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1.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt A): 108690, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491725

RESUMO

The New York State Department of Health conducted the Healthy Fishing Communities Program in collaboration with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to assess human exposure to contaminants common to Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and surrounding rivers and waterways among populations in western New York State who eat locally caught fish. The program enrolled licensed anglers and Burmese refugees and immigrants, living near four designated Great Lakes Areas of Concern: Buffalo River, Niagara River, Eighteenmile Creek, and the Rochester Embayment. These target populations were sampled and enrolled independently into the program between February and October of 2013. A core set of contaminants were measured in blood and urine of 409 licensed anglers and 206 Burmese refugees and immigrants which included lead, cadmium, mercury, PCBs, PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides (hexachlorobenzene, mirex, DDT, DDE, and chlordane and its metabolites oxychlordane and trans-Nonachlor), and PFOS and PFOA. Biomonitoring results showed that both groups had higher geometric means for blood lead, total blood mercury, and serum PFOS compared to the 2013-2014 NHANES reference levels. The Burmese refugee group also showed higher geometric means for creatinine-adjusted urine mercury and lipid-adjusted serum DDE compared to national levels. Licensed angler participants reported eating a median of 16 locally caught fish meals in the past year. Burmese participants consumed local fish throughout the year, and most frequently in the summer (median 39 fish meals or 3 times a week). The study results provide valuable information on populations at high risk of exposure to contaminants in the Great Lakes Basin of western New York. The results provide the foundation for developing and implementing public health actions to reduce potential exposures to Great Lakes pollutants.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478646

RESUMO

Human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has aroused considerable public concern over the last three decades. Nevertheless, little is known with regard to the exposure of EDCs in farm animals. In this study, concentrations of 22 phthalate metabolites (PhMs), 15 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs), and 8 bisphenols (BPs) were determined in 183 bovine urine samples collected from China, India, and the United States. The median concentrations of urinary PhMs, OH-PAHs, and BPs in bovines, collectively, were 66, 4.6, and 16 ng/mL, respectively. Mono-n-butyl phthalate (mBP; median, 14 ng/mL) and ∑4DEHP (four secondary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; 13 ng/mL) were the dominant PhMs; hydroxy-fluorene (OH-Fluo; 1.2 ng/mL) and -phenanthrene (OH-Phen; 1 ng/mL) were the dominant OH-PAHs; and 4,4'-di-hydroxydiphenylmethane (BPF; 10 ng/mL) and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane (BPA; 6.7 ng/mL) were the dominant BPs. Bovine urine samples from India and China contained the highest concentrations of PhMs and OH-PAHs, whereas those from India and the United States contained the highest concentrations of BPs. PhM and OH-PAH concentrations were significantly higher in the urine of bulls than those of cows; no such difference was found for BPs. Our findings establish baseline exposure information about three classes of EDCs in domestic farm animals.

3.
Environ Int ; 131: 105054, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365894

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are used in aircraft lubricating oil and hydraulic fluids, and, thus, airplane emissions are thought to be an important source of these chemicals in the environment. In this study, concentrations of 20 OPEs, comprising seven alkyl-OPEs, three chlorinated (Cl)-OPEs, seven aryl-OPEs, and three oligomeric-OPEs, were determined in outdoor air, soil, pine needles, river water, and outdoor dust samples collected around an airport in Albany, New York, in 2018. Elevated ∑OPE concentrations were found in outdoor air, soil, pine needles, outdoor dust, and river water in the ranges of 1320-20,700 pg/m3 (median: 3880), 1.16-73.1 (14.3) ng/g dry weight (dw), 23.2-534 (102) ng/g (dw), 153-2140 (824) ng/g (dw), and 174-24,600 (1250) ng/L, respectively. The total OPE concentrations in air, soil, water, and outdoor dust samples in the study area were dominated by Cl-OPEs, whereas those in pine needles were dominated by aryl-OPEs. The spatial distribution of OPEs in air, soil, and pine needles showed a gradual decreasing trend with increasing distance from the airport. A significant correlation was observed between ∑OPE concentrations in air and soil, and the fugacity ratio showed the flux of OPEs from air to soil. The spatial distribution of OPEs between air and pine needles was similar and highly correlated, suggesting that pine needles are suitable indicators of atmospheric OPE concentrations. In addition to urban activities, aircraft hydraulic/lubricant oils are a major source of OPEs in the vicinity of the airport. The average daily intake of OPEs via air inhalation and outdoor dust ingestion in the vicinity of the airport was up to 1.53 ng/kg bw/day for children and 0.73 ng/kg bw/day for adults.

