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1.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors present an institutional experience treating congenital and acquired temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis, detailing outcomes and potential risk factors of recurrence. METHODS: Retrospective chart review identified patients with TMJ ankylosis (1976-2019). Clinical records, operative reports, and imaging studies were reviewed for demographics, surgical operations, and ankylosis including maximal interincisal opening (MIO) and re-ankylosis. RESULTS: Forty-four TMJs with bony ankylosis were identified in 28 patients (mean age at any initial mandibular surgery: 3.7; range:0-14 years). Follow-up was 13.7 ±â€Š5.9 years. Sixteen (57.1%) patients had bilateral ankylosis; 27(96.4%) had syndromes. Nine patients had congenital ankylosis, 16 had iatrogenic ankylosis (4.5 ±â€Š3.7 years from initial distraction osteogenesis or autologous mandibular reconstruction) referred from outside institutions in 6 instances, and 3 had post-infectious ankylosis. Patients having their first mandibular operation at a younger age had more frequent reoperations for recurrent TMJ ankylosis, although this did not reach statistical significance. Mean improvement in MIO was 21.4 ±â€Š7.3 mm. Ankylosis recurred in 21 (75%) patients. Five patients with congenital TMJ ankylosis required gastrostomy and remained at least partially dependent. Five patients had tracheostomy at the time of TMJ ankylosis surgery: 2 were eventually decannulated and 3 required repeat tracheostomy after ankylosis recurrence and remained tracheostomy-dependent. CONCLUSION: The clinical course of TMJ ankylosis in children affected by craniofacial differences is complex and typically involves a high rate of recurrence and multiple reoperations despite initial improvement in postoperative MIO. Younger age at initial mandibular surgery and number of operations require further investigation as potential predictors of recurrent TMJ ankylosis as well as tracheostomy and gastrostomy dependence.

2.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985596

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Digital simulators are potential solutions to challenges facing surgical education. The authors sought to evaluate the reach and utilization of a freely-accessible craniofacial surgery digital educational simulator. More importantly, we compare usage patterns between web-based and mobile-based platforms. METHODS: A 3-way collaboration between academic, non-profit (myFace, New York, NY), and biotechnology (Biodigital, New York, NY) stakeholders in 2015 produced the Craniofacial Interactive Virtual Assistant Pro (CIVA-Pro). CIVA-Pro is a freely-accessible craniofacial surgery digital educational simulator. In addition to the web-based platform, a mobile-based platform was launched in 2017. Usage analytics were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Since its launch, 751 registered users from 117 countries had accessed CIVA-Pro. The total number of sessions was 9531, including 7500 web and 2031 mobile sessions. The total screen time was 403.9 hours, 290.3 for the web and 113.6 for the mobile platform. Comparison of the mean monthly screen time and number of monthly sessions between platforms since 2017 demonstrated a significantly higher mean monthly screen time (60.1 ±â€Š33.2 versus 29.4 ±â€Š16.5 hours; P = 0.002) and number of sessions (110.2 ±â€Š36.1 versus 58.1 ±â€Š31.9; P < 0.0001) for the mobile-based platform. The mean screen time per session was comparable (P = 0.86). CONCLUSION: A freely available digital craniofacial surgery educational simulator designed for surgical trainees can achieve significant global reach. Significantly higher utilization of the mobile-based platform of the simulator as compared to the web-based platform reinforces the need to invest in user-friendly, easily accessible, and widely available digital educational resources by key stakeholders to ensure optimal plastic surgery trainee education.

