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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181589

RESUMO

Olive tree (Olea europaea, Oleaceae) leaf extract (OLE) exerts many biological activities. One of the most common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that pollute the environment is 2-amino-l-methyI-6-phenyI-imidazo pyridine (PhIP). It is a food-derived carcinogen that is present in fish and meat that has been cooked at high temperatures. Due to the generation of reactive electrophilic species, phase I enzymes have the potential to cause oxidative damage. In order to safely remove these reactive species from the body, phase II detoxification (conjugation) enzymes are necessary. It is not known whether OLE could influence their activities and hence reduce the carcinogenic effects of PhIP. This study evaluated whether OLE could modulate phase I detoxifying enzymes as well as phase II enzymes that metabolize PhIP in rat liver microsomes. Four groups of rats were used: group I: no treatment; group II: OLE (10 mg/kg bw orally); group III: PhIP (0.1 mg/kg bw orally); and group IV: PhIP followed by OLE. After 4 weeks, the activities of phase I enzymes such as CYP1A1 (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase), CYP2E1 (p-nitrophenol hydroxylase), CYP1A2 (methoxyresorufin O-demethylase), UDP-glucuronyl transferase, sulphotransferase, and glutathione-S transferase were evaluated in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of OLE by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showed various active ingredients in OLE, including 3,5-Heptadienal (C10H14O), 3,4-dimethoxy benzoic acid (C8H10O3), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy (C8H8O4), 1,3,5-Benzenetriol (C6H6O3), hexadecanoic acid (C16H32O2), and hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester (C18H36O2). Our results showed that rats given PhIP were found to have a statistically significant (p < 0.001) reduction in the activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP2E1 in comparison with the control group. However, treatment with OLE enhanced their activities but not to a normal level compared with untreated groups. Administration of PhIP decreased the activities of phase II enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyltransferase, or sulphotransferase) (p < 0.01) in comparison with the control group. Histological examination of rat livers was consistent with the biochemical changes. The administration of OLE improved the phase II enzyme activities in animals injected with PhIP. We conclude that OLE influences phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes exposed to PhIP, which may represent a new approach to attenuating carcinogenesis induced by it.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure in pregnancy is typically estimated using maternal urinary phthalate metabolite levels. Our aim was to evaluate the association of urinary and placental tissue phthalates, and to explore the role of maternal and pregnancy characteristics that may bias estimates. METHODS: Fifty pregnancies were selected from the CANDLE Study, recruited from 2006 to 2011 in Tennessee. Linear models were used to estimate associations of urinary phthalates (2nd, 3rd trimesters) and placental tissue phthalates (birth). Potential confounders and modifiers were evaluated in categories: temporality (time between urine and placenta sample), fetal sex, demographics, social advantage, reproductive history, medication use, nutrition and adiposity. Molar and quantile normalized phthalates were calculated to facilitate comparison of placental and urinary levels. RESULTS: Metabolites detectable in >80% of both urine and placental samples were MEP, MnBP, MBzP, MECPP, MEOHP, MEHHP, and MEHP. MEP was most abundant in urine (geometric mean [GM] 7.00 ×102 nmol/l) and in placental tissue (GM 2.56 ×104 nmol/l). MEHP was the least abundant in urine (GM 5.32 ×101 nmol/l) and second most abundant in placental tissue (2.04 ×104 nmol/l). In aggregate, MEHP differed the most between urine and placenta (2.21 log units), and MEHHP differed the least (0.07 log units). MECPP was positively associated between urine and placenta (regression coefficient: 0.31 95% CI 0.09, 0.53). Other urine-placenta metabolite associations were modified by measures of social advantage, reproductive history, medication use, and adiposity. CONCLUSION: Phthalates were ubiquitous in 50 full-term placental samples, as has already been shown in maternal urine. MEP and MEHP were the most abundant. Measurement and comparison of urinary and placental phthalates can advance knowledge on phthalate toxicity in pregnancy and provide insight into the validity and accuracy of relying on maternal urinary concentrations to estimate placental exposures. IMPACT STATEMENT: This is the first report of correlations/associations of urinary and placental tissue phthalates in human pregnancy. Epidemiologists have relied exclusively on maternal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations to assess exposures in pregnant women and risk to their fetuses. Even though it has not yet been confirmed empirically, it is widely assumed that urinary concentrations are strongly and positively correlated with placental and fetal levels. Our data suggest that may not be the case, and these associations may vary by phthalate metabolite and associations may be modified by measures of social advantage, reproductive history, medication use, and adiposity.