5.
Environ Int ; 132: 105114, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465954

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides (NEOs) are emerging pesticides of concern due to their potential toxicity to non-target species (e.g., bees, fish and birds). China is an important producer and user of NEOs in the world. Studies on human exposure to NEOs in China are very limited. In this study, urinary levels of six NEOs, namely acetamiprid (ACE), clothianidin (CLO), dinotefuran (DIN), imidacloprid (IMI), thiacloprid (THD), and thiamethoxam (THM) were determined in 324 individuals from 13 cities in China. Across all sampling locations, total NEO concentrations (ΣNEOs; sum of six NEOs) were dominated by CLO (median: 0.24 ng/mL), IMI (0.21 ng/mL), THM (0.15 ng/mL) and DIN (0.14 ng/mL) collectively accounting for 98% of the concentrations. Urinary concentrations of each NEO varied depending on the sampling location with the median values ranged from 0.057 to 1.2 ng/mL for CLO, from 0.036 to 0.83 ng/mL for DIN, from 0.069 to 3.2 ng/mL for IMI, and from 0.062 to 0.45 ng/mL for THM. Sex-related differences in IMI, ACE and ΣNEOs concentrations were observed with males presenting significantly higher urinary levels than did females. All six NEOs were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.135 to 0.661, p < 0.05) with each other, suggesting that the exposure sources of NEOs are common or related. On the basis of urinary IMI levels, we calculated the median daily intake (DI; mean and range) of IMI to be 1.6 (4.1, <0.02-55) µg/day, or 0.034 (0.11, <0.0003-2.1) µg/kg bw/day. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the ubiquitous occurrence of and human exposure to NEOs in China.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 70-75, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284197

RESUMO

Phthalates are widely used in several consumer products, including plastics, toys, cosmetics, and medical devices. Little is known about phthalate exposure in pet animals, however, even though they share an indoor environment with humans; this is the first study to measure such exposure. We measured 21 phthalate monoester metabolites (PhMs) in the urine of pet cats (n = 50) and dogs (n = 50) collected from New York State, USA. PhMs were widely detected in all samples, and 12 of 21 PhMs had detection frequencies (Dfs) >80%. The median urinary concentrations of total PhMs in pet cats and dogs were 630 ng/mL and 186 ng/mL, respectively. Monoethyl phthalate (mEP) was the most abundant compound in both cats and dogs. Phthalic acid (PA; a non-specific metabolite of phthalates) was found at very high concentrations in cats (median: 520 ng/mL). The estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) for major phthalates in pets showed that DEHP exposures in cats and dogs were only 2-fold less than the US Environmental Protection Agency suggested reference dose (RfD) for humans.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 789-798, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326802

RESUMO

Many organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) found in appreciable concentrations in marine predators. While production of some POPs has declined or ceased in recent decades, their capacity for global transport and bioaccumulation results in observations of unchanging or increasing concentrations in marine systems. Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been advocated as an environmental sentinel for contaminants due to their longevity, site fidelity and prey species that often overlap with human consumption. Using archived (1992-2010) samples of livers from Northern sea otters (n = 50) from Alaska we examine concentrations of chlordanes (CHLs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and associated metabolites. We found some evidence for declining ΣPCBs over the two decades, however for most animals concentrations were low compared to toxicological thresholds. Six animals had relatively high concentrations of ΣPCBs (mean = 262,000 ng/g lipid weight), ΣDDTs (mean = 8,800 ng/g lw), and ΣPBDEs (mean = 4,600 ng/g lw), with four of these six animals experiencing hepatic parasitism or hepatitis. In order to assess whether differences in POP concentrations are associated with feeding ecology, we examined stable isotopes of C and N in archived muscle and whisker samples. In general, there were no significant relationships between ΣPOP concentrations and stable isotope ratios. There were small differences in stable isotope profiles in animals with high POP concentrations, although it was unclear if these differences were due to feeding ecology or disease processes. This study highlights the importance of considering feeding ecology and necropsy (health and disease status) data while conducting contaminant surveys, and confirms some previous reports of trends in OHCs in Alaska marine mammals.