3.
Aesthet Surg J ; 40(2): 220-227, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving the quality of research published in plastic surgery literature has been recognized as a difficult and time-intensive process. Despite significant progress over the last decade, leaders in the field continue to advocate for higher-quality studies to better inform clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate and analyze trends in the levels of evidence (LOEs) of the plastic surgery literature over the last decade in 4 major journals. METHODS: After systematic review of all articles published between 2008 and 2017 in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery, Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, and Aesthetic Surgery Journal (ASJ), included articles were assigned an LOE and classified according to study design and category. RESULTS: In total, 8211 articles were included. Case series and reports represented 36.1% and 13.6% of studies, respectively. Additionally, 27.2% were retrospective cohort studies, 8.2% prospective cohort studies, 3.9% systematic reviews, and 2.9% randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Overall, the percentage of Level I/II studies has increased from 10.9% in 2008 to 17.3% in 2017. ASJ published the greatest proportion of Level I/II studies (23.2%) and RCTs (5.1%) of all the journals. There were significant differences in the distribution of Level I/II studies by journal (P < 0.001) and category (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Over the past decade, plastic surgery journals have published higher-quality research and a significantly greater proportion of Level I and II studies. The field must continue to strive for robust study designs, while also recognizing the importance of lower-LOE research.

4.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(1): 184e-192e, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simulation is a standard component of residency training in many surgical subspecialties, yet its impact on knowledge and skills acquisition in plastic surgery training remains poorly defined. The authors evaluated the potential benefits of simulation-based cleft surgery learning in plastic surgery resident education through a prospective, randomized, blinded trial. METHODS: Thirteen plastic surgery residents were randomized to a digital simulator or textbook demonstrating unilateral cleft lip repair. The following parameters were evaluated before and after randomization: knowledge of surgical steps, procedural confidence, markings performance on a three-dimensional stone model, and surgical performance using a hands-on/high-fidelity three-dimensional haptic model. Participant satisfaction with either educational tool was also assessed. Two expert reviewers blindly graded markings and surgical performance. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. RESULTS: Interrater reliability was strong for preintervention and postintervention grading of markings [preintervention intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.97 (p < 0.001); postintervention intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.96 (p < 0.001)] and surgical [preintervention intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.83 (p = 0.002); postintervention intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.81 (p = 0.004)] performance. Postintervention surgical knowledge (40.3 ± 4.4 versus 33.5 ± 3.7; p = 0.03), procedural confidence (24.0 ± 7.0 versus 14.7 ± 2.3; p = 0.03), markings performance (8.0 ± 2.5 versus 2.9 ± 3.1; p = 0.03), and surgical performance (12.3 ± 2.5 versus 8.2 ± 2.3; p = 0.04) significantly improved in the digital simulation group compared with before intervention, but not in the textbook group. All participants were more satisfied with the digital simulator as an educational tool (27.7 ± 2.5 versus 14.4 ± 4.4; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The authors present evidence suggesting that digital cognitive simulators lead to significant improvement in surgical knowledge, procedural confidence, markings performance, and surgical performance.

5.
J Surg Res ; 245: 420-425, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged impairment of protective ocular functions can compromise vision and lead to blindness if uncorrected. Several facial transplants have incorporated periorbital structures with variable eyelid preservation, but objective assessment of post-transplant periorbital function has been limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kinematic data were collected from a full-face recipient that included the fist total eyelid transplantation at 5 separate pre-transplant (PRE) and post-transplant time points (T1-T4). Using optical facial tracking, eyelid movements were tracked during involuntary blinking and compared with controls. RESULTS: There was significant improvement in right eye aperture from PRE to T1 (ß = 5.54, P < 0.001), with no change between T1 and T4. Aperture fluctuated in the left eye, with a temporary decrease between T2 and T3 corresponding with revision brow lift (ß = -4.57, P < 0.001). Although improved from the pre-transplantation, right and left eye apertures remained significantly smaller than controls at T1 and T4 (P < 0.001). Similarly, spatial coupling increased from PRE to T1 (ß = 0.63, P < 0.001) and remained high at T4, albeit significantly less than controls (P < 0.001). Temporal coupling improved from PRE to T2 (ß = 2.29, P < 0.02) and was sustained at subsequent time points, with no difference relative to controls at T4. Considerable improvement was observed on clinical examination, with full functional status. CONCLUSIONS: Application of a novel method for assessing functional eyelid recovery using facial tracking technology to the first total eyelid transplantation in the setting of a full facial transplant shows clear functional improvement after transplantation and suggests revisions can be performed safely to optimize aesthetic outcomes without permanent negative functional impact.


