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1.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769163

RESUMO

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

2.
J Immunol ; 186(4): 2430-43, 2011 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21248261

RESUMO

Capsular polysaccharides of encapsulated bacteria are weakly immunogenic T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) Ags. Recent findings suggest that BAFF system molecules have a critical role in the development of Ab responses against TI-2 Ags. In this study, we investigated the effect of bacterial polysaccharides on B cell responses to BAFF and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). We determined that B cells exposed to meningococcal type C polysaccharide (MCPS) or group B Streptococcus serotype V (GBS-V) were unresponsive to BAFF- and APRIL-induced Ig secretion. Moreover, MCPS and GBS-V strongly downregulated transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor, the BAFF and APRIL receptor that is responsible for Ab development against TI-2 Ags. Interestingly, (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl-Ficoll (NP-Ficoll), a prototype TI-2 Ag, did not manifest a suppressive effect on B cells. Paradoxically, whereas GBS-V and MCPS inhibited IFN-γ-induced BAFF production from dendritic cells, NP-Ficoll strongly increased BAFF secretion. TLR 9 agonist CpG deoxyoligonucleotide (ODN) was able to reverse the MCPS-mediated transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor suppression but could not rescue the Ig secretion in BAFF- or APRIL-stimulated B cells. In support of these in vitro observations, it was observed that CpG ODN could help augment the Ab response against NP in mice immunized with a CpG ODN-containing NP-Ficoll vaccine but exhibited only marginal adjuvant activity for MCPS vaccine. Collectively, these results suggest a mechanism for the weak immunogenicity of bacterial polysaccharides and explain the previously observed differences between bacterial polysaccharide and NP-Ficoll immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Fator Ativador de Células B/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Ativador de Células B/fisiologia , Cápsulas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/antagonistas & inibidores , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo C/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/fisiologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/antagonistas & inibidores , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Inibidores do Crescimento/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores do Crescimento/fisiologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
3.
J Immunol ; 181(2): 976-90, 2008 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18606649

RESUMO

Capsular polysaccharides of encapsulated bacteria do not induce immune response in newborns and the mechanism for this unresponsiveness is not clear. In adults, transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin [corrected] ligand interactor (TACI) is a TNFR family member molecule with a pivotal role in Ab responses against polysaccharide vaccines. We investigated the expression and the functions of the TNF family cytokines, B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), and their receptors in newborn mice and found that TACI expression on B lymphocytes was dramatically reduced (p < 0.0001) in newborns as compared with adults. More importantly, TACI ligands BAFF or APRIL were unable to induce IgA/IgG/IgM secretion from newborn B lymphocytes. Additionally, TACI expression seems to be important in plasma cell development. Indeed, in contrast to adults, stimulation of newborn B lymphocytes with BAFF or APRIL did not result in up-regulation of CD138 expression. In vitro or in vivo exposure of newborn B lymphocytes to oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) led to up-regulation of TACI expression on newly formed, follicular, and marginal zone as well as B1 B lymphocyte populations, and rendered them responsive to BAFF- or APRIL-mediated CD138 expression and IgA/IgG secretion. Finally, immunization of newborn BALB/c mice but not TACI knockout mice with CpG ODN containing (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl-Ficoll led to development of IgG Abs against (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl. These findings demonstrate that low TACI expression may be a critical factor that determines the susceptibility of newborns to infections with encapsulated bacteria and the impaired immunogenicity of polysaccharide vaccines. Finally, CpG ODNs may correct deficient newborn response to polysaccharide vaccines by up-regulating TACI.


Assuntos
Fator Ativador de Células B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/metabolismo , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fator Ativador de Células B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , DNA/imunologia , DNA/metabolismo , Ficoll/análogos & derivados , Ficoll/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Sindecana-1/imunologia , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/imunologia , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Eur J Immunol ; 37(7): 1785-95, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17557373

