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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3173, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542437

RESUMO

In the ANRS 12174 trial, HIV-exposed uninfected African neonates who received lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) prophylaxis for 1 year exhibited slower growth from birth to week 50 compared with those receiving lamivudine (3TC). We assessed whether this difference in growth persisted over time, and was accompanied by differences in neuropsychological and clinical outcomes. Between February 2017 and February 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional clinical evaluation among former trial participants who completed the 50-week follow-up and who were not HIV-infected. In addition to clinical examination, neuropsychological outcomes were assessed using the tests Kaufman-ABCII, Test of Variables of Attention, Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire, parent version. Of 1101 eligible children, aged 5-7 years, 553 could be traced and analysed (274 in the LPV/r and 279 in the 3TC groups). Growth, clinical and neuropsychological outcomes did not differ between treatment groups. At school age, children exposed to LPV/r and 3TC at birth for 1 year had comparable growth and neuropsychological outcomes without evidence of long-term side-effects of LPV/r. It provides reassuring data on clinical outcomes for all HIV-infected children treated with this antiretroviral drug in early life.

2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 546189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102251

RESUMO

Human milk is a significant source of different CD133+ and/or CD34+ stem/progenitor-like cell subsets in healthy women but their cell distribution and percentages in this compartment of HIV-positive women have not been explored. To date, a decrease of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell frequencies in peripheral blood and bone marrow of HIV-positive patients has been reported. Herein, human milk and peripheral blood samples were collected between day 2-15 post-partum from HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and cells were stained with stem cell markers and analyzed by flow cytometry. We report that the median percentage of CD45+/highCD34-CD133+ cell subset from milk and blood was significantly higher in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women. The percentage of CD45dimCD34-CD133+ cell subset from blood was significantly higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women. Moreover, percentages of CD45dimCD34+, CD45dimCD34+CD133-, and CD45+highCD34+CD133- cell subsets from blood were significantly lower in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women. The CD133+ stem/progenitor-like cell subsets are increased in early human milk and blood of HIV-positive women and are differentially distributed to CD34+ cell subset frequencies which are decreased in blood.

3.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937988

RESUMO

Children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) accumulate maternal HIV and antiretroviral exposures through pregnancy, postnatal prophylaxis, and breastfeeding. Here, we compared the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) parameters in African breastfed CHEU receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or lamivudine (3TC) pre-exposure prophylaxis during the first year of life. The number of mtDNA copies per cell (MCN) and the proportion of deleted mtDNA (MDD) were assessed at day 7 and at week 50 post-delivery (PrEP group). mtDNA depletion was defined as a 50% or more decrease from the initial value, and mtDNA deletions was the detection of mtDNA molecules with large DNA fragment loss. We also performed a sub-analysis with CHEU who did not receive a prophylactic treatment in South Africa (control group). From day seven to week 50, MCN decreased with a median of 41.7% (interquartile range, IQR: 12.1; 64.4) in the PrEP group. The proportion of children with mtDNA depletion was not significantly different between the two prophylactic regimens. Poisson regressions showed that LPV/r and 3TC were associated with mtDNA depletion (reference: control group; LPV/r: PR = 1.75 (CI95%: 1.15-2.68), p < 0.01; 3TC: PR = 1.54 (CI95%: 1.00-2.37), p = 0.05). Moreover, the proportion of children with MDD was unexpectedly high before randomisation in both groups. Long-term health impacts of these mitochondrial DNA parameters should be investigated further for both CHEU and HIV-infected children receiving LPV/r- or 3TC- based regimens.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 222(10): 1723-1730, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459337