3.
Chemosphere ; 307(Pt 2): 135599, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melamine, melamine derivatives, and aromatic amines are nitrogen-containing compounds with known toxicity and widespread commercial uses. Nevertheless, biomonitoring of these chemicals is lacking, particularly during pregnancy, a period of increased susceptibility to adverse health effects. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to measure melamine, melamine derivatives, and aromatic amine exposure in pregnant women across the United States (U.S.) and evaluate associations with participant and urine sample collection characteristics. METHODS: We measured 43 analytes, representing 45 chemicals (i.e., melamine, three melamine derivatives, and 41 aromatic amines), in urine from pregnant women in nine diverse ECHO cohorts during 2008-2020 (N = 171). To assess relations with participant and urine sample collection characteristics, we used generalized estimating equations to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for analytes dichotomized at the detection limit, % differences (%Δ) for continuous analytes, and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariable models included age, race/ethnicity, marital status, urinary cotinine, and year of sample collection. RESULTS: Twelve chemicals were detected in >60% of samples, with near ubiquitous detection of cyanuric acid, melamine, aniline, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, and a composite of o-toluidine and m-toluidine (99-100%). In multivariable adjusted models, most chemicals were associated with higher exposures among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black participants. For example, concentrations of 3,4-dichloroaniline were higher among Hispanic (%Δ: +149, 95% CI: +17, +431) and non-Hispanic Black (%Δ: +136, 95% CI: +35, +311) women compared with non-Hispanic White women. We observed similar results for ammelide, o-/m-toluidine, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, and 4-chloroaniline. Most chemicals were positively associated with urinary cotinine, with strongest associations observed for o-/m-toluidine (%Δ: +23; 95% CI: +16, +31) and 3,4-dichloroaniline (%Δ: +25; 95% CI: +17, +33). Some chemicals exhibited annual trends (e.g., %Δ in melamine per year: -11; 95% CI: -19, -1) or time of day, seasonal, and geographic variability. DISCUSSION: Exposure to melamine, cyanuric acid, and some aromatic amines was ubiquitous in this first investigation of these analytes in pregnant women. Future research should expand biomonitoring, identify sources of exposure disparities by race/ethnicity, and evaluate potential adverse health effects.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Gestantes , Aminas , Compostos de Anilina , Feminino , Humanos , Nitrogênio , Gravidez , Toluidinas , Triazinas , Estados Unidos
4.
Environ Int ; 169: 107526, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155914

RESUMO

Exposure of pet dogs and cats to pesticides used in and around homes (e.g., lawns and gardens) is a significant health concern. Furthermore, some pesticides are directly used on dogs and cats for flea, lice, and tick control. Despite this, little is known regarding the extent of pesticide exposure in pets. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 30 biomarkers of pesticide exposure in urine collected from dogs and cats in New York State, USA: 6 dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphates (OPs); 14 neonicotinoids (neonics); 3 specific metabolites of OPs; 5 pyrethroids (PYRs); and 2 phenoxy acids (PAs). The sum median concentrations of these 30 pesticide biomarkers (ΣPesticides) in dog and cat urine were 35.2 and 38.1 ng/mL, respectively. Neonics were the most prevalent in dogs (accounting for 43% of the total concentrations), followed by DAPs (17%), PYRs (16%), OPs (13%), and PAs (∼10%). In cat urine, neonics alone accounted for 83% of the total concentrations. Elevated concentrations of imidacloprid were found in the urine of certain dogs (max: 115 ng/mL) and cats (max: 1090 ng/mL). Some pesticides showed gender- and sampling location- related differences in urinary concentrations. We calculated daily exposure doses of pesticides from the measured urinary concentrations through a reverse dosimetry approach. The estimated daily intakes (DIs) of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and cypermethrin were above the chronic reference doses (cRfDs) in 22, 76, and 5%, respectively, of dogs. The DIs of chlorpyrifos, parathion, diazinon, and imidacloprid were above the cRfDs in 33, 14, 100, and 29%, respectively, of cats. This study thus provides evidence that pet dogs and cats are exposed to certain pesticides at levels that warrant immediate attention.

