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Brain ; 142(10): 3009-3027, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504254


N-methyl d-aspartate receptors are ligand-gated ionotropic receptors mediating a slow, calcium-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS. Variants in genes encoding NMDAR subunits have been associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we report six novel GRIN2D variants and one previously-described disease-associated GRIN2D variant in two patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. GRIN2D encodes for the GluN2D subunit protein; the GluN2D amino acids affected by the variants in this report are located in the pre-M1 helix, transmembrane domain M3, and the intracellular carboxyl terminal domain. Functional analysis in vitro reveals that all six variants decreased receptor surface expression, which may underline some shared clinical symptoms. In addition the GluN2D(Leu670Phe), (Ala675Thr) and (Ala678Asp) substitutions confer significantly enhanced agonist potency, and/or increased channel open probability, while the GluN2D(Ser573Phe), (Ser1271Phe) and (Arg1313Trp) substitutions result in a mild increase of agonist potency, reduced sensitivity to endogenous protons, and decreased channel open probability. The GluN2D(Ser573Phe), (Ala675Thr), and (Ala678Asp) substitutions significantly decrease current amplitude, consistent with reduced surface expression. The GluN2D(Leu670Phe) variant slows current response deactivation time course and increased charge transfer. GluN2D(Ala678Asp) transfection significantly decreased cell viability of rat cultured cortical neurons. In addition, we evaluated a set of FDA-approved NMDAR channel blockers to rescue functional changes of mutant receptors. This work suggests the complexity of the pathological mechanisms of GRIN2D-mediated developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, as well as the potential benefit of precision medicine.

Hum Mutat ; 40(12): 2393-2413, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429998


N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate slow excitatory postsynaptic transmission in the central nervous system, thereby exerting a critical role in neuronal development and brain function. Rare genetic variants in the GRIN genes encoding NMDAR subunits segregated with neurological disorders. Here, we summarize the clinical presentations for 18 patients harboring 12 de novo missense variants in GRIN1, GRIN2A, and GRIN2B that alter residues in the M2 re-entrant loop, a region that lines the pore and is intolerant to missense variation. These de novo variants were identified in children with a set of neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions. Evaluation of the receptor cell surface expression, pharmacological properties, and biophysical characteristics show that these variants can have modest changes in agonist potency, proton inhibition, and surface expression. However, voltage-dependent magnesium inhibition is significantly reduced in all variants. The NMDARs hosting a single copy of a mutant subunit showed a dominant reduction in magnesium inhibition for some variants. These variant NMDARs also show reduced calcium permeability and single-channel conductance, as well as altered open probability. The data suggest that M2 missense variants increase NMDAR charge transfer in addition to varied and complex influences on NMDAR functional properties, which may underlie the patients' phenotypes.

Brain ; 141(3): 698-712, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365063


Polymicrogyria is a malformation of cortical development. The aetiology of polymicrogyria remains poorly understood. Using whole-exome sequencing we found de novo heterozygous missense GRIN1 mutations in 2 of 57 parent-offspring trios with polymicrogyria. We found nine further de novo missense GRIN1 mutations in additional cortical malformation patients. Shared features in the patients were extensive bilateral polymicrogyria associated with severe developmental delay, postnatal microcephaly, cortical visual impairment and intractable epilepsy. GRIN1 encodes GluN1, the essential subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. The polymicrogyria-associated GRIN1 mutations tended to cluster in the S2 region (part of the ligand-binding domain of GluN1) or the adjacent M3 helix. These regions are rarely mutated in the normal population or in GRIN1 patients without polymicrogyria. Using two-electrode and whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis, we showed that the polymicrogyria-associated GRIN1 mutations significantly alter the in vitro activity of the receptor. Three of the mutations increased agonist potency while one reduced proton inhibition of the receptor. These results are striking because previous GRIN1 mutations have generally caused loss of function, and because N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonists have been used for many years to generate animal models of polymicrogyria. Overall, our results expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with GRIN1 mutations and highlight the important role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor signalling in the pathogenesis of polymicrogyria.

Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimicrogiria/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Agonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Glicina/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese/genética , N-Metilaspartato/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Polimicrogiria/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos , Transfecção