RESUMO

While mother-to-child transmission is believed to play in important role in early childhood infection with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the maternal immune response remains largely uncharacterized. This study aimed to characterize the longitudinal humoral response to KSHV in a cohort of HIV-infected Zambian mothers without KS and identify potential factors that may influence transmission. In total, 86/124 (69.4%) mothers were found to be KSHV seropositive. Longitudinal KSHV titers were fairly stable over time, although seroreversion was still common. Of the total 124 mothers, 81 had at least 1 child KSHV seroconvert during the 2 years analyzed, while the remaining 43 mothers had KSHV-seronegative children. Mothers of KSHV-negative children had higher geometric mean titers than mothers of KSHV-positive children; however, there was no difference in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. This suggests that a strong anti-KSHV immune response, and potentially nonneutralizing antibodies, may reduce transmission.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 93, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut butter-based Ready to Use Supplemental Foods (RUSF) are an effective way to add nutrients and calories to diets of malnourished and food insecure populations. The RUSF formulations have been further modified to add micronutrients including iron and folic acid needed during pregnancy and lactation. Because docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) enhances fetal development and birth outcomes, it has been suggested that perhaps RUSF formulations for pregnancy should also include this Omega 3 fatty acid. The goal of the present study was to gain an understanding of Zambian women's knowledge of nutritional needs in pregnancy through structured focus group discussions, and to formulate and determine the acceptability of a RUSF with DHA. METHODS: Structured focus group sessions were conducted among women attending an antenatal clinic at the University Teaching Hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia. Dietary and nutrition knowledge was surveyed through structured dialogue that was recorded by audio and transcribed verbatim. An RUSF containing 400 mg DHA from fish oil in 50 g RUSF was designed and assessed for fatty acid content and product stability. Participants then sampled the RUSF-DHA, provided feedback on taste, and were surveyed about willingness to consume the novel formula using a standardized hedonic instrument. RESULTS: The participants' knowledge of foods recommended for use in pregnancy included fruits, vegetables, meat, and fish. Most women reported eating fish at least once per week, although the specific type of fish varied. Most did not have prior knowledge of the importance of consuming fish during pregnancy or that some fish types were more nutritional than others as they included omega 3 fatty acids. The participants were uniformly accepting of the RUSF-DHA for the purpose of enhancing birth and developmental outcomes, but were critical of the aroma in hedonic testing. CONCLUSIONS: Women were committed to consuming a healthy diet that would impact the outcome of pregnancy, and were receptive to advice on the importance of consuming foods such as fish as a source of DHA. The RUSF-DHA formulation was acceptable due to the potential benefits for the developing infant, however, the fishy odor may be limiting for long-term daily use.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Zâmbia
6.
J Hum Lact ; 36(2): 303-309, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stem/progenitor cells have been identified in human milk. However, characterization and percentages of cell subsets in human milk using hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell markers according to the differential expression of CD45, i.e., as CD45dim/+ (mainly hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells) and CD45- (mainly non-hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells), have not been assessed to date. RESEARCH AIM: To characterize stem/progenitor-like cell phenotypes in human milk and to report the percentages of these cells at two different lactation stages compared to peripheral blood. METHODS: Human milk samples paired with peripheral blood samples (N = 10) were analyzed by flow cytometry using CD45, CD34, CD133, CD38, and lineage-negative markers. The percentage of cell subsets was analyzed in colostrum (Day 3 postpartum) and transitional milk (Day 5/6 postpartum) and compared with the peripheral blood counterpart. RESULTS: The percentage of CD45-CD34+ cells was predominant in both colostrum and transitional milk. The percentage of CD45+/highCD133+ cells was high in colostrum while the percentage of CD45-CD133+ cells was high in transitional milk. Furthermore, the median percentages of the CD45-CD34+, CD45-CD133+, and CD45dimCD133+ cell subsets were higher in colostrum than its peripheral blood counterpart (0.11% vs. 0.002%; 0.17% vs. 0.0005%; 0.09% vs. 0.05%, p = .04, respectively); also CD45-CD34-CD133+ and CD45dimCD34-CD133+ cell subsets were higher in colostrum than peripheral blood (1.32% vs. 0.0% and 2.4% vs. 0.06%, p = .04), respectively). CONCLUSION: Early human milk is an abundant reservoir of hematopoietic stem/progenitor-like cells in the CD45+/high population and non-hematopoietic stem/progenitor-like cells in the CD45- population.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(4): 1030-1039, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal treatment with lopinavir boosted by ritonavir (LPV/r) is associated with steroidogenic abnormalities. Long-term effects in infants have not been studied. METHODS: Adrenal-hormone profiles were compared at weeks 6 and 26 between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-exposed but uninfected infants randomly assigned at 7 days of life to prophylaxis with LPV/r or lamivudine (3TC) to prevent transmission during breastfeeding. LPV/r in vitro effect on steroidogenesis was assessed in H295R cells. RESULTS: At week 6, 159 frozen plasma samples from Burkina Faso and South Africa were assessed (LPV/r group: n = 92; 3TC group: n = 67) and at week 26, 95 samples from Burkina Faso (LPV/r group: n = 47; 3TC group: n = 48). At week 6, LPV/r-treated infants had a higher median dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level than infants from the 3TC arm: 3.91 versus 1.48 ng/mL (P < .001). Higher DHEA levels (>5 ng/mL) at week 6 were associated with higher 17-OH-pregnenolone (7.78 vs 3.71 ng/mL, P = .0004) and lower testosterone (0.05 vs 1.34 ng/mL, P = .009) levels in LPV/r-exposed children. There was a significant correlation between the DHEA and LPV/r AUC levels (ρ = 0.40, P = .019) and Ctrough (ρ = 0.40, P = .017). At week 26, DHEA levels remained higher in the LPV/r arm: 0.45 versus 0.13 ng/mL (P = .002). Lopinavir, but not ritonavir, inhibited CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activity in H295R cells. CONCLUSIONS: Lopinavir was associated with dose-dependent adrenal dysfunction in infants. The impact of long-term exposure and potential clinical consequences require evaluation. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00640263.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17383, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689745