Assuntos
Pálpebras/transplante , Transplante de Face , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pálpebras/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
7.
AMA J Ethics ; 21(11): E980-987, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742547

RESUMO

Facial transplantation has gained increasing acceptance as a treatment option to improve quality of life (QoL) for persons suffering from severe facial disfigurement. Despite its growth, the field has yet to establish a consistent approach to assessing QoL in face transplant candidates and recipients that includes integration of meaningful patient-reported outcomes. The published literature suggests that face transplant programs currently use a wide variety of assessment tools and strategies. Moreover, confusion remains as to how best to weigh patients' lived experiences and incorporate them into QoL assessments. Qualitative research can illuminate the dimensions of QoL that are meaningful to face transplant candidates and recipients. Coupled with collaboration and data sharing across face transplant programs, qualitative research will help to bring conceptual clarity and transparency to the assessment process.

8.
Ann Plast Surg ; 83(6): 660-663, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no quantitative evidence supporting one unilateral cleft lip (UCL) repair technique over the other with regard to scarring. We sought to evaluate the difference between the extended Mohler and Millard techniques, using 3 scar assessment scales. METHODS: Postoperative frontal and basal photographs of patients undergoing UCL repair were reviewed. Three validated scar assessment scales were used: the Manchester Scar Scale (MSS), modified scar-rating scale (MSRS), and Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale. Lip and nose scars were rated by 5 independent raters using each of the scales. Interrater reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: Assessment of 116 images for 58 consecutive patients undergoing UCL repair (36 extended Mohler, 22 Millard) was performed. Interrater reliability was excellent for lip scars (ICCs, 0.903 [0.857-0.938] for MSS, 0.913 [0.872-0.944] for MSRS, and 0.850 [0.775-0.902] for SBES) and moderate for nose scar assessment (ICCs, 0.714 [0.579-0.816] for MSS, 0.693 [0.548-0.802] for MSRS, and 0.565 [0.359-0.720] for SBES). No statistically significant difference was found between the extended Mohler and Millard repairs in mean lip scar scores (MSS, 6.983 ± 1.469 vs 6.772 ± 1.175, P = 0.571; MSRS, 5.433 ± 1.530 vs 5.481 ± 1.290, P = 0.902; SBES, 3.633 ± 0.977 vs 3.446 ± 0.995, P = 0.483) or nose scar scores (MSS, 5.644 ± 1.131 vs 5.491 ± 0.689, P = 0.523; MSRS, 4.233 ± 0.987 vs 3.991 ± 0.705, P = 0.320; SBES, 3.933 ± 0.750 vs 4.018 ± 0.486, P = 0.603). CONCLUSIONS: Using 3 validated scar assessment scales, no significant difference was found between the extended Mohler and Millard techniques in terms of lip or nose scars.

9.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 7(8): e2379, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592022

RESUMO

Face transplant (FT) candidates present with unique anatomic and functional defects unsuitable for autologous reconstruction, making the accurate design and transplantation of patient-specific allografts particularly challenging. In this case series, we present our computerized surgical planning (CSP) protocol for FT. Methods: CSP, computer-aided design and manufacturing, intraoperative navigation, and intraoperative computerized tomography have been successfully incorporated into a comprehensive protocol. Three consecutive FTs were performed. CSP and postoperative results were compared using computerized tomography-derived cephalometric measurements, and the literature was reviewed. Results: Two full and 1 partial FT were successfully performed using the CSP protocol. CSP facilitated the execution of FT with minor angular and translational cephalometric variations on immediate postoperative imaging. Our evolving experience was accompanied by a decreased reliance on cadaveric simulation, from 10 mock transplants and a research procurement before the senior author's first clinical FT (2012) to 6 mock transplants and no research procurement before the third FT (2018). Operative time was significantly reduced from 36 to 25 hours, as was the need for major orthognathic surgical revision. This reflects the learning curve and variable case complexity, but it is also representative of improved planning and execution, complemented by the systematic incorporation of CSP into FT. Conclusions: A CSP protocol allows for refinement of operative flow, technique, and outcomes in partial and full FT. Standards for functional and esthetic outcomes are bound to evolve with the field's growth, and computerized planning and execution offer a reproducible approach to FT through objective quality assurance.