8.
J Appl Toxicol ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338854

RESUMO

In both human and animals, in utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical used in the production of plastics and epoxy resins, has been shown to affect offspring reproductive and metabolic health during adult life. We hypothesized that the effect of prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA will be evident during fetal organogenesis and fetal/postnatal growth trajectory. Pregnant ewes were administered BPA subcutaneously from 30 to 90 days of gestation (term 147 days). Fetal organ weight, anthropometric measures, maternal/fetal hormones and postnatal growth trajectory were measured in both sexes. Gestational BPA administration resulted in higher accumulation in male than female fetuses only at fetal day 65, with minimal impact on fetal/maternal steroid milieu in both sexes at both time points. BPA-treated male fetuses were heavier than BPA-treated female fetuses at fetal day 90 whereas this sex difference was not evident in the control group. At the organ level, liver weight was reduced in prenatal BPA-treated female fetuses, while heart and thyroid gland weights were increased in BPA-treated male fetuses relative to their sex-matched control groups. Prenatal BPA treatment also altered the postnatal growth trajectory in a sex-specific manner. Males grew slower during the early postnatal period and caught up later. Females, in contrast, demonstrated the opposite growth trend. Prenatal BPA-induced changes in fetal organ differentiation and early life growth strongly implicate translational relevance of in utero contributions to reproductive and metabolic defects previously reported in adult female offspring.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 584-594, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325858

RESUMO

Siloxanes are organo-silicon compounds containing Si-O-Si linkages and methyl branches. Depending on the structure, siloxanes can be divided into cyclic and linear compounds. Methyl siloxanes with small and medium molecular weights (molecular weights less than 500 g mol-1), are volatile under normal conditions, and hence are referred to as volatile methyl siloxanes (VMSs). VMSs are additive ingredients in many products such as plastics, rubber, personal care products, and household items. This review provides information on the distribution of VMSs in consumer products, indoor air and dust, and their implications for human exposure. VMSs have been used in personal care products and household items at concentrations on the order of hundreds to thousands of micrograms per gram which are the main sources of contamination in the indoor environments. VMSs have been found widely in indoor air and dust. A significant correlation existed between VMS concentrations in indoor air and dust. Among typical VMSs, dodecamethylcylcopentasiloxane (D5) is the major compound found in indoor environments. The human exposure doses to VMSs through dermal absorption, dust ingestion, and inhalation were compiled; Inhalation is a dominant pathway of exposure to VMSs, especially in indoor environments of occupational settings like hair salons. The human exposure doses were higher in children than in adults.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 759-767, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344538

RESUMO

Despite high production and usage of parabens and bisphenols, little is known about their spatiotemporal distribution in the marine environment. In this study, we determined the concentrations of several parabens and their metabolites as well as bisphenol analogues in sediment collected from coastal areas of northern China. All sediment samples, including surface sediment and sediment cores, contained at least one of the parabens analyzed, and the total concentrations of parabens (ΣPBs; sum of six parabens) ranged from 1.37 to 24.2 ng/g dw (geometric mean: 3.30-6.09 g/g dw), which was comparable to or slightly higher than those found for the total concentrations of five detectable bisphenols (ΣBPAs; geometric mean: 2.18-4.61 ng/g dw). 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, a common metabolite of parabens, was found in all samples at concentrations in the range of 6.85-437 ng/g dw, which was one order of magnitude lower than those found for benzoic acid. Methyl-, ethyl-, and propyl-parabens were the predominant paraben analogues, collectively accounting for >88% of ΣPBs. Bisphenol A and bisphenol F were the two major bisphenols, collectively accounting for >86% of ΣBPAs. We also examined vertical profiles in concentrations of target analytes in sediment cores. The sediment core from the Shandong Peninsula showed a gradual increase in the concentrations of several parent and metabolic parabens as well as bisphenols during the past decade. Relatively higher concentrations of parabens and bisphenols were found in sediment cores collected from industrialized areas. Significant positive correlations were found among the concentrations of parabens in sediment, which suggested the existence of similar sources for these compounds. Overall, our findings suggest that the Bohai Sea coast is moderately contaminated with parabens and bisphenols in comparison to other coastal areas in China or elsewhere.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(13): 7859-7865, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180207