RESUMO

The risk of postnatal HIV transmission exists throughout the breastfeeding period. HIV shedding in breast milk beyond six months has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk during continued breastfeedingA cross-sectional study was nested in the PROMISE-PEP trial in Lusaka, Zambia to analyze breast milk samples collected from both breasts at week 38 post-partum (mid-way during continued breastfeeding). We measured concurrent HIV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) as proxies for cell-associated HIV (CAV) and cell-free HIV (CFV) shedding in breast milk respectively. Participants' socio-demographic date, concurrent blood test results, sub clinical mastitis test results and contraceptive use data were available. Logistic regression models were used to identify determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk (detecting either CAV or CFV).The prevalence of HIV shedding in breast milk at 9 months post-partum was 79.4% (95%CI: 74.0 - 84.0). CAV only, CFV only and both CAV and CFV were detectable in 13.7%, 17.3% and 48.4% mothers, respectively. The odds of shedding HIV in breast milk decreased significantly with current use of combined oral contraceptives (AOR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.17 - 0.83) and increased significantly with low CD4 count (AOR: 3.47; 95%CI: 1.23 - 9.80), unsuppressed plasma viral load (AOR: 6.27; 95%CI: 2.47 - 15.96) and severe sub-clinical mastitis (AOR: 12.56; 95%CI: 2.48 - 63.58).This study estimated that about 80% of HIV infected mothers not on ART shed HIV in breast milk during continued breastfeeding. Major factors driving this shedding were low CD4 count, unsuppressed plasma viral load and severe sub-clinical mastitis. The inverse relationship between breast milk HIV and use of combined oral contraceptives needs further clarification. Continued shedding of CAV may contribute to residual postnatal transmission of HIV in mothers on successful ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Leite Humano/virologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Modelos Logísticos , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mães , Prevalência , RNA Viral , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
10.
Lancet HIV ; 6(5): e307-e314, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tolerance of antiretroviral drugs in infants must be carefully evaluated. In previous studies of children with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) less weight gain was observed in children given lopinavir-ritonavir-based combinations than those given nevirapine. We aimed to compare the effects of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on growth in HIV-exposed uninfected infants included in the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: ANRS 12174 was a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial of infant prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding done at four antenatal clinics in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. HIV-exposed uninfected infants born to asymptomatic mothers not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (CD4 count >350 cells per µL) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine 7 days after birth, with stratification by country. In a prespecified secondary analysis, we assessed the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on the growth of these infants from day 7 until cessation of breastfeeding (maximum treatment time 12 months) in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all children correctly enrolled with at least one follow-up anthropometric measurement. We compared the growth of infants, defined as children's WHO-defined length-for-age Z score (LAZ), weight-for-length Z score (WAZ), and weight-for-age Z score (WLZ). We used linear mixed effect and ß spline-regression models to compare growth between the treatment groups. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00640263. FINDINGS: 1273 HIV-exposed uninfected infants and their mothers were enrolled between Nov 16, 2009, and May 7, 2013, of whom 1266 (99%) infants were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (630 assigned to lopinavir-ritonavir, 636 assigned to lamivudine). Baseline characteristics of the infants and mothers were similar across the two treatment groups. No differences in least-squares (LS) mean LAZ were identified between the treatment groups at any timepoint. LS mean WLZ was significantly lower in the lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine group at 26 weeks (difference -0·22 [95% CI -0·34 to -0·09], p=0·0006) and 50 weeks (-0·25 [-0·47 to -0·04], p=0·02). LS mean WAZ was also significantly lower in the lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine group at 26 weeks (difference -0·18 [95% CI -0·30 to -0·05], p=0·01) and 50 weeks (-0·24 [-0·45 to -0·05], p=0·02). Linear mixed models showed that lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with decreases in WLZ and WAZ over time (p<0·0001 and p=0·002), whereas spline regression models indicated that these reductions occurred early and remained constant thereafter (p<0·0001 with a knot at 44 days for WLZ; p=0·02 with a knot at 118 days for WAZ). The difference in LS mean WLZ at 50 weeks between the treatment groups was higher among girls than boys (difference -0·29 [95% CI -0·58 to 0·01], p=0·05 for girls; -0·22 [-0·53 to 0·09], p=0·18 for boys). INTERPRETATION: Less weight gain was observed in infants given lopinavir-ritonavir than those given lamivudine, which is indicative of a persistent effect that could have long-term deleterious effects. This finding merits attention considering the recommendations for early and lifelong treatment of infants with HIV. FUNDING: French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis, the Total Foundation, the European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, and the Research Council of Norway.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 30(4): 479-487, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human breast milk cells remain poorly characterized for the presence of unconventional T lymphocytes and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). METHODS: Early breast milk was collected from eight HIV-uninfected and 11 HIV-infected women 3-12 days after delivery. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells), TCR γδ cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were analyzed in breast milk and paired blood samples. RESULTS: CD161+/TRAV1-2 + MAIT cells were detected in breast milk, accounting for a median (IQR) of 0.08% (0.06-0.16) and 0.17% (0.16-0.31) of CD45+ breast milk cells in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women, respectively. A selective compartmentalization of γδ T lymphocytes was observed in breast milk. Median (IQR) frequency of γδ T lymphocytes was 8.95% (8.64-12.14) among breast milk lymphocyte cells compared to 2.54% (1.81-4.10) in blood (P = 0.03) in HIV-uninfected women, and 7.26% (4.22-10.54) in breast milk versus 3.31% (2.54-3.80) in blood (P = 0.004) from HIV-infected women. The proportion of group 1 ILC (ILC1) among total ILCs was higher in breast milk compared to blood in HIV-uninfected women (P = 0.03) and HIV-infected women (P = 0.001). The frequency of ILC2 among total ILCs tends to be lower in breast milk compared to blood in HIV-uninfected women (P = 0.06) and HIV-infected women (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Unconventional T cells and ILCs that may be involved in both the protection against infection of the lactating mammary gland and maturation of infant's gut and microbiomes account for a detectable fraction of breast milk cells.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Separação Celular , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunofenotipagem , Lactação , Contagem de Linfócitos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo
12.
J Clin Virol ; 106: 41-43, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about human papillomavirus (HPV) shedding in human breast milk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate HPV shedding in mature breast milk specimens collected from breastfeeding African women living with HIV-1 and not receiving antiretroviral treatment. DESIGN: 62 African women enrolled in the ANRS 12174 trial participated in this study. 79 lactoserum specimens obtained from right and/or left breasts from 42 Zambian women as well as lactosera and cell pellets from 40 milk samples collected from right and left breasts among 20 Ugandan women were tested for HPV using the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra II assay. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 9 (11.4%) lactoserum specimens collected from 8 (19.0%) Zambian women. Fourteen (17.5%) samples from 5 (25%) Ugandan women were positive for HPV detection. Differences in HPV type identification between the two breasts as well as between lactoserum and cell pellet were oberved. Overall, 13 (21.0%) of the 62 women included in this study had detectable HPV DNA in their breast milk, representing 11 HPV types, including high-risk, probable high-risk and low-risk types. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that HPV can be frequently detected in breast milk in HIV-infected women. Further studies are needed to understand the way by which maternal milk can shed HPV.