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1.
Neurology ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale (RSMS), an informant measure of socioemotional sensitivity, is a potential clinical endpoint for treatment trials for patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). METHODS: We investigated whether RSMS informant ratings reflected disease severity in 475 participants (71 bvFTD mutation+, 154 bvFTD mutation-, 12 behavioral mild cognitive impairment [MCI] mutation+, 98 asymptomatic mutation+, 140 asymptomatic mutation-). In a subset of 62 patients (20 bvFTD mutation+, 35 bvFTD mutation-, 7 MCI mutation+) who had at least 2 time points of T1-weighted images available on the same 3T scanner, we examined longitudinal changes in RSMS score over time and its correspondence to progressive gray matter atrophy. RESULTS: RSMS score showed a similar pattern in mutation carriers and noncarriers, with significant drops at each stage of progression from asymptomatic to very mild, mild, moderate, and severe disease (F 4,48 = 140.10, p < 0.001) and a significant slope of decline over time in patients with bvFTD (p = 0.004, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.90 to -0.23). More rapid declines on the RSMS corresponded to faster gray matter atrophy predominantly in the salience network (SN), and RSMS score progression best predicted thalamic volume in very mild and mild disease stages of bvFTD. Higher RSMS score predicted more caregiver burden (p < 0.001, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.11). CONCLUSIONS: The RSMS is sensitive to progression of both socioemotional symptoms and SN atrophy in patients with bvFTD and corresponds directly to caregiver burden. The RSMS may be useful in both neurologic practice and clinical trials aiming to treat behavioral symptoms of patients with bvFTD.

3.
Neurology ; 94(17): 743-755, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241955

RESUMO

The prodromal phase of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) includes (1) mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) delirium-onset, and (3) psychiatric-onset presentations. The purpose of our review is to determine whether there is sufficient information yet available to justify development of diagnostic criteria for each of these. Our goal is to achieve evidence-based recommendations for the recognition of DLB at a predementia, symptomatic stage. We propose operationalized diagnostic criteria for probable and possible mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies, which are intended for use in research settings pending validation for use in clinical practice. They are compatible with current criteria for other prodromal neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. Although there is still insufficient evidence to propose formal criteria for delirium-onset and psychiatric-onset presentations of DLB, we feel that it is important to characterize them, raising the index of diagnostic suspicion and prioritizing them for further investigation.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationships between MRI volumetry and [18 F]flortaucipir PET of typical and atypical clinical phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease, by genarian (age by decade). METHODS: Five-hundred and sixty-four participants including those with typical (n = 86) or atypical (n = 80) Alzheimer's dementia and normal controls (n = 398) underwent apolipoprotein E genotyping, MRI, flortaucipir, and 11 C-PiB; all 166 Alzheimer's participants were beta-amyloid positive and all controls were beta-amyloid negative. Grey matter volume and flortaucipir standard uptake value ratios were calculated for hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and neocortex. Ratios of hippocampal-to-neocortical and entorhinal-to-neocortical volume and flortaucipir uptake were also calculated. Linear regression models assessed relationships among regional volume, flortaucipir uptake, and ratios and phenotypes, within three genarians (50-59, 60-69, and 70+). Voxel-level analyses were also performed. RESULTS: For 50-59 greater medial temporal atrophy and flortaucipir uptake was observed in the typical compared with atypical phenotype. The typical phenotype also showed greater frontal neocortex uptake with the voxel-level analysis. For 60-69 and 70+ there was greater hippocampal volume loss in the typical compared with atypical phenotype while only the 60-69, but not the 70+ group, showed a difference in hippocampal flortaucipir uptake. We also observed a pattern for higher neocortical flortaucipir uptake to correlate with younger age decade for both phenotypes. INTERPRETATION: MRI volumetry versus flortaucipir PET relationships differ across Alzheimer's clinical phenotypes, and also within phenotype across age decades. This suggests that there is potential risk of masked effects by not accounting for genarian in participants with beta-amyloid and tau-positive biomarker defined Alzheimer's disease.

5.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198310

RESUMO

Rationale: To conduct a retrospective study comparing three 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT quantitative methods in patients with neurodegenerative syndromes as referenced to neuropathological findings. Methods: 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT and neuropathological findings among patients with neurodegenerative syndromes from the Mayo Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were examined. Three 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT quantitative assessment Methods: MIMneuro (MIM Software Inc.), DaTQUANT (GE Healthcare), and manual region of interest (ROI) creation on an Advantage Workstation (GE Healthcare) were compared to neuropathological findings describing the presence or absence of Lewy body disease (LBD). Striatum to background ratios (SBRs) generated by DaTQUANT were compared to the calculated SBRs of the manual method and MIMneuro. The left and right SBRs for caudate, putamen and striatum were evaluated with the manual method. For DaTQUANT and MIMneuro the left, right, total and average SBRs and z-scores for whole striatum, caudate, putamen, anterior putamen, and posterior putamen were calculated. Results: The cohort included 24 patients [20 (83%) male, aged 75.4 +/- 10.0 at death]. The antemortem clinical diagnoses were Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADem, N = 6), probable dementia with Lewy bodies (pDLB, N = 12), mixed ADem/pDLB (N = 1), Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (N = 2), corticobasal syndrome (N = 1), idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) (N = 1) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (N = 1). Seventeen (71%) had LBD pathology. All three 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT quantitative methods had area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) values above 0.93 and up to 1.000 (p<0.001) and showed excellent discrimination between LBD and non-LBD patients in each region assessed, p<.001. There was no significant difference between the accuracy of the regions in discriminating the two groups, with good discrimination for both caudate and putamen. Conclusion: All three 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT quantitative methods showed excellent discrimination between LBD and non-LBD patients in each region assessed, using both SBRs and z-scores.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208053

RESUMO

Incorporating sex as a biological variable (SABV) into basic and medical research requires a deliberate plan that weaves concepts of basic genetics, cellular and molecular physiology, and pharmacology into translational medicine. An R4 approach (Right content to the Right learner at the Right time with the Right modality) allows for content to be available in a variety of formats that reinforces the concepts at staged levels of integration. Weaving SABV throughout the varied formats of the R4 approach within the Clinical and Translational Research Training Programs, into the mentoring and training of scholars in NIH Building Interdisciplinary Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH), and into the Career Enhancement Core of the Specialized Centers of Research Excellence (SCORE) on sex differences through curriculum, case-based approach and journal clubs, and workshops ensures that learners grasp its fundamental relevancy to their own research and beyond. In addition, the collaborative work among the BIRCWH and SCORE programs brings collective expertise from centers around the United States to individual programs through development of best practices and materials. These collective efforts assure that the next generation of basic, clinical, and translational scientists will bring the dimension of SABV into their research and clinical practice.

7.
J Neurol ; 267(5): 1444-1453, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans-active response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) can be detected in up to 63% of autopsy-confirmed Lewy body disease (LBD) cases. It is unclear whether TDP-43 is associated with a decreased likelihood of a clinical diagnosis of probable dementia with Lewy bodies (pDLB) during life. METHODS: In an autopsy cohort of 395 cognitively impaired patients from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, we determined the presence of TDP-43 in the hippocampus [hTDP-43(+)] and examined associations between hTDP-43 and an antemortem pDLB clinical diagnosis with multiple regression analyses. For this study, given our specific question, we only counted transitional and diffuse Lewy body disease as LBD positive (LBD+). RESULTS: One-hundred forty-five cases (37%) were hTDP-43(+) and 156 (39%) were LBD+; co-pathology was noted in 63 (16%) cases. Patients with pDLB- LBD+ were more likely to be older, hTDP-43(+) and have high Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) status compared to the pDLB+ LBD+ patients. After accounting for older age at death and high Braak NFT status, hTDP-43(+) status was associated with the absence of a clinical diagnosis of pDLB despite LBD+ status (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The absence of a diagnosis of pDLB during life in patients with LBD is associated with older age, high Braak NFT stage and hTDP-43, each feature contributing independently to a lower likelihood of a clinical diagnosis of pDLB during life.

8.
Neurobiol Aging ; 88: 42-50, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918955

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the major causes of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Our objective was to determine the rates and trajectories of lobar cortical atrophy from longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging in both asymptomatic and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers. Individuals in this study were from the ADRC and LEFFTDS studies at the Mayo Clinic. We identified 13 GRN mutation carriers (8 asymptomatic, 5 symptomatic) and noncarriers (n = 10) who had at least 2 serial T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images and were followed annually with a median of 3 years (range 1.0-9.8 years). Longitudinal changes in lobar cortical volume were analyzed using the tensor-based morphometry with symmetric normalization (TBM-SyN) algorithm. Linear mixed-effect models were used to model cortical volume change over time among 3 groups. The annual rates of frontal (p < 0.05) and parietal (p < 0.01) lobe cortical atrophy were higher in asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers than noncarriers. The symptomatic GRN mutation carriers also had increased rates of atrophy in the frontal (p < 0.01) and parietal lobe (p < 0.01) cortices than noncarriers. In addition, greater rates of cortical atrophy were observed in the temporal lobe cortices of symptomatic GRN mutation carriers than noncarriers (p < 0.001). We found that a decline in frontal and parietal lobar cortical volume occurs in asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers and continues in the symptomatic GRN mutation carriers, whereas an increased rate of temporal lobe cortical atrophy is observed only in symptomatic GRN mutation carriers. This sequential pattern of cortical involvement in GRN mutation carriers has important implications for using imaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration as an outcome measure in potential treatment trials involving GRN mutation carriers.

9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 11-21, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914230

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying clinical measures that track disease in the earliest stages of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is important for clinical trials. Familial FTLD provides a unique paradigm to study early FTLD. Executive dysfunction is a clinically relevant hallmark of FTLD and may be a marker of disease progression. METHODS: Ninety-three mutation carriers with no symptoms or minimal/questionable symptoms (MAPT, n = 31; GRN, n = 28; C9orf72, n = 34; Clinical Dementia Rating scale plus NACC FTLD Module < 1) and 78 noncarriers enrolled through Advancing Research and Treatment in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration/Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects studies completed the Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (NIH-EXAMINER) and the UDS neuropsychological battery. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify group differences in cognition at baseline and longitudinally. We examined associations between cognition, clinical functioning, and magnetic resonance imaging volumes. RESULTS: NIH-EXAMINER scores detected baseline and differences in slopes between carriers and noncarriers, even in carriers with a baseline Clinical Dementia Rating scale plus NACC FTLD Module = 0. NIH-EXAMINER declines were associated with worsening clinical symptoms and brain volume loss. DISCUSSION: The NIH-EXAMINER is sensitive to cognitive changes in presymptomatic familial FTLD and is a promising surrogate endpoint.

10.
Menopause ; 27(3): 305-310, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the brain is associated with blood thrombogenicity in recently menopausal women. This study examined the influence of menopausal hormone treatments (MHTs) on this association. METHODS: Measures of blood thrombogenicity were examined in women of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (n = 95) who had brain magnetic resonance imaging before and during the 48 months of randomization to transdermal 17ß-estradiol (n = 30), oral conjugated equine estrogen (n = 29) both with progesterone for 12 days per month or placebo pills and patch (n = 36). Principal components (PCs) analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of 14 markers of platelet activation and blood thrombogenicity. The first 5 PCs were assessed for association with treatment and changes in WMH. Within-person slopes were obtained to capture the extent of WMH change for each woman. RESULTS: WMH increased in all groups over the 48 months (P = 0.044). The partial effect of PC1, representing an average of six thrombogenicity variables (microvesicles derived from endothelium, leukocytes, and monocytes, and positive for tissue factor and adhesion molecules) on WMH was significant (P = 0.003). PC3, reflecting a contrast of platelet microaggregates and adenosine triphosphate secretion versus total platelet count, differed across groups (P = 0.006) with higher scores in the oral conjugated equine estrogen group. The global association between PCs and WMH increase, however, did not differ significantly by MHT (P = 0.207 for interaction between MHT and PC's). CONCLUSION: In recently menopausal women, the type of MHT did not significantly influence the association of markers of blood thrombogenicity with development of WMH in the brain.

11.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 118-130, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914217

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Advancing Research and Treatment for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (ARTFL) and Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects (LEFFTDS) consortia are two closely connected studies, involving multiple North American centers that evaluate both sporadic and familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD) participants and study longitudinal changes. METHODS: We screened the major dementia-associated genes in 302 sporadic and 390 familial (symptomatic or at-risk) participants enrolled in these studies. RESULTS: Among the sporadic patients, 16 (5.3%) carried chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), and progranulin (GRN) pathogenic variants, whereas in the familial series we identified 207 carriers from 146 families. Of interest, one patient was found to carry a homozygous C9orf72 expansion, while another carried both a C9orf72 expansion and a GRN pathogenic variant. We also identified likely pathogenic variants in the TAR DNA binding protein (TARDBP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and valosin containing protein (VCP) genes, and a subset of variants of unknown significance in other rare FTD genes. DISCUSSION: Our study reports the genetic characterization of a large FTD series and supports an unbiased sequencing screen, irrespective of clinical presentation or family history.

12.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 106-117, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914218

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We created global rating scoring rules for the CDR® plus NACC FTLD to detect and track early frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and to conduct clinical trials in FTLD. METHODS: The CDR plus NACC FTLD rating was applied to 970 sporadic and familial participants from the baseline visit of Advancing Research and Treatment in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (ARTFL)/Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects (LEFFTDS). Each of the eight domains of the CDR plus NACC FTLD was equally weighed in determining the global score. An interrater reliability study was completed for 40 participants. RESULTS: The CDR plus NACC FTLD showed very good interrater reliability. It was especially useful in detecting clinical features of mild non-fluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia participants. DISCUSSION: The global CDR plus NACC FTLD score could be an attractive outcome measure for clinical trials in symptomatic FTLD, and may be useful in natural history studies and clinical trials in FTLD spectrum disorders.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 87(4): 556-567, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate ß-amyloid and tau depositions using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) and AV1451 tau PET imaging in aging multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Patients with MS (n = 16) and controls (n = 80) matched for age, sex, and APOE ε4 status from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging who underwent PiB PET imaging were studied. Of these individuals, 12 patients with MS and 60 matching controls also underwent AV1451 tau PET. Cortical PiB and AV1451 standard uptake value ratios (SUVrs) from the entire cortex and previously determined Alzheimer disease (AD) signature regions in the same population were calculated for group comparisons and testing for associations with age. RESULTS: AD signature PiB SUVr (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.52 [0.27-0.98], p = 0.044), total cortical PiB SUVr (OR [95% CI] = 0.52 [0.28-0.99], p = 0.048), and the frequency of abnormal PiB SUVrs (OR [95% CI] = 0.10 [0.01-0.90], p = 0.040) were lower in MS than controls. Although AD-signature and total cortical AV1451 SUVrs were not different between the groups, the frequency of abnormal AV1451 SUVrs was higher (OR [95% CI] = 10.65 [1.10-103.35], p = 0.041) in MS than controls. The association of AD signature PiB SUVr with age was steeper in the controls compared to patients with MS (estimate [95% CI] = -0.14 [-0.023 to -0.006], p = 0.002). Similarly, the association of total cortical PiB SUVr with age was steeper in the controls compared to patients with MS (estimate [95% CI] = -0.13 [-0.021 to -0.005], p = 0.002). There was no difference in the association of AV1451 SUVr findings with age between the MS patients and controls. INTERPRETATION: Although both ß-amyloid and tau are biomarkers of cognitive aging and AD, cortical ß-amyloid deposition was lower in MS than age-matched controls, suggesting that some aspect of MS pathobiology retards the accumulation of ß-amyloid but not the accumulation of tau. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:556-567.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(4): 1511-1523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is associated with hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but whether the association is modified by other factors is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the associations between TDP-43 and hippocampal volume and atrophy rate are affected by age, gender, apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4, Lewy bodies (LBs), amyloid-ß (Aß), or Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage. METHODS: In this longitudinal neuroimaging-clinicopathological study of 468 cases with AD neuropathological changes (Aß-positive) that had completed antemortem head MRI, we investigated how age, gender, APOEɛ4, presence of LBs, Aß, TDP-43, and Braak NFT stages are associated with hippocampal volumes and rates of atrophy over time. We included field strength in the models since our cohort included 1.5T and 3T scans. We then determined whether the associations between hippocampal atrophy and TDP-43 are modified by these factors using mixed effects models. RESULTS: Older age, female gender, APOEɛ4, higher field strength, higher TDP-43, and Braak NFT stages were associated with smaller hippocampi. Rate of atrophy was greater with higher TDP-43 and Braak NFT stage, but lower in older patients. The association of TDP-43 with greater rate of atrophy was enhanced in APOEɛ4 carriers (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Neurodegenerative effects of TDP-43 seem to be independent of most factors except perhaps APOE in cases with AD neuropathological changes. TDP-43 and tau appear to behave independently of one another.

15.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 32(1): e12777, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397036

RESUMO

Biological sex and changes in sex hormones throughout life influence all aspects of health and disease. In women, changes in sex hormonal status reflect ovarian function, pregnancy and the use of exogenous hormonal treatments. Longitudinal data from defined cohorts of women will help to identify mechanisms by which the hormonal milieu contributes to cerebrovascular ageing, brain structure and ultimately cognition. This review summarises the phenotypes of three cohorts of women identified through the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project and the Mayo Clinic Specialized Center of Research Excellence (SCORE) on Sex Differences: (i) menopausal women with histories of normotensive or hypertensive pregnancies; (ii) women who had bilateral oophorectomy ≤45 years of age; and (iii) women who experienced natural menopause and used menopausal hormone treatments for 4 years. Data from these cohorts will influence the design of follow-up studies concerning how sex hormonal status affects neurovascular ageing in women.

16.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 37-48, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272932

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Some models of therapy for neurodegenerative diseases envision starting treatment before symptoms develop. Demonstrating that such treatments are effective requires accurate knowledge of when symptoms would have started without treatment. Familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration offers a unique opportunity to develop predictors of symptom onset. METHODS: We created dementia risk scores in 268 familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration family members by entering covariate-adjusted standardized estimates of brain atrophy into a logistic regression to classify asymptomatic versus demented participants. The score's predictive value was tested in a separate group who were followed up longitudinally (stable vs. converted to dementia) using Cox proportional regressions with dementia risk score as the predictor. RESULTS: Cross-validated logistic regression achieved good separation of asymptomatic versus demented (accuracy = 90%, SE = 0.06). Atrophy scores predicted conversion from asymptomatic or mildly/questionably symptomatic to dementia (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: [1.16,1.98]). DISCUSSION: Individualized quantification of baseline brain atrophy is a promising predictor of progression in asymptomatic familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration mutation carriers.

17.
Neurology ; 94(2): e190-e199, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and the association of amyloid PET burden with incident CMBs. METHODS: A total of 651 participants, age ≥50 years (55% male), underwent 3T MRI scans with ≥2 separate T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo sequences from October 2011 to August 2017. Eighty-seven percent underwent 11C Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET scans. Age-specific CMB incidence rates were calculated by using the piecewise exponential model. Using structural equation models (SEMs), we assessed the effect of amyloid load and baseline CMBs on future CMBs after considering the direct and indirect age, sex, vascular risk factors, and APOE effects. RESULTS: Participants' mean age (SD) was 69.8 (10.0) years at baseline MRI, and 111 participants (17%) had ≥1 baseline CMB. The mean (SD) of the time interval between scans was 2.7 (1.0) years. The overall population incidence rate for CMBs was 3.6/100 person-years and increased with age: from 1.5/100 new CMBs at age 50 to 11.6/100 person-years at age 90. Using the piecewise exponential model regression, the incidence rates increased with age and the presence of baseline CMBs. The SEMs showed that (1) increasing age at MRI or carrying an APOE4 allele was associated with more amyloid at baseline, and higher amyloid, particularly occipital amyloid load, in turn increased the risk of a new lobar CMB; and (2) the presence of CMBs at baseline increased the risk of a lobar CMB and had a larger effect size than amyloid load. CONCLUSIONS: Age and APOE4 carrier status act through amyloid load to increase the risk of subsequent lobar CMBs, but the presence of baseline CMBs is the most important risk factor for future CMBs.

18.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 22-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is important to establish the natural history of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (f-FTLD) and provide clinical and biomarker data for planning these studies, particularly in the asymptomatic phase. METHODS: The Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects protocol was designed to enroll and follow at least 300 subjects for more than at least three annual visits who are members of kindreds with a mutation in one of the three most common f-FTLD genes-microtubule-associated protein tau, progranulin, or chromosome 9 open reading frame 72. RESULTS: We present the theoretical considerations of f-FTLD and the aims/objectives of this protocol. We also describe the design and methodology for evaluating and rating subjects, in which detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments are performed, biofluid samples are collected, and magnetic resonance imaging scans are performed using a standard protocol. DISCUSSION: These data and samples, which are available to interested investigators worldwide, will facilitate planning for upcoming disease-modifying therapeutic trials in f-FTLD.

19.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 49-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Advancing Research and Treatment in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects longitudinal studies were designed to describe the natural history of familial-frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to autosomal dominant mutations. METHODS: We examined cognitive performance, behavioral ratings, and brain volumes from the first time point in 320 MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72 family members, including 102 non-mutation carriers, 103 asymptomatic carriers, 43 mildly/questionably symptomatic carriers, and 72 carriers with dementia. RESULTS: Asymptomatic carriers showed similar scores on all clinical measures compared with noncarriers but reduced frontal and temporal volumes. Those with mild/questionable impairment showed decreased verbal recall, fluency, and Trail Making Test performance and impaired mood and self-monitoring. Dementia was associated with impairment in all measures. All MAPT carriers with dementia showed temporal atrophy, but otherwise, there was no single cognitive test or brain region that was abnormal in all subjects. DISCUSSION: Imaging changes appear to precede clinical changes in familial-frontotemporal lobar degeneration, but specific early clinical and imaging changes vary across individuals.

20.
Neurology ; 94(1): e15-e29, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether quantitative polysomnographic REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) distinguishes between cognitive impairment phenotypes. BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative cognitive impairment in older adults predominantly correlates with tauopathy or synucleinopathy. Accurate antemortem phenotypic diagnosis has important prognostic and treatment implications; additional clinical tools might distinguish between dementia syndromes. METHODS: We quantitatively analyzed RSWA in 61 older adults who underwent polysomnography including 46 with cognitive impairment (20 probable synucleinopathy), 26 probable non-synucleinopathy (15 probable Alzheimer disease, 11 frontotemporal lobar dementia), and 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Submentalis and anterior tibialis RSWA metrics and automated REM atonia index were calculated. Group statistical comparisons and regression were performed, and receiver operating characteristic curves determined diagnostic RSWA thresholds that best distinguished synucleinopathy phenotype. RESULTS: Submentalis-but not anterior tibialis RSWA-was greater in synucleinopathy than nonsynucleinopathy; several RSWA diagnostic thresholds distinguished synucleinopathy with excellent specificity including submentalis tonic, 5.6% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.791); submentalis any, 15.0% (AUC 0.871); submentalis phasic, 10.8% (AUC 0.863); and anterior tibialis phasic, 31.4% (AUC 0.694). In the subset of patients without dream enactment behaviors, submentalis RSWA was also greater in patients with synucleinopathy than in those without synucleinopathy. RSWA was detected more frequently by quantitative than qualitative methods (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Elevated submentalis RSWA distinguishes probable synucleinopathy from probable nonsynucleinopathy in cognitively impaired older adults, even in the absence of clinical dream enactment symptoms. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that quantitative RSWA analysis is useful for distinguishing cognitive impairment phenotypes. Further studies with pathologic confirmation of dementia diagnoses are needed to confirm the diagnostic utility of RSWA in dementia.

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