RESUMO

Melamine received public and regulatory attention in 2008 following a scandal that involved the adulteration of milk and infant formula in China that affected tens of thousands of infants. Little is known about human exposure and the food chain transfer of melamine and its derivatives. In this study, melamine, cyanuric acid, ammeline, and ammelide were analyzed in 100 human milk samples collected from the United States during the period of 2009-2012. ∑Melamine (sum of melamine and its three derivatives) was found in breast milk at concentrations that ranged from 0.176 to 10.0 ng/mL (median: 1.40 ng/mL). Cyanuric acid was the major derivative, accounting for 73% of the total concentrations, followed by melamine (21%). No remarkable associations were noted between melamine and cyanuric acid concentrations and maternal/infant characteristics. The cumulative daily intakes of melamine (16.9-30.6 ng/kg bw/day) and cyanuric acid (88.8-161 ng/kg bw/day) were calculated for breast-fed infants and were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude below the current tolerable daily intake. This is the first study to report the distribution of melamine and its derivatives in breast milk from the United States.

12.
Environ Int ; 130: 104904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226556

RESUMO

Exposure of humans to pesticides is widespread. Measurement of urinary levels of pesticides and their metabolites is often used in the assessment of body burdens and exposure doses to these chemicals. An understanding of temporal variability in urinary levels of pesticides within individuals is critical for accurate exposure assessment. We examined within- and between-individual variability in concentrations of nine organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides as well as two phenoxy herbicides in urine collected consecutively for up to 44 days from 19 individuals. Seven oxidative stress biomarkers also were measured in urine samples to elucidate their relationship with pesticide exposure. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess reproducibility in urinary pesticide concentrations from repeated measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed to evaluate the suitability of spot urine to characterize average exposures. Data analysis was further limited to seven pesticides and their metabolites, which had a detection frequency of >60%. Poor reproducibility was found for the seven pesticides and their metabolites in both spot (ICCs ≤0.24) and first-morning-void (FMV) samples (ICCs <0.38) collected during the 44-day study period. Use of single-spot or FMV sample to classify high (top 33%) concentrations showed high specificities (0.73-0.85) but low sensitivities (0.45-0.70). The minimum number of samples (k) required per individual to estimate participant-specific mean value for pesticides (within 20% of the "true" values) were 28-140 and 18-119 for spot and FMV samples, respectively. Repeated longitudinal measurements of these pesticides and their metabolites in urine showed considerable within-individual variability in both spot and FMV samples. Urinary concentrations of seven pesticides and their metabolites were significantly correlated with oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA.

13.
Environ Int ; 130: 104950, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252165

RESUMO

We determined the concentrations of melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid in meat, fish and seafood, cereal products, beverages, cooking oil, and vegetables (n = 121) collected from Albany, New York, United States. In addition, food packaging (n = 24) and animal feed (n = 12) were analyzed to determine the sources of melamine and its derivatives in foods. Among the six categories of foods analyzed, median concentrations of ∑melamine (sum of melamine and its three derivatives) in meat (23.6 ng/g fresh weight; fw) and cereal products (20.9 ng/g fw) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in other food categories (<5.03 ng/g fw). Cyanuric acid and melamine were the major compounds, accounting for 51% and 26% of the total ∑melamine concentrations, respectively. ∑melamine was found ubiquitously in food packaging (median: 36.2 ng/g fw) and animal feed (56.5 ng/g fw), which are two important sources of melamine found in foodstuffs. The median estimated daily dietary intakes (including concentrations reported for dairy products in our previous study) of melamine and cyanuric acid were in the ranges of 13.4-72.7 and 75.4-347 ng/kg body weight/day, respectively, for various age groups. Dairy products, cereal products, and meat were major sources of dietary melamine (~76%) and cyanuric acid (~95%) exposure. The calculated hazard quotients for dietary exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid were well below 1.0, which suggested minimal risk from current exposures.

