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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 222: 112263, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339994

RESUMO

The biosynthesis of polyphenolic compounds in cabbage waste, outer green leaves of white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), was stimulated by postharvest irradiation with UVB lamps or sunlight. Both treatments boosted the content of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides, especially in the basal leaf zone, as determined by the HPLC analysis of leaf extracts and by a non-destructive optical sensor. The destructive analysis of samples irradiated by the sun for 6 days at the end of October 2015 in Skierniewice (Poland) showed an increase of leaf flavonols by 82% with respect to controls. The treatment by a broadband UVB fluorescent lamp, with irradiance of 0.38 W m-2 in the 290-315 nm range (and 0.59 W m-2 in the UVA region) for 12 h per day at 17 °C along with a white light of about 20 µmol m-2 s-1, produced a flavonols increase of 58% with respect to controls. The kinetics of flavonols accumulation in response to the photochemical treatments was monitored with the FLAV non-destructive index. The initial FLAV rate under the sun was proportional to the daily radiation doses with a better correlation for the sun global irradiance (R2 = 0.973), followed by the UVA (R2 = 0.965) and UVB (R2 = 0.899) irradiance. The sunlight turned out to be more efficient than the UVB lamp in increasing the flavonols level of waste leaves, because of a significant role played by UVA and visible solar radiation in the regulation of the flavonoid accumulation in cabbage. The FLAV index increase induced on the adaxial leaf side was accompanied by a lower but still significant FLAV increase on the unirradiated abaxial side, likely due to a systemic signaling by mean of the long-distance movement of macromolecules. Our present investigation provides useful data for the optimization of postharvest photochemical protocols of cabbage waste valorization. It can represent a novel and alternative tool of vegetable waste management for the recovery of beneficial phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonóis/análise , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Raios Ultravioleta
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445510

RESUMO

The correct fertilization of vegetable crops is commonly determined on the basis of soil and plant costly destructive analyses, demanding more sustainable non-invasive optical detection. Here, we tested the ability of the combined transmittance/fluorescence leaf clip Dualex device for determining the nitrogen (N) status of cabbage plants. Fully developed leaves from plants grown under different N rates of 0; 100; 200; 300 kg N ha-1 in 2018 and 2019 were measured in the field by the Dualex sensor twice a year in July and October. The chlorophyll (Chl) and nitrogen (nitrogen balance index, NBI) indices and the flavonols (Flav) index of the sensor were positively and negatively correlated to leaf nitrogen, respectively. Merging the two-years data, the NBI versus leaf N correlation was less point dispersed in October than July (R2 = 0.76 and 0.64, respectively). NBI was also correlated to cabbage yield, better in July than October. Our results showed that the multiparametric Dualex device can be used as precision agriculture tool for the early prediction of plant N and cabbage yield with economic advantage for the growers and reduced environmental contamination due to nitrate leaching.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Clorofila/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Fertilizantes , Fluorescência , Polônia
3.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252678

RESUMO

There is a large potential in Europe for valorization in the vegetable food supply chain. For example, there is occasionally overproduction of tomatoes for fresh consumption, and a fraction of the production is unsuited for fresh consumption sale (unacceptable color, shape, maturity, lesions, etc.). In countries where the facilities and infrastructure for tomato processing is lacking, these tomatoes are normally destroyed, used as landfilling or animal feed, and represent an economic loss for producers and negative environmental impact. Likewise, there is also a potential in the tomato processing industry to valorize side streams and reduce waste. The present paper provides an overview of tomato production in Europe and the strategies employed for processing and valorization of tomato side streams and waste fractions. Special emphasis is put on the four tomato-producing countries Norway, Belgium, Poland, and Turkey. These countries are very different regards for example their climatic preconditions for tomato production and volumes produced, and represent the extremes among European tomato producing countries. Postharvest treatments and applications for optimized harvest time and improved storage for premium raw material quality are discussed, as well as novel, sustainable processing technologies for minimum waste and side stream valorization. Preservation and enrichment of lycopene, the primary health promoting agent and sales argument, is reviewed in detail. The European volume of tomato postharvest wastage is estimated at >3 million metric tons per year. Together, the optimization of harvesting time and preprocessing storage conditions and sustainable food processing technologies, coupled with stabilization and valorization of processing by-products and side streams, can significantly contribute to the valorization of this underutilized biomass.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(6): 2763-2774, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulation and stability of tomato lycopene markedly depends on the cultivar, plant growing and storage conditions. To estimate lycopene in open-field cultivated processing and fresh market tomatoes, we used a calibrated spectral reflectance portable sensor. RESULTS: Lycopene accumulation in fruits attached to the plant, starting from the Green ripening stage, followed a sigmoidal function. It was faster and reached higher levels in processing (cv. Calista) than fresh market (cv. Volna) tomatoes (90 and 62 mg kg-1 fresh weight, respectively). During storage at 12, 20 and 25 °C, Red tomatoes retained about 90% of harvest lycopene for three weeks. Pink tomatoes increased lycopene during the first week of storage, but never reached the lycopene values of Red tomatoes ripened on the vine. Storability at 12 °C retaining the highest quality in red tomatoes was limited to 14 and 7 days for Calista and Volna cultivars, respectively. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in lycopene accumulation and stability between processing and fresh market tomatoes were established by examining with time the very same fruits by a non-destructive optical tool. It can be useful in agronomical and post-harvest physiological studies and can be of interest for producers oriented to the niche nutraceutical market. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Licopeno/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Carotenoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Óptica e Fotônica
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(18): 4748-4757, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677447

RESUMO

Reflectance spectroscopy represents a useful tool for the nondestructive assessment of tomato lycopene, even in the field. For this reason, a compact, low-cost, light emitting diode-based sensor has been developed to measure reflectance in the 400-750 nm spectral range. It was calibrated against wet chemistry and evaluated by partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses. The lycopene prediction models were defined for two open-field cultivated red-tomato varieties: the processing oblong tomatoes of the cv. Calista (average weight: 76 g) and the fresh-consumption round tomatoes of the cv. Volna (average weight: 130 g), over a period of two consecutive years. The lycopene prediction models were dependent on both cultivar and season. The lycopene root mean square error of prediction produced by the 2014 single-cultivar calibrations validated on the 2015 samples was large (33 mg kg-1) in the Calista tomatoes and acceptable (9.5 mg kg-1) in the Volna tomatoes. A more general bicultivar and biyear model could still explain almost 80% of the predicted lycopene variance, with a relative error in red tomatoes of less than 20%. In 2016, the in-field applications of the multiseasonal prediction models, built with the 2014 and 2015 data, showed significant ( P < 0.001) differences in the average lycopene estimated in the crop on two sampling dates that were 20 days apart: on August 19 and September 7, 2016, the lycopene was 98.9 ± 9.3 and 92.2 ± 10.8 mg kg-1 FW for cv. Calista and 54.6 ± 13.2 and 60.8 ± 6.8 mg kg-1 FW for cv. Volna. The sensor was also able to monitor the temporal evolution of lycopene accumulation on the very same fruits attached to the plants. These results indicated that a simple, compact reflectance device and PLS analysis could provide adequately precise and robust (through-seasons) models for the nondestructive assessment of lycopene in whole tomatoes. This technique could guarantee tomatoes with the highest nutraceutical value from the production, during storage and distribution, and finally to consumers.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Licopeno , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(1): 85-94, 2016 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26679081

RESUMO

A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Clorofila/química , Flavonóis/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/metabolismo , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
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