5.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 2): 114322, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are shown to have neurotoxic effects on animals, but epidemiological evidence for associations between childhood PFAS exposure and neurodevelopment is inconclusive. We examined if childhood PFAS concentrations are associated with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD), and other early concerns (OEC) in development. METHODS: We included 551 children 2-5 years old from the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) case-control study. Children were clinically diagnosed and classified as having ASD, DD, OEC, and typical development (TD). Fourteen PFAS were quantified in child serum samples collected when diagnostic assessments were performed. We used multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the cross-sectional associations of individual PFAS concentrations with neurodevelopmental outcomes and weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression models with repeated holdout validation to investigate the associations with PFAS mixtures. RESULTS: Childhood perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was associated with increased odds of ASD (odds ratio [OR] per ln ng/mL increase: 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20, 3.29) and DD (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.84) versus TD. Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) was associated with increased odds of ASD (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.13). However, perfluroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was associated with decreased odds of ASD (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.69). From mixture analyses, the WQS index was associated with increased odds of ASD (average OR: 1.57, 5th and 95th percentile: 1.16, 2.13). Child's sex and homeownership modified associations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) with DD and ASD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this case-control study, childhood PFOA, PFHpA, and a PFAS mixture was associated with increased odds of ASD, while PFUnDA was associated with decreased odds of ASD. Because we used concurrent measurements of PFAS, our results do not imply causal relationships and thus need to be interpreted with caution.

6.
Environ Int ; 167: 107449, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952469

RESUMO

Human exposure to carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, from hand sanitizers is a topic of current concern. In light of the heavy use of hand sanitizers during the COVID-19 pandemic, determination of exposure to toxicants present in these products deserves attention. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had set an interim limit for benzene in alcohol-based hand sanitizers at 2000 parts-per-billion (ppb). We determined the concentrations of and exposure to three VOCs namely, benzene, toluene and styrene, in 200 hand sanitizers using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). Benzene, toluene and styrene were found in 31%, 25% and 32%, respectively, of the samples analyzed at mean concentrations of 395 (range: 0.181-22,300), 164 (range: 0.074-20,700) and 61.3 ng/g (range: 0.082-4200 ng/g), respectively. Benzene was found at concentrations > 2000 ng/g (above the FDA interim limit) in 5% of the samples, representing 9 brands. The mean potential dermal exposure doses (DEDs) to benzene (children/teenagers: 34.6; adults: 24.7 ng/kg-bw/d) were higher than those for toluene (children/teenagers: 14.4; adults: 10.3 ng/kg-bw/d) and styrene (children/teenagers: 5.37; adults: 3.83 ng/kg-bw/d) in the 200 hand sanitizers analyzed. The estimated cancer risk from exposure to benzene in children/teenagers and adults from hand sanitizer use (at an estimated usage rate of 5 g/day) was greater than the one-in-a-million risk benchmark (1.0 × 10-6) for 10% and 9% of the samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine both the concentrations of and exposure risks to benzene, toluene and styrene present in hand sanitizers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Higienizadores de Mão , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Adolescente , Adulto , Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Estireno/análise , Tolueno/análise , Estados Unidos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Environ Pollut ; 311: 120012, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007786

RESUMO

Legacy [e.g., brominated- (BFRs)] and alternative [e.g., organophosphate- (OPFRs) and nitrogenous- (NFRs)] flame retardants have a propensity to migrate out of consumer products, and thus are dispersed in indoor microenvironments. In this study, simultaneous presence of 11 BFRs, 18 OPFRs and 11 NFRs were measured in house dust collected from Tianjin, China. OPFRs were found at the highest concentrations, with a median value of 3200 ng/g, followed by NFRs (2600) and BFRs (1600). Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (median: 1800 ng/g), melamine (1100), and BDE-209 (870) were the top three most abundant chemicals in the respective groups. Location-specific patterns of flame retardant concentrations were found with 30%, 20% and 10% of samples were predominated by OPFRs, NFRs and BFRs, respectively, and the remaining samples contained by two or more of the chemical groups occurring concurrently. Network and cluster analysis results indicated the existence of multiple sources of flame retardants in the indoor microenvironment. Estimated human daily intakes via indoor dust ingestion were approximately several tens of ng/kg bw/day and were below their respective reference dose values. Our results indicate widespread occurrence of multiple flame retardant families in indoor dust and suggest need for continued monitoring and efforts to reduce exposures through dust ingestion.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Organofosfatos/análise
8.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 3): 113981, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952739