10.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 7(8): e2347, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592029

RESUMO

Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is one of the most commonly used osteogenic agents in the craniofacial skeleton. This study reviews the safety and efficacy of rhBMP-2 as applied to craniofacial reconstruction and assesses the level of scientific evidence currently available. Methods: An extensive literature search was conducted. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), case series and reports in the English language as well as Food and Drug Administration reports were reviewed. Studies were graded using the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence Scale. Data heterogeneity precluded quantitative analysis. Results: Seventeen RCTs (Levels of evidence: Ib-IIb) were identified evaluating the use of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus, alveolar ridge, alveolar cleft, or cranial defect reconstruction (sample size: 7-160; age: 8-75 years). Study designs varied in rigor, with follow-up ranging 3-36 months, and outcome assessment relying on clinical exam, radiology, and/or histology. There was wide variation in rhBMP-2 concentrations, carriers, and controls. Most studies evaluating rhBMP-2 for cranial defect closure, mandibular reconstruction, or distraction osteogenesis consisted of retrospective cohorts and case reports. The evidence fails to support RhBMP-2 use in maxillary sinus wall augmentation, calvarial reconstruction, mandibular reconstruction, or distraction osteogenesis. RhBMP-2 may be effective in alveolar reconstruction in adults, but is associated with increased postoperative edema. Conclusions: A risk-benefit ratio favoring rhBMP-2 over alternative substitutes remains to be demonstrated for most applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Long-term data on craniofacial growth is lacking, and using rhBMP-2 in patients younger than 18 years remains off-label.

12.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(7): 2194-2197, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Extended Mohler cleft lip repair restores upper lip form using a columellar flap to fill the defect created by the downward rotation of Cupid's bow. The resulting columella incision is mentioned as a potential drawback. This study seeks to evaluate the morbidity of the resulting scar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 50 unilateral cleft lip patients treated using the Extended Mohler repair. 5 reviewers examined post-operative images. Three validated scar assessment scales were utilized: Manchester Scar Scale (MSS), Modified Scar-Rating Scale (MSRS), and Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale (SBSES). A scar score for the lip and columellar portion of each patient was determined. RESULTS: Three different scar scales demonstrated significantly better scar quality for the columellar portion of the scar compared to the lip portion. The average score for the lip and columella using the MSS was 7.0 ±â€Š1.4 and 5.7 ±â€Š1.1 (P <0.001). The average score for the lip and columella using the MSRS was 5.5 ±â€Š1.4 and 4.3 ±â€Š0.9 (P <0.001). The average score for the lip and columella using the SBSES was 3.5 ±â€Š1.1 and 3.9 ±â€Š0.7 (P = 0.014). The intraclass correlation coefficient for lip scar assessments was 0.901 (MSS), 0.91 (MSRS), and 0.873 (Stony Brook Evaluation Scale [SBES]). The intraclass correlation coefficient for columellar scar assessment was 0.786 (MSS), 0.761 (MSRS), and 0.726 (SBES). CONCLUSION: The Extended Mohler unilateral cleft lip columellar scar is of superior quality compared to the lip portion. This analysis ameliorates one of the major concerns regarding the Extended Mohler cleft lip repair.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/cirurgia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Cóclea/cirurgia , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Surg Res ; 243: 509-514, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of our study was to evaluate risk factors for wound complications in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing transmetatarsal amputations (TMAs), given the paucity of research on this subject. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. In this retrospective analysis, all surgical cases with a primary Current Procedural Terminology code for TMA from 2009 to 2015 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 2316 patients with diabetes mellitus who underwent TMA were identified. Overall wound complications occurred in 276 (11.9%) of patients. Univariate analysis showed that the operative time was significantly longer in patients who developed complications than those who did not (58.3 ± 39.5 versus 50.6 ± 39.4; P = 0.003). Furthermore, the rate of obesity was significantly higher among patients who developed wound complications than those who did not (47.1% versus 41.5%; P = 0.04). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a longer operative time (odds ratio = 1.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.04; P = 0.01) and obesity (odds ratio = 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.40; P = 0.03) were independent risk factors for wound complications in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of having heightened clinical vigilance in obese patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing this procedure, close postoperative follow-up, and limiting operative time when possible.