RESUMO

The B lymphocyte-activating factor belonging to TNF superfamily (BAFF) acts on B lymphocytes through BAFF receptor (BAFF-R), the transmembrane activator, calcium modulator, and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), and the B cell maturation antigen (BCMA). Another cytokine, a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), only binds to TACI and BCMA. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of Toll-like receptor agonists (TLR-A) on the expression of BAFF/APRIL receptors by murine splenic B lymphocytes. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and LPS strongly up-regulated TACI expression, while BAFF-R was only up-regulated by CpG ODN. CpG ODN pretreatment up-regulated TACI expression on follicular and marginal zone B lymphocytes and increased their responses to BAFF- and APRIL-mediated Ig secretion. TACI seemed to be playing a pivotal role in BAFF- or APRIL-induced Ig secretion because B lymphocytes from TACI-knockout mouse or the blocking of TACI with a neutralizing antibody resulted in total inhibition of IgA and IgG secretion in CpG ODN-pretreated and BAFF- or APRIL-stimulated B cells. Thus, CpG ODN-induced increase in TACI expression is likely to play an important role in Ig secretion following activation of B lymphocytes through TLR9.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Receptor do Fator Ativador de Células B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG/imunologia , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor Toll-Like 9/agonistas , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/imunologia , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/metabolismo
5.
Cell Microbiol ; 9(5): 1297-310, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17250593

RESUMO

Encapsulated Neisseria meningitidis can invade mucosal barriers and cause systemic diseases. Activation of the innate immune system by conserved meningococcal molecules such as lipooligosaccharides (LOS) is essential for the generation of an effective host immune response. Here we show that the type C capsular polysaccharide of N. meningitidis (MCPS) inhibited LOS-induced interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha secretion from monocytes, and blocked the maturation of dendritic cells induced by LOS, while the capsular polysaccharide from group B streptococcus type III and t(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP)-Ficoll had no such effect. MCPS also inhibited the LOS-induced NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation of signalling molecules such as ERK1/2, p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase. In a direct binding assay, MCPS manifested a concentration-dependent binding to recombinant lipoprotein binding protein and CD14, the two members of the LOS receptor complex. In addition, the binding of LOS to CD14 and lipopolysaccharide binding protein was inhibited by MCPS. We established that MCPS binding to CD14 is responsible for the inhibition of LOS-mediated cell activation because MCPS inhibition of LOS was reversed when access amounts of CD14 were added to culture media of HEK293 cells expressing TLR4 and MD-2, and the magnitude of recovery in LOS stimulation correlated with the increase in CD14 concentration. These results suggest a new virulence property of meningococcal capsular polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neisseria meningitidis/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Cápsulas Bacterianas/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Antígeno 96 de Linfócito/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neisseria meningitidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
Clin Immunol ; 112(3): 290-5, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15308123

RESUMO

With the advent and application of standard and sensitive flow cytometry methods, it became essential to establish reference intervals in healthy individuals to demarcate between health and disease. A reference range of lymphocyte populations for normal individuals is important in the diagnosis and prognosis of immunodeficiency diseases like AIDS. We tried to accomplish this by studying the values for T lymphocyte subsets for 200 healthy North Indian adults between 18 and 55 years. We obtained the following reference ranges for various T lymphocyte subsets: CD4 count (304-1864 cells/microl with the median of 666 cells/microl), CD4% (17.5-50.6% with the median of 35%), CD8% (14-53% with the median of 32.3%), CD3% (43-89% with the median of 70.5%), and CD4/CD8 ratio (0.04-3.5 with the median of 1.04). Significant variations were observed for normal reference intervals for T lymphocyte subsets according to the race, ethnic origin, age group, and gender.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Saúde , Imunofenotipagem , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Índia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 18(4): 209-13, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15142351

RESUMO

Individuals with HIV infection are at increased risk for tuberculosis (TB). The altered CD4 T-cell homeostasis induced by HIV infection may play a key role in the development of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. In this retrospective analysis, lymphocyte profiles (CD4 and CD8 count) of subjects infected with HIV, with or without TB, were evaluated. The influence of tuberculosis treatment on the CD4 count in dually infected patients was analyzed in a subset of patients available for follow-up. Of 421 subjects with HIV infection studied, 105 (24.9%) were positive for TB (HIV+TB+). A statistically significant difference (p = 0.0001) was found in the median CD4+ counts between the HIV+TB- (297.5 per microliter) and HIV+TB+ (181 per microliter) groups. TB was found to be the indicator disease for HIV infection in 36 (34.2%). In 65.7% of HIV-infected patients, TB was the first AIDS-defining disease. Of 72 patients who were receiving TB treatment, 33 (45.9%) showed an increase in CD4 counts, but this was statistically not significant. None of these patients was undergoing antiretroviral therapy prior to TB treatment. We conclude from this retrospective study that TB, a common HIV-related opportunistic infection in Indian subjects, is associated with lower CD4+ counts. The influence of TB therapy on CD4 counts in the patients needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Relação CD4-CD8 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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