RESUMO

Silicone wristbands act as passive environmental samplers capable of detecting and measuring concentrations of a variety of chemicals. They offer a noninvasive method to collect complex exposure data in large-scale epidemiological studies. We evaluated the inter-method reliability of silicone wristbands and urinary biomarkers in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. A subset of study participants (n = 96) provided a urine sample and wore a silicone wristband for 7 days at approximately 12 gestational weeks. Women were instructed to wear the wristbands during all their normal activities. Concentrations of urinary compounds and metabolites in the urine and parent compounds in wristbands were compared. High detection rates were observed for triphenyl phosphate (76.0%) and benzophenone (78.1%) in wristbands, although the distribution of corresponding urinary concentrations of chemicals did not differ according to whether chemicals were detected or not detected in wristbands. While detected among only 8.3% of wristbands, median urinary triclosan concentrations were higher among those with triclosan detected in wristbands (9.04 ng/mL) than without (0.16 ng/mL). For most chemicals slight to fair agreement was observed across exposure assessment methods, potentially due to low rates of detection in the wristbands for chemicals where observed urinary concentrations were relatively low as compared to background concentrations in the general population. Our findings support the growing body of research in support of deploying silicone wristbands as an important exposure assessment tool.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Retardadores de Chama , Triclosan , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Silicones/química
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12473-12482, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951380

RESUMO

Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are estrogenic chemicals used extensively in sunscreen products, leading to concerns over human exposure. To assess exposure to BP derivatives in sunscreens, we tested 14 BP UV filters in 50 products representing 44 brands marketed in the United States in 2021, finding BP, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3 or oxybenzone), 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-8), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-4'-methylbenzophenone (BP-10), 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone (2,3,4-OH-BP), and 4-methylbenzophenone (4-Me-BP) in ≥70% of the samples. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of the sum of these BPs (∑14BPs) in the 50 products was 6600 ng/g. BP-3 was the predominant BP in oxybenzone-containing products (accounting for >99% of the total concentration), with a concentration 5-6 orders of magnitude higher than that in "oxybenzone-free" products (GM: 35 600 000 vs 113 ng/g). BP was present in >90% of products analyzed, including those labeled "oxybenzone-free" (GM: 2100 ng/g). BP concentrations were ∼100-fold higher in octocrylene-containing vs "octocrylene-free" products (GM: 15900 vs 151 ng/g). Dermal exposure doses of BP-3 from oxybenzone-containing products (GM: 4140 000 ng/kg body weight (BW)/day) and of BP in some (24%) octocrylene-containing products (GM: 12 200 ng/kg BW/day) were above reference values (2 000 000 and 30 000 ng/kg BW/day for BP-3 and BP, respectively). This study provides evidence that BP and BP-3 concentrations in sunscreen products vary widely and may be noteworthy even in products labeled oxybenzone- or octocrylene-free, making dermal exposure a continuing concern.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas , Protetores Solares , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 851(Pt 1): 158102, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987249

RESUMO

Despite extensive use of primary aromatic amines (AAs) in consumer products, little is known about their occurrence in the environment. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of 14 AAs and nicotine in 75 sediment samples collected from seven estuarine and freshwater ecosystems in the Unites States. Additionally, risk quotients (RQs) were calculated to assess potential risks of these chemicals to aquatic organisms. Of the 14 AAs analyzed, seven of them were found in sediments. The sum concentrations of seven AAs in sediments were in the range of 10.2 to 1810 ng/g, dry wt (mean: 388 ng/g). Aniline was the most abundant compound, accounting for, on average, 53 % of the total concentrations. Nicotine was found in sediments at a concentration range of