Assuntos
Amputação/efeitos adversos , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Ossos do Metatarso/cirurgia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Pé Diabético/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Mil Med ; 184(7-8): e236-e246, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ongoing combat operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other theaters have led to an increase in high energy craniomaxillofacial (CMF) wounds. These challenging injuries are typically associated with complex tissue deficiencies, evolving areas of necrosis, and bony comminution with bone and ballistic fragment sequestrum. Restoring form and function in these combat-sustained CMF injuries is challenging, and frequently requires local and distant tissue transfers. War injuries are different than the isolated trauma seen in the civilian sector. Donor sites are limited on patients with blast injuries and they may have preferences or functional reasons for the decisions to choose flaps from the available donor sites. METHODS: A case series of patients who sustained severe combat-related CMF injury and were treated at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC) is presented. Our study was exempt from Institutional Review Board review, and appropriate written consent was obtained from all patients included in the study for the use of representative clinical images. RESULTS: Four patients treated by the CMF team at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center are presented. In this study, we highlight their surgical management by the CMF team at WRNMMC, detail their postoperative course, and illustrate the outcomes achieved using representative patient clinical images. We also supplement this case series demonstrating military approaches to complex CMF injuries with CMF reconstructive algorithms utilized by the senior author (EDR) in the management of civilian complex avulsive injuries of the upper, mid, and lower face are thoroughly reviewed. CONCLUSION: While the epidemiology and characteristics of military CMF injuries have been well described, their management remains poorly defined and creates an opportunity for reconstructive principles proven in the civilian sector to be applied in the care of severely wounded service members. The War on Terror marks the first time that microsurgery has been used extensively to reconstruct combat sustained wounds of the CMF region. Our manuscript reviews various options to reconstruct these devastating CMF injuries and emphasizes the need for steady communication between the civilian and military surgical communities to establish the best care for these complex patients.

17.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(7): 2023-2025, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261341

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The number of patients who may benefit from evaluation for face transplantation in the United States (US) remains largely unknown. The goal of our study was to better delineate the pool of patients who might benefit from face transplant evaluation based on the characteristics and mechanisms of injury of previously reported face transplant recipients. METHODS: The authors utilized data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program in this study. The US Census Bureau data were used for population estimates. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined based on the characteristics of face transplant recipients to date, and the mechanisms of injury they sustained ultimately necessitating face transplantation. Statistical significance was reached if P <0.05. RESULTS: The estimated annual incidence of preventable craniofacial injuries from firearms (44,266-58,299; 31.7% increase), burns (5712-19,433; 240.2% increase), and animal attacks (5355-14,666; 173.9% increase) increased from 2005 to 2014, whereas the estimated annual incidence of craniofacial injuries from machinery (3927-2933; 25.3% decrease) decreased between 2005 and 2014. The authors estimate the annual incidence rate to fall between 32.1 per 100,000 and 58.1 per 100,000 among individuals aged 20 to 64 in the US. CONCLUSION: In this study, the authors estimate the annual incidence rate of individuals aged 20 to 64 in the US who may benefit from face transplant evaluation and believe that this quantification has the potential to initiate actionable discussions regarding geographical and financial factors affecting access to care in this patient population.


