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1.
Lung Cancer ; 141: 56-63, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Detection of activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is crucial for individualized treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However little is known about how biopsy technique affects the detection rate of EGFR mutations. This retrospective, single center study evaluated the detection rate of EGFR mutations in tissue obtained by bronchoscopic cryobiopsy and compared this to other standard tissue sampling techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 414 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC and known EGFR mutation status between 3/2008-7/2014. Tumor specimens obtained by tissue preserving bronchoscopic cryobiopsy were compared to those obtained by other techniques. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Analysis of bronchoscopic cryobiopsy tissue detected 29 activating EGFR mutations in 27 (21.6 %) out of 125 patients, while analysis of tissue obtained by non-cryobiopsy techniques (bronchoscopic forceps biopsies, fine needle aspiration, imaging guided transthoracical and surgical procedures) detected 42 EGFR mutations in 40 (13.8 %) out of 298 patients (p < 0.05). Cryobiopsy increased detection rate of EGFR mutations in central tumors compared with forceps biopsy (19.6 % versus 6.5 %, p < 0.05), while an insignificant trend was detected also for peripheral tumors (33.3 % versus 26.9 %). Bronchosopic cryobiopsy increases the detection rate of activating EGFR mutations in NSCLC in comparison to other tissue sampling techniques. This will help to optimize individualized treatment of patients with advanced tumors. Because of the retrospective nature of this analysis, a prospective trial is mandatory for final assessment.

2.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949011

RESUMO

Three randomized controlled trials in early severe systemic sclerosis demonstrated that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was superior to standard cyclophosphamide therapy. This European