11.
Environ Pollut ; 309: 119745, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820574

RESUMO

Fetal exposure to bisphenols and phthalates may influence development of the reproductive system. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1059 mother-child pairs, we examined the associations of maternal gestational urinary bisphenols and phthalates concentrations with offspring reproductive development from infancy until 13 years. We measured urinary bisphenol and phthalate concentrations in each trimester. We obtained information on cryptorchidism or hypospadias after birth from medical records. At 9.7 years, we measured testicular and ovarian volume by MRI. At 13.5 years, we measured child Tanner stages and menstruation through questionnaire. We performed linear or logistic regression models for boys and girls to assess the associations of maternal urinary average and trimester-specific bisphenols and phthalates with child reproductive outcomes. Next, to further explore potential synergistic or additive effects of exposures together, we performed mixed exposure models using a quantile g computation approach. Models were adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, body-mass index, education, parity, energy intake, smoking and alcohol use, and child's gestational age at birth, birthweight and body-mass index. In boys, no associations of maternal gestational phthalate or bisphenol with offspring cryptorchidism and hypospadias were found. Higher maternal high-molecular-weight phthalate and total bisphenol, but not phthalic acid or low-molecular-weight phthalate, were associated with larger child testicular volume at 10 years. Higher maternal phthalic acid and total bisphenol were associated with earlier genital and pubic hair development at 13 years, respectively (p-values<0.05). In girls, we found no associations of maternal urinary bisphenol and phthalate with ovarian volume or menstrual age. Only higher maternal urinary high-molecular-weight phthalate was associated with earlier pubic hair development at 13 years (p-values <0.05). Higher mixture exposure was associated with earlier pubic hair development in both sexes. In conclusion, higher maternal gestational urinary bisphenol and phthalate concentrations were associated with alterations in offspring reproductive development, mainly in boys.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Poluentes Ambientais , Hipospadia , Ácidos Ftálicos , Criptorquidismo/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Environ Pollut ; 309: 119774, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841991

RESUMO

Fetal exposure to environmental chemicals has been associated with adverse health outcomes in children and later into adulthood. While several studies have examined correlations and variability of non-persistent chemical exposures throughout pregnancy, many do not capture more recent exposures, particularly in New York City. Our goal was to characterize exposure to phthalates, bisphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organophosphate pesticides among pregnant women residing in New York City who enrolled in the New York University Children's Health and Environment Study (NYU CHES) between 2016 and 2018. We measured urinary chemical metabolite concentrations in 671 women at early, mid, and late pregnancy (median 10.8, 20.8, and 29.3 weeks, respectively). We calculated Spearman correlation coefficients among chemical concentrations at each measurement time point. We compared changes in population-level urinary metabolites at each stage using paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to quantify intra-individual variability of metabolites across pregnancy. Geometric means and ICCs were compared to nine other pregnancy cohorts that recruited women in 2011 or later as well as nationally reported levels from women of child-bearing age. Compared with existing cohorts, women in NYU CHES had higher geometric means of organophosphate pesticides (Σdiethylphosphates = 28.7 nmol/g cr, Σdimethylphosphates = 57.3 nmol/g cr, Σdialkyl phosphates = 95.9 nmol/g cr), bisphenol S (0.56 µg/g cr), and 2-naphthalene (8.98 µg/g cr). Five PAH metabolites and two phthalate metabolites increased between early to mid and early to late pregnancy at the population level. Spearman correlation coefficients for chemical metabolites were generally below 0.50. Intra-individual exposures varied over time, as indicated by low ICCs (0.22-0.88, median = 0.38). However, these ICCs were often higher than those observed in other pregnancy cohorts. These results provide a general overview of the chemical metabolites measured in NYU CHES in comparison to other contemporary pregnancy cohorts and highlight directions for future studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Praguicidas , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Organofosfatos/urina , Compostos Organofosforados , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Gestantes
13.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119656, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787426