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/análise , Leite Humano/virologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1 , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/genética , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 8(4): e019239, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We have assessed HIV-1 disease progression among HIV-1-positive mothers in relation to duration of any or exclusive breast feeding in the context of ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: The analysis was completed on 203, 212, 272 and 529 HIV-1-positive and lactating mothers with CD4 count >350 cells/µL from Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia, respectively. The trial compared lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir as a peri-exposure prophylaxis during a 50-week follow-up time. A multiple logistic regression model was run with the mothers' weight, CD4 count and HIV-1 viral load as separate dependent variables, then combined into a dependent composite endpoint called HIV-1 disease progression where HIV-1 viral load was replaced by the HIV-1 clinical stage. Exclusive or predominant breast feeding (EPBF) and any breastfeeding duration were the key explanatory variables. RESULTS: In the adjusted model, the associations between EPBF duration and weight change, CD4 cell count and the HIV-1 viral load were consistently insignificant. The CD4 cell count was associated with a significantly higher mothers' body mass index (BMI; a mean increase of 4.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 7.7) CD4 cells/µL per each additional kilogram per square metre of BMI) and haemoglobin concentration (19.4 (95% CI 11.4 to 27.4) CD4 cells/µL per each additional gram per decilitre of haemoglobin concentration). There was no significant association between EPBF duration and HIV-1 disease progression. A higher education level was a factor associated with a slower HIV-1 disease progression. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding was not a risk factor for a faster progression of HIV-1 disease in mothers of this cohort with a baseline CD4 cell count >350 cells/µL. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT0064026; Post-results.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Burkina Faso , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Londres , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul , Uganda , Zâmbia
14.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 55, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV face challenges, such as disclosure of HIV status, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH). These challenges affect their future quality of life. However, little evidence is available on their sexual behaviors and SRH needs in Zambia. This study aimed at assessing their sexual behaviors and SRH needs and identifying factors associated with marriage concerns and a desire to have children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from April to July 2014. We recruited 200 adolescents aged 15-19 years who were aware of their HIV-positive status. We collected data on their first and recent sexual behavior, concerns about marriage, and desire to have children. We used the Generalized Linear Model to identify factors associated with having concerns about marriage and desire to have children. We performed thematic analysis with open-ended data to determine their perceptions about marriage and having children in the future. RESULTS: Out of 175 studied adolescents, 20.6% had experienced sexual intercourse, and only 44.4% used condoms during the first intercourse. Forty-eight percent had concerns about marriage, and 87.4% desired to have children. Marriage-related concerns were high among those who desired to have children (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.02 to 6.14). Adolescents who had completed secondary school were more likely to desire to have children (ARR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.71). Adolescents who had lost both parents were less likely to want children (ARR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.95). Thematic analysis identified that major concerns about future marriage were fear of disclosing HIV status to partners and risk of infecting partners and/or children. The reasons for their willingness to have children were the desire to be a parent, having children as family assets, a human right, and a source of love and happiness. CONCLUSIONS: Zambian adolescents living with HIV are at risk of engaging in risky sexual relationships and have difficulties in meeting needs of SRH. HIV care service must respond to a wide range of needs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Soropositividade para HIV , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Saúde da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/etnologia , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Reprodutivo/etnologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/etnologia , Risco , Autorrevelação , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
15.
AIDS Care ; 30(5): 634-642, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347827

