criteria. We used logistic regression to compare in-hospital mortality in patients with and without ARDS, controlling for baseline severity of illness. We also estimated attributable mortality, adjusted for illness severity by stratification. RESULTS: ARDS occurred in 195 EARLI patients (41%) and 99 VALID patients (29%). ARDS was independently associated with risk of hospital death in multivariate analysis, even after controlling for severity of illness, as measured by APACHE II (odds ratio [OR] 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 2.67), p = 0.04 in EARLI; OR 2.12 (CI 1.16, 3.92), p = 0.02 in VALID). Patients with severe ARDS (P/F < 100) primarily drove this relationship. The attributable mortality of ARDS was 27% (CI 14%, 37%) in EARLI and 37% (CI 10%, 51%) in VALID. ARDS was independently associated with ICU mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, and ventilator-free days. CONCLUSIONS: Development of ARDS among ICU patients with sepsis confers increased risk of ICU and in-hospital mortality in addition to other important outcomes. Clinical trials targeting patients with severe ARDS will be best poised to detect measurable differences in these outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Sepse , Berlim , Estado Terminal , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/complicações
17.
Crit Care Med ; 48(2): 200-209, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Early identification of sepsis is critical to improving patient outcomes. Impact of the new sepsis definition (Sepsis-3) on timing of recognition in the emergency department has not been evaluated. Our study objective was to compare time to meeting systemic inflammatory response syndrome (Sepsis-2) criteria, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (Sepsis-3) criteria, and quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment criteria using electronic health record data. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: The emergency department at the University of California, San Francisco. PATIENTS: Emergency department encounters between June 2012 and December 2016 for patients greater than or equal to 18 years old with blood cultures ordered, IV antibiotic receipt, and identification with sepsis via systemic inflammatory response syndrome or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment within 72 hours of emergency department presentation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We analyzed timestamped electronic health record data from 16,612 encounters identified as sepsis by greater than or equal to 2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria or a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score greater than or equal to 2. The primary outcome was time from emergency department presentation to meeting greater than or equal to 2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment greater than or equal to 2, and/or greater than or equal to 2 quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment criteria. There were 9,087 patients (54.7%) that met systemic inflammatory response syndrome-first a median of 26 minutes post-emergency department presentation (interquartile range, 0-109 min), with 83.1% meeting Sequential Organ Failure Assessment criteria a median of 118 minutes later (interquartile range, 44-401 min). There were 7,037 patients (42.3%) that met Sequential Organ Failure Assessment-first, a median of 113 minutes post-emergency department presentation (interquartile range, 60-251 min). Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment was met in 46.4% of patients a median of 351 minutes post-emergency department presentation (interquartile range, 67-1,165 min). Adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality were 39% greater in patients who met systemic inflammatory response syndrome-first compared with those who met Sequential Organ Failure Assessment-first (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment initially identified distinct populations. Using systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulted in earlier electronic health record sepsis identification in greater than 50% of patients. Using Sequential Organ Failure Assessment alone may delay identification. Using systemic inflammatory response syndrome alone may lead to missed sepsis presenting as acute organ dysfunction. Thus, a combination of inflammatory (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) and organ dysfunction (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) criteria may enhance timely electronic health record-based sepsis identification.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Sepse/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Eur Respir J ; 55(1)2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619475

RESUMO

Shorter peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) telomere length (TL) has been associated with poor outcomes in various chronic lung diseases. Whether PBL-TL is associated with survival from critical illness was tested in this study.We analysed data from a prospective observational cohort study of 937 critically ill patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). PBL-TL was measured using quantitative PCR of DNA isolated from PBLs. Findings were validated in an independent cohort of 394 critically ill patients with sepsis admitted to the University of California San Francisco (UCSF).In the VUMC cohort, shorter PBL-TL was associated with worse 90-day survival (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.004); in subgroup analyses, shorter PBL-TL was associated with worse 90-day survival for patients with sepsis (aHR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.001), but not trauma. Although not associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), among ARDS subjects, shorter PBL-TL was associated with more severe ARDS (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.006). The associations of PBL-TL with survival (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.003) and risk for developing severe ARDS (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-6.3 per 1 kb TL decrease; p=0.044) were validated in the UCSF cohort.Short PBL-TL is strongly associated with worse survival and more severe ARDS in critically ill patients, especially patients with sepsis. These findings suggest that telomere dysfunction may contribute to outcomes from critical illness.


Assuntos
Sepse , Telômero , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Leucócitos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/genética
19.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 400, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enrichment strategies improve therapeutic targeting and trial efficiency, but enrichment factors for sepsis trials are lacking. We determined whether concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFR1), interleukin-8 (IL8), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) could identify sepsis patients at higher mortality risk and serve as prognostic enrichment factors. METHODS: In a multicenter prospective cohort study of 400 critically ill septic patients, we derived and validated thresholds for each marker and expressed prognostic enrichment using risk differences (RD) of 30-day mortality as predictive values. We then used decision curve analysis to simulate the prognostic enrichment of each marker and compare different prognostic enrichment strategies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: An admission sTNFR1 concentration > 8861 pg/ml identified patients with increased mortality in both the derivation (RD 21.6%) and validation (RD 17.8%) populations. Among immunocompetent patients, an IL8 concentration > 94 pg/ml identified patients with increased mortality in both the derivation (RD 17.7%) and validation (RD 27.0%) populations. An Ang2 level > 9761 pg/ml identified patients at 21.3% and 12.3% increased risk of mortality in the derivation and validation populations, respectively. Using sTNFR1 or IL8 to select high-risk patients improved clinical trial power and efficiency compared to selecting patients with septic shock. Ang2 did not outperform septic shock as an enrichment factor. CONCLUSIONS: Thresholds for sTNFR1 and IL8 consistently identified sepsis patients with higher mortality risk and may have utility for prognostic enrichment in sepsis trials.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Prognóstico , Sepse/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Interleucina-8/análise , Interleucina-8/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/análise , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/análise , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/sangue
20.
J Hosp Med ; 14: E1-E7, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited English proficiency (LEP) has been implicated in poor health outcomes. Sepsis is a frequently fatal syndrome that is commonly encountered in hospital medicine. The impact of LEP on sepsis mortality is not currently known. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between LEP and sepsis mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 800-bed, tertiary care, academic medical center. PATIENTS: Electronic health record data were obtained for adults admitted to the hospital with sepsis between June 1, 2012 and December 31, 2016. MEASUREMENTS: The primary predictor was LEP. Patients were defined as having LEP if their self-reported primary language was anything other than English and interpreter services were required during hospitalization. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Mortality was compared across races stratified by LEP using chi-squared tests of significance. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to investigate the association between mortality, race, and LEP, adjusting for baseline characteristics, comorbidities, and illness severity. RESULTS: Among 8,974 patients with sepsis, we found that 1 in 5 had LEP, 62% of whom were Asian. LEP was highly associated with death across all races except those identifying as Black and Latino. LEP was associated with a 31% increased odds of mortality after adjusting for illness severity, comorbidities, and other baseline characteristics, including race (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.06-1.63, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: In a single-center study of patients hospitalized with sepsis, LEP was associated with mortality across nearly all races. This is a novel finding that will require further exploration into the causal nature of this association.

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