Assuntos
Transplante de Face , Adulto , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(2): 264e-283e, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial transplantation introduced a paradigm shift in the reconstruction of extensive facial defects. Although the feasibility of the procedure is well established, new challenges face the field in its second decade. METHODS: The authors' team has successfully treated patients with extensive thermal and ballistic facial injuries with allotransplantation. The authors further validate facial transplantation as a reconstructive solution for irreparable facial injuries. Following informed consent and institutional review board approval, a partial face and double jaw transplantation was performed in a 25-year-old man who sustained ballistic facial trauma. Extensive team preparations, thorough patient evaluation, preoperative diagnostic imaging, three-dimensional printing technology, intraoperative surgical navigation, and the use of dual induction immunosuppression contributed to the success of the procedure. RESULTS: The procedure was performed on January 5 and 6, 2018, and lasted nearly 25 hours. The patient underwent hyoid and genioglossus advancement for floor-of-mouth dehiscence, and palate wound dehiscence repair on postoperative day 11. Open reduction and internal fixation of left mandibular nonunion were performed on postoperative day 108. Nearly 1 year postoperatively, the patient demonstrates excellent aesthetic outcomes, intelligible speech, and is tolerating an oral diet. He remains free from acute rejection. CONCLUSIONS: The authors validate facial transplantation as the modern answer to the classic reconstructive challenge imposed by extensive facial defects resulting from ballistic injury. Relying on a multidisciplinary collaborative approach, coupled with innovative emerging technologies and immunosuppression protocols, can overcome significant challenges in facial transplantation and reinforce its position as the highest rung on the reconstructive ladder. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Faciais/cirurgia , Transplante de Face/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Impressão Tridimensional , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Adulto , Traumatismos Faciais/diagnóstico , Transplante de Face/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Balística Forense , Rejeição de Enxerto , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 77(10): 2085-2103, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228428

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To highlight the challenges and lessons learned in tooth-bearing maxillomandibular facial allotransplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two patients with ballistic composite facial injury underwent tooth-bearing maxillomandibular facial transplantation (FT) after informed consent and institutional review board approval. Patient 1 had undergone total face, double jaw, teeth, and tongue transplantation in March 2012. Patient 2 had undergone partial face, double jaw, and teeth transplantation in January 2018. Le Fort III and bilateral sagittal split skeletal osteotomies were performed in both transplants. Computerized surgical planning was used in both cases, and the allografts were transferred in intermaxillary fixation (IMF) with prefabricated dental splints before rigid skeletal fixation. RESULTS: Normal class I occlusion was achieved at the conclusion of each surgery. Patient 1 had developed a 2 × 2-mm palatal fistula in the early postoperative period and had also gradually developed class III malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment was started at 5 months after transplantation but failed. A Le Fort III advancement was performed 1 month later with successful restoration of class I occlusion. The palatal fistula was successfully repaired at 9 postoperative months. Patient 2 developed a postoperative palate and floor of mouth dehiscence, requiring palatal repair and hyoid and genioglossus advancement on postoperative day (POD) 11. Orthodontic treatment was initiated for Class II malocclusion. On POD 108, left mandibular nonunion was diagnosed. Left coronoidectomy, open reduction, and internal fixation were performed. IMF was maintained for 2 weeks. Orthodontic treatment was then resumed, with normalization of the occlusion by 10 months after FT. CONCLUSIONS: Maxillomandibular transplantation is a viable reconstructive solution for composite midface defects not amenable to autologous reconstruction. Improvement of functional outcomes and prevention of major complications rely on close attention to occlusal relationships, temporomandibular joint dynamics, dental health, and the intraoral donor-recipient soft tissue interface.

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