RESUMO

Physical and psychosocial changes during adolescence could influence the psychological well-being and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of adolescents living with HIV. However, few studies have assessed these two important issues in Zambia. This study aimed at addressing this gap by examining adolescents' depressive symptoms and ART adherence. This was a mixed-methods study conducted from April to July 2014. We recruited 200 adolescents, ages 15 to 19, who were already aware of their HIV status. We measured depressive symptoms using the short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and self-reported three-day adherence to ART. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms and non-adherence to ART. For qualitative data, we examined challenges over ART adherence using thematic analysis. Out of 190 adolescents, 25.3% showed high scores of depressive symptoms. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were unsatisfactory relationships with family (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 3.01; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.20-7.56); unsatisfactory relationships with health workers (AOR 2.68; 95% CI 1.04-6.93); and experience of stigma (AOR 2.99; 95% CI 1.07-8.41). Of all participants, 94.2% were taking ART, but 28.3% were non-adherent. Factors associated with non-adherence to ART were loss of a mother (AOR 3.00; 95% CI 1.05-8.58) and lack of basic knowledge about HIV (AOR 3.25; 95% CI 1.43-7.40). Qualitative data identified the following challenges to ART adherence: management of medication, physical reactions to medicine, and psychosocial distress. The evidence suggests that depressive symptoms and non-adherence to ART were priority issues in late adolescence in Zambia. Health workers should be aware of these issues, and the care and treatment services should be tailored to respond to age-specific needs.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autorrelato , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
16.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 29(2): 133-143, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197124

RESUMO

Initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life confers an important benefit in terms of child mortality and severe morbidity. Intestinal permeability to ingested macromolecules and immunoglobulins is limited to the first days of human life. These exchanges cease in the very early post-partum period but may increase beyond the neonatal period in response to local inflammation or introduction of a weaning food. From animal- and limited human-based observations, compelling evidence points out to breastmilk cells also trafficking from mother to infant mucosal tissues and participating to the maternal microchimerism. The precise nature of breastmilk cells that are involved is presently not known but likely includes progenitor/stem cells-representing up to 6% of breastmilk cells-with possible contribution of mature immune cells. Stem cell microchimerism may induce tolerance to non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMAs), breastfeeding generating regulatory T cells (Treg ) that suppress antimaternal immunity. Therefore, in complement to pregnancy-induced microchimerism, breastfeeding-induced microchimerism may be pivotal in infant immune development, intestinal tissue repair/growth and protection against infectious diseases. As a continuum of the gestational period, the neonatal gut may be considered as a temporary, but important developmental extension of the role played by the placenta during intrauterine life; breastmilk playing the role of maternal blood by delivering maternal soluble factors (macromolecules, Ig, cytokines) and immunologically active milk cells. A better understanding of breastfeeding-induced maternal microchimerism would provide further evidence in support of public health messages that reinforce the importance of early initiation of breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Quimerismo , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/citologia , Gravidez
18.
J Infect Dis ; 216(7): 842-849, 2017 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961804

RESUMO

Background: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection occurs in early childhood and is associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and risk for Kaposi sarcoma, but behaviors associated with HHV-8 transmission are not well described. Methods: We enrolled and followed a prospective cohort of 270 children and their household members to investigate risk factors for HHV-8 transmission in Lusaka, Zambia. Results: We report an incidence of 30.07 seroconversions per 100 child-years. Independent risk factors for HHV-8 incident infection included having a child who shared utensils with a primary caregiver (hazards ratio [HR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-7.14), having an increasing number of HHV-8-infected household members (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-2.79), and having ≥5 siblings/children in the household (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.03-4.88). Playing with >5 children a day was protective against infection (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, .33-0.89), as was increasing child age (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, .93-.99). Conclusions: This is the first study to find a temporal association between limited child feeding behaviors and risk for HHV-8 infection. Child food- and drink-sharing behaviors should be included in efforts to minimize HHV-8 transmission, and households with a large number of siblings should receive additional counseling as childhood infections occur in the home context.