14.
Chemosphere ; 233: 677-686, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195272

RESUMO

Wastewater, aeration gas, dewatered sludge, and incineration ash and flue gas (from dewatered sludge) were collected from 9 sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, and analyzed for seven cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) namely, D3, D4, D5, D6, L3, L4, and L5. The mass loadings and distribution of VMSs in STPs were estimated based on measured concentrations in liquid, solid, and gaseous samples, including incinerated dewatered sludge. Mass loading of ΣVMS varied widely from 21 kg y-1 to 3740 kg y-1, depending on the volume of wastewater treated in each STP. Mass % of ΣVMS distributed in aeration gas was 15% and that in activated sludge was 78%. Approximately 6.6% of ΣVMS remained in the final effluent. Overall, partitioning onto the activated sludge was the dominant removal mechanism for D4, D5, and D6, whereas volatilization was also an important removal mechanism for D4. Incineration was effective to degrade VMSs in dewatered sludge, with a reduction rate of >99%. Activated carbon treatment removed >99% of VMSs from the aeration gas. In Saitama Prefecture, total emission of ΣVMS via STPs was estimated at 434 kg y-1, 86 kg y-1, and 0.065 kg y-1, to aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments, respectively, which accounted for 83%, 17%, and 0.01% of the total environmental emissions. Our results indicate that majority of VMSs in dewatered sludge can be removed by incineration and emission of VMSs through incineration ash landfill is negligible.

15.
Chemosphere ; 228: 444-450, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051346

RESUMO

Bromate (BrO3-) is an anionic contaminant known possess carcinogenic potential. Although some studies have reported the occurrence of bromate in drinking water, very little is known about its presence in fruits and vegetables, especially in Chile. In this study, we quantified bromate in soils (n = 29), drinking water (n = 43), surface water (n = 6), groundwater (n = 6), fertilizers (n = 7), fruits (n = 12) and vegetables (n = 42) collected across Chile. The highest average concentrations of bromate in soils (11.7 ng g-1) and drinking water (8.8 ng mL-1) were found in northern Chile. Additionally, drinking water collected from four regions of Chile showed higher concentrations of bromate (median:18.5 ng mL-1) than the maximum contaminant level (MCL, 10 ng mL-1). Concentrations of bromate in nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous fertilizers were similar (median: 2.51 µg g-1). Leafy vegetables (median: 9.52 ng g-1) produced in the northern Chile contained higher bromate concentrations than those produced in other regions (median: 0.24 ng g-1). The estimated daily intakes of bromate via drinking water in northern, central and southern were ranged between 58.6 and 447 ng/kg bw/d. Leafy vegetables were an important source of bromate for all age group. The EDI values were below the respective reference dose (RfD) of 4000 ng/kg-day.


Assuntos
Bromatos/química , Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Frutas/química , Verduras/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Bromatos/análise , Chile , Água Potável/análise , Humanos
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(12): 7029-7035, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063362

RESUMO

Melamine and cyanuric acid have been reported to occur in animal products. Nevertheless, information that pertains to the occurrence of melamine and cyanuric acid in cattle feed and urine is lacking. In this study, the occurrence of melamine and its three derivatives (i.e., cyanuric acid, ammeline, and ammelide) was determined in 183 bovine urine and 29 matched feed samples collected from China, India, and the United States. ∑Melamine (sum of four target compounds) was found in all urine samples at concentrations that ranged from 4.2 to 5280 ng/mL (median: 370 ng/mL); cyanuric acid was the major derivative, accounting for 97% of the total concentrations, followed by melamine (2.2%). The ubiquitous occurrence of ∑Melamine in feed (21-6230 ng/g) suggests that it is the major source of melamine and its derivatives in bovines. Urinary concentrations of melamine and cyanuric acid varied significantly among the three countries, with samples from China as having the highest concentrations, followed by the United States and India. The calculated cumulative daily intakes of melamine and cyanuric acid were at least 10-fold below the current tolerable daily intake recommended for humans. Our study provides evidence-based data on exposure patterns and sources of melamine and cyanuric acid in cattle.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 790-795, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096409