RESUMO

Infant exposure to per/polyfluoroalkyl compounds is associated with immune disruption. We examined associations between neonatal concentrations of perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype profiles in a prospective cohort of infants. We measured Ig isotypes, including IgA, IgE, IgM and the IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, and PFOA and PFOS in newborn dried bloodspots from N = 3175 infants in the Upstate KIDS Study (2008-2010). We examined the association between newborn Ig isotype levels and individual PFOS and PFOA concentrations using mixed effects regression models with a random intercept to account for twins among study participants. We assessed the joint effect PFOA and PFOS with quantile-based g-computation on all singletons and one randomly selected twin (N = 2901), with Ig categorized as above or below median value. Models were adjusted for infant sex, and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, race, parity, age and infertility treatment. In adjusted models, PFOA was inversely associated with IgE (coefficient = -0.12 per unit increase in PFOA, 95% CI: -0.065, -0.17), whereas IgG2, IgM, and IgA were positively associated with PFOA (coefficient for IgG2 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.27; coefficient for IgM = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.15; and coefficient for IgA = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.18). There was no relation between PFOS and Ig isotypes. Analysis of the joint effect of PFOA and PFOS showed an OR of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.36) for IgA and OR of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24) for IgG2 levels above the median for every quartile increase. PFOA levels were significantly associated with elevated IgA, IgM, IgG2, and reduced levels of IgE in single-pollutant models. A small but significant joint effect of PFOA and PFOS was observed. Our results suggest that early exposure to PFOA and PFOS may disrupt neonatal immunoglobulin levels.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Caprilatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina E , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Kidney360 ; 3(6): 1011-1020, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35845343

RESUMO

Background: Air pollution, which results in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has been identified as a cause of renal function decline and a contributor to CKD. However, the results of cross-sectional studies investigating personal, integrated biomarkers of PAHs have been mixed. Longitudinal studies may be better suited to evaluate environmental drivers of kidney decline. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of serially measured urinary PAH metabolites with clinical and subclinical measures of kidney function over time among children with CKD. Methods: This study was conducted among 618 participants in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study, a cohort study of pediatric patients with CKD from the United States and Canada, between 2005 and 2015. In serially collected urine samples over time, nine PAH metabolites were measured. Clinical outcomes measured annually included eGFR, proteinuria, and BP. Subclinical biomarkers of tubular injury (kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1] and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) and oxidant stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] and F2-isoprostane) were assayed in urine samples. Results: Children were followed over an average (SD) of 3.0 (1.6) years and 2469 study visits (mean±SD, 4.0±1.6). Hydroxynaphthalene (NAP) or hydroxyphenanthrene (PHEN) metabolites were detected in >99% of samples and NAP concentrations were greater than PHEN concentrations. PHEN metabolites, driven by 3-PHEN, were associated with increased eGFR and reduced proteinuria, diastolic BP z-score, and NGAL concentrations over time. However, PAH metabolites were consistently associated with increased KIM-1 and 8-OHdG concentrations. Conclusions: Among children with CKD, these findings provoke the potential explanation of reverse causation, where renal function affects measured biomarker concentrations, even in the setting of a longitudinal study. Additional work is needed to determine if elevated KIM-1 and 8-OHdG excretion reflects site-specific injury to the proximal tubule mediated by low-grade oxidant stress.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lipocalina-2 , Estudos Longitudinais , Oxidantes , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Proteinúria , Estados Unidos
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(10): 6560-6573, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536918