Assuntos
Bebidas/virologia , Características da Família , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 8/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
19.
AIDS ; 31(13): 1885-1889, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) prevalence in Zambian infants upon diagnosis, and to determine how changing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) drug regimens affect drug resistance. DESIGN: Dried blood spot (DBS) samples from infants in the Lusaka District of Zambia, obtained during routine diagnostic screening, were collected during four different years representing three different PMTCT drug treatment regimens. METHODS: DNA extracted from dried blood spot samples was used to sequence a 1493 bp region of the reverse transcriptase gene. Sequences were analyzed via the Stanford HIVDRdatabase (http://hivdb.standford.edu) to screen for resistance mutations. RESULTS: HIVDR in infants increased from 21.5 in 2007/2009 to 40.2% in 2014. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance increased steadily over the sampling period, whereas nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance and dual class resistance both increased more than threefold in 2014. Analysis of drug resistance scores in each group revealed increasing strength of resistance over time. In 2014, children with reported PMTCT exposure, defined as infant prophylaxis and/or maternal treatment, showed a higher prevalence and strength of resistance compared to those with no reported exposure. CONCLUSION: HIVDR is on the rise in Zambia and presents a serious problem for the successful lifelong treatment of HIV-infected children. PMTCT affects both the prevalence and strength of resistance and further research is needed to determine how to mitigate its role leading to resistance.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Sangue/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Genótipo , HIV/enzimologia , HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177259, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding is recommended for infants born to HIV-infected women in low-income settings. Both breastfeeding and HIV-infection are energy demanding. Our objective was to explore how exclusive and predominant breastfeeding changes body mass index (BMI) among breastfeeding HIV1-positive women participating in the ANRS12174 trial (clinical trial no NCT0064026). METHODS: HIV-positive women (n = 1 267) with CD4 count >350, intending to breastfeed HIV-negative infants were enrolled from Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia and counselled on breastfeeding. N = 1 216 were included in the analysis. The trial compared Lamivudine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir as a peri-exposure prophylaxis. We ran a linear mixed-effect model with BMI as the dependent variable and exclusive or predominant breastfeeding duration as the key explanatory variable. RESULTS: Any breastfeeding or exclusive/predominant) breastfeeding was initiated by 99.6% and 98.6% of the mothers respectively in the first week after birth. The median (interquartile range: IQR) duration of the group that did any breastfeeding or the group that did exclusive /predominant breastfeeding were 9.5 (7.5; 10.6) and 5.8 (5.6; 5.9)) months, respectively. The median (IQR) age, BMI, CD4 count, and HIV viral load at baseline (day 7) were 27 (23.3; 31) years, 23.7 (21.3; 27.0) kg/m2, 530 (432.5; 668.5) cells/µl and 0.1 (0.8; 13.7)1000 copies/mL, respectively. No major change in mean BMI was seen in this cohort over a 50-week period during lactation. The mean change between 26 and 50 weeks after birth was 0.7 kg/m2. Baseline mean BMI (measured on day 7 postpartum) and CD4 count were positively associated with maternal BMI change, with a mean increase of 1.0 kg/m2 (0.9; 1.0) per each additional baseline-BMI kilogram and 0.3 kg/m2 (0.2; 0.5) for each additional CD4 cell/µl, respectively. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was not negatively correlated with the BMI of HIV-1 infected Sub-Saharan African mothers. However, a higher baseline BMI and a CD4 count >500 cells/µl were associated with maternal BMI during the exclusive/ predominant breastfeeding period. Considering the benefits of breast milk for the infants and the recurrent results from different studies that breastfeeding is not harmful to the HIV-1-infected mothers, this study also supports the WHO 2016 guidelines on infant feeding that mothers living with HIV should breastfeed where formula is not safe for at least 12 months and up to 24 months, given that the right treatment or prophylaxis for the infection is administered. These findings and conclusions cannot be extrapolated to women who are immune-compromised or have AIDS.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Burkina Faso , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , África do Sul , Uganda , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
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