RESUMO

Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States, which has led to its ubiquitous occurrence in food and water and regular detection in human urine at concentrations of 1-10 µg/L. Data pertaining to health risks arising from the ingestion of glyphosate are limited and are the subject of much debate, which demands the need for more exposure information for this herbicide. Very little is known about glyphosate exposure in pets. In this study, we determined concentrations of glyphosate (Glyp) and its derivatives, methyl glyphosate (Me-Glyp) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in urine collected from 30 dogs and 30 cats from New York State, USA. Glyp was the most predominant compound found in pet urine followed by AMPA and Me-Glyp. The mean urinary concentration of ∑Glyp (sum of Glyp + Me-Glyp + AMPA) in cats (mean: 33.8 ±â€¯46.7 ng/mL) was 2-fold higher than that in dogs (mean: 16.8 ±â€¯24.4 ng/mL). Cumulative daily intakes (CDI) of Glyp in dogs and cats estimated from the urinary concentrations were, on average, 0.57 and 1.37 µg/kg bw/d, respectively. The exposure doses were two to four orders of magnitude below the current acceptable daily intake (ADI) suggested by several international health organizations for humans.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/urina , Fatores Etários , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Glicina/urina , Masculino , New York , Fatores Sexuais
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 373: 671-677, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954869

RESUMO

Occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal trends of melamine and its derivatives (ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid) were investigated in surface sediment and two sediment cores collected from Lake Shihwa, South Korea. ∑Melamine (sum of melamine and its three derivatives) was found in all surface sediment samples at concentrations that ranged from 16.6 to 4390 ng/g dry weight (dw), with an average value of 202 ng/g dw. ∑Melamine concentrations exhibited a clear spatial gradient, in decreasing order, as: creeks (mean: 577 ng/g dw) > inshore locations (41.9 ng/g dw) > offshore locations (24.3 ng/g dw). ∑Melamine concentrations were notably high in sediment collected near wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfalls. Melamine was the most prevalent compound in sediment collected from creeks (87%) and WWTP outfall locations (48%), whereas cyanuric acid was the dominant compound in sediment from inshore (51%) and offshore (63%) locations. The historical profiles of ∑Melamine in sediment cores corresponded with coastal development and environmental changes in this region. This is the first study to document the occurrence and temporal distribution of melamine in sediment cores, and this information is useful in understanding the fate of these relatively less-studied chemicals in the environment.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 528-535, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933808

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous in the environment, but little is known about their distribution in soils. In this study, we measured 19 OPEs in soil samples collected nationwide in China for the first time. Concentrations of 19 OPEs (∑OPEs) in soils ranged from 4.50 to 430 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a median value of 36.6 ng/g dw. ∑OPE concentrations in soils were significantly higher in Northeastern (90.6, 19.1-180 ng/g dw; median, range) and Eastern/Southern China (57.4, 7.23-430 ng/g dw), areas with high population density and economic development, than those in Central (35.8, 4.80-417 ng/g dw) and Western China (29.7, 4.50-228 ng/g dw). High concentrations of ∑OPEs were found in soils collected from sites located in the most urbanized areas of China including Beijing (126 ng/g dw), Shanghai (388 ng/g dw), and Guangzhou (430 ng/g dw). Chlorinated (Cl-) OPEs were the predominant compounds, accounting for over 74.0% of ∑OPE concentrations in soils from China. In soil samples from Northeastern and Eastern/Southern China, Cl-OPEs accounted for 84.3% and 92.1% of ∑OPE concentrations, respectively. Cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDPP) and isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), which have been less studied thus far, were also found at measurable concentrations (0.15-0.40 ng/g dw) in soils. The Spearman's rank correlations among major aryl-OPEs in soils were significant (Rho = 0.582-0.747, p < 0.01), which suggested similar sources of environmental release of these compounds. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was not correlated with the concentrations of ∑OPE in soils (Rho = 0.036, p > 0.05). A hazard assessment for ten OPEs in soils suggested a notable risk from tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and trimethylphenyl phosphate (TMPP). Further studies are needed to elucidate the fate of TMPP in soils.

20.
Environ Int ; 128: 24-29, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029976

RESUMO

Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) such as 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT), are used in a wide variety of consumer products, including certain foodstuffs (e.g. fats and oils) and cosmetics. Although BHT is considered generally safe as a food preservative when used at approved concentrations, there is debate whether BHT exposure is linked to cancer, asthma, and behavioral issues in children. Little is known with regard to human exposure to SPAs and the methods to measure these chemicals in urine. In this study, six SPAs and the metabolites were analyzed in 145 urine samples collected from four Asian countries (China, India, Japan, and Saudi Arabia) and the United States. BHT was found in 88% of the urine samples at median and maximum concentrations of 1.26 and 15 ng/mL, respectively. BHT metabolites and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were found in 39% to 89% of the urine samples at a concentration range of

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