RESUMO

Prenatal chemical exposures can influence maternal and child health; however, few industrial chemicals are routinely biomonitored. We assessed an extensive panel of contemporary and emerging chemicals in 171 pregnant women across the United States (U.S.) and Puerto Rico in the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program. We simultaneously measured urinary concentrations of 89 analytes (103 total chemicals representing 73 parent compounds) in nine chemical groups: bactericides, benzophenones, bisphenols, fungicides and herbicides, insecticides, organophosphate esters (OPEs), parabens, phthalates/alternative plasticizers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We estimated associations of creatinine-adjusted concentrations with sociodemographic and specimen characteristics. Among our diverse prenatal population (60% non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic), we detected 73 of 89 analytes in ≥1 participant and 36 in >50% of participants. Five analytes not currently included in the U.S. biomonitoring were detected in ≥90% of samples: benzophenone-1, thiamethoxam, mono-2-(propyl-6-carboxy-hexyl) phthalate, monocarboxy isooctyl phthalate, and monohydroxy-iso-decyl phthalate. Many analyte concentrations were higher among women of Hispanic ethnicity compared to those of non-Hispanic White women. Concentrations of certain chemicals decreased with the calendar year, whereas concentrations of their replacements increased. Our largest study to date identified widespread exposures to prevalent and understudied chemicals in a diverse sample of pregnant women in the U.S.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Criança , Comércio , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Plastificantes , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estados Unidos
16.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 243: 113978, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest associations between exposure to individual polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with preterm birth (PTB) and shorter gestational age. Little is known about exposure to PBDE mixtures and these outcomes. We evaluated associations of multiple PBDEs in early pregnancy with gestational age at delivery and PTB. METHODS: Data were collected from 2046 women without obesity and 396 women with obesity from the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies, who had early pregnancy plasma PBDEs concentrations and gestational age at delivery. PTB was defined as < 37 weeks of gestation at delivery and further categorized into subtypes (late or very early/moderate; spontaneous or medically indicated). We applied (1) generalized linear models (GLM); (2) principal component analysis (PCA); and (3) Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) to evaluate the individual and joint associations of log-transformed PBDE concentrations with gestational age at delivery and PTB, adjusting for potential confounders and evaluating effect modifiers. RESULTS: In GLM analyses, a 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in log-PBDE 153 was associated with shorter gestational age at delivery [adjusted ß (95% CI) = -0.19 (-0.31, -0.06) weeks] among women without obesity. In PCA analyses, 1-SD increase in the principal component summarizing most of PBDE 153 variability was associated with shorter gestational age at delivery [adjusted ß (95% CI) = -0.18 (-0.30, -0.06) weeks], very early/moderate PTB [adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.91 (1.19, 3.07)], and spontaneous PTB [adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.34 (1.00, 1.80)] among women without obesity. Associations were stronger among non-Hispanic Black women, women with BMI ranging between 25 and 30 kg/m2, and women who were ≥35 years old among those without obesity. In BKMR analyses, a suggestive inverse association between PBDE 153 and gestational age at delivery, and an inverse U-shaped association between PBDE 154 and gestational age at delivery were observed in women without obesity. No statistically significant association of PBDEs and gestational age or PTB was observed among women with obesity. CONCLUSIONS: PBDEs, specifically PBDE 153, were associated with shorter gestation and higher risk of certain PTB subtypes among pregnant women without obesity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Nascimento Prematuro , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.) , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(47): 71607-71613, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604596

RESUMO

Date was considered a high nutritional value fruit due to its high content of active ingredients. Frequent exposure to cosmetic radiations including UVC caused deleterious effects and tissue damage and organ affection. This study investigated the efficacy of Ajwa date extract (ADE) in protection against UVC-induced kidney injury in rats. Five groups of rats were included in this study. Group I: Rats were exposed to UVC radiation at a dose 5 kJ (1 h/day) for 28 days. Group II: Rats were pretreated orally with ADE (10 mg/kg/day) 1 h before exposure to UVC radiation with dose 5 kJ. Group III: Rats were pretreated with ADE (15 mg/kg) 1 h before exposure to UVC radiation. Group IV: Rats were exposed to UVC radiation then treated with ADE (10 mg/kg). Group V: Rats exposed to UV radiation then treated with ADE (15 mg/kg) after 1 h from exposure. Analyzing the active constituents of ADE by GC/MS showed that, quercetin, myricetin kaempferol, thymine, and catechol are the most active ingredients. Biochemical markers obtained showed that, serum 8-oxoguanine as marker for DNA damage was increased, and total antioxidant activity and glutathione reduced were decreased (p < 0.01), while neutrophil (p < 0.001), conjugated diene (p < 0.05), and interferon-γ (p < 0.01) were increased after exposure to UVC. However, all the parameters changed were reversed by ADE-treated rats compared with untreated; the higher dose was more effective and protective effect was better than treated effect. Kidney total proteins and reduced glutathione and procollagen levels were decreased while malondialdehyde was increased after exposure to UVC (p < 0.01). These abnormalities were normalized by ADE treatment and protected. It was concluded that, flavonoids from Ajwa extract protected against deleterious effects of UVC by enhancing antioxidant activities and reducing infiltration of neutrophils that caused kidney injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catecóis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Quempferóis/metabolismo , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Rim/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pró-Colágeno , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos , Timina/metabolismo , Timina/farmacologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564358

RESUMO

Melamine is a nephrotoxic industrial chemical. Diet is one source of melamine exposure, yet little work has examined the main dietary contributors, particularly among children. We evaluated associations of diet with urinary melamine and derivative concentrations among 123 children aged 4-6 years in the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth cohort. Children's diets on the day preceding urine collection were assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. Associations of meat, fruit, and grain intakes with melamine exposure were examined using multiple linear regression. Remaining food groups were examined in secondary analyses. Mean (SD) melamine, ammelide, and cyanuric acid concentrations were 6.1 (12.4), 1.9 (2.1), and 60.6 (221.2) ng/mL, respectively. The second tertile of red meat consumers had 98% (95% CI: 15%, 241%) greater melamine exposure than non-consumers, yet the highest consumers did not have increased exposure. Greater consumption of certain fruits was associated with lower urinary ammelide. The top yogurt consumers had 112% (95% CI: 29%, 247%) greater melamine exposure than non-consumers. Consumption of starchy vegetables excluding potatoes was associated with 139% (95% CI: 6%, 437%) greater urinary ammelide. These observed associations should be confirmed in future studies using larger samples and increased monitoring of non-dietary routes of exposure.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carne , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Triazinas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564359

RESUMO

The extensive use of herbicides, such as glyphosate and glufosinate, in crop production during recent decades has raised concerns about human exposure. Nevertheless, analysis of trace levels of these herbicides in human biospecimens has been challenging. Here, we describe a method for the determination of urinary glyphosate, its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was optimized using isotopically labelled internal standards (13C2, 15N-glyphosate, 13C, 15N, D2-AMPA, and D3-glufosinate) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with cation-exchange and anion-exchange cartridges. The method provides excellent chromatographic retention, resolution and peak shape of target analytes without the need for strong acidic mobile phases and derivatization steps. The instrument linearity was in the range of 0.1-100 ng/mL, with R > 0.99 in the matrix for all analytes. The method detection limits (MDLs) and the method quantification limits (MQLs) were in the ranges of 0.12 (AMPA and glufosinate)-0.14 (glyphosate) ng/mL and 0.40 (AMPA)-0.48 (glyphosate) ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of analytes spiked into urine matrix ranged from 79.1% to 119%, with coefficients of variation (CVs) of 4-10%. Repeated analysis of samples for over 2 weeks showed intra-day and inter-day analytical variations of 3.13-10.8% and 5.93-12.9%, respectively. The matrix effects for glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate spiked into urine matrix averaged -14.4%, 13.2%, and 22.2%, respectively. The method was further validated through the analysis of external quality assurance proficiency test (PT) urine samples. The method offers optimal sensitivity, accuracy, and precision for the urine-based assessment of human exposure to glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Aminobutiratos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/análise , Humanos , Organofosfonatos , Ácido alfa-Amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-isoxazol Propiônico
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 836: 155561, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513141

RESUMO

The potential use of growth substrates prepared with an admixture of 10% to 75% Hudson River sediments was evaluated by analysis of changes in microbial activity (measured using Biolog Ecoplates) and molecular markers (presence of degradative tceA1 and bphA genes) as well as potential risks toward humans and the environment (health and environmental risk quotients). The highest microbial activity was found in growth substrate with 25% Hudson River sediments compared to unamended control soil. Significant differences were observed between samples amended with lower (0-10%) and higher (25-75%) proportion of sediment. Microbial activity increased with the proportion of sediment amendment (≥25% sediment); however, this increase in microbial activity was not affected by increasing pollutant concentrations (PCBs, Pb, Cr Ni and Zn) nor decreasing TOC content. The growth substrate amended with Hudson River sediments demonstrated a potential for PCB degradation, as evidenced by the presence of tceA1 and bphA genes responsible, respectively, for reductive dehalogenation and oxidation of a range of aromatic organic compounds including PCBs. An assessment of risk quotients showed that the growth substrates containing lower doses of Hudson River sediments (10-50%) meet the international requirements for use in agriculture/horticulture for the production of non-food crops. Nevertheless, due to the elevated content of some toxic metals and PCBs, the growth substrate prepared with the highest proportion of sediments (75%) was not suitable for agricultural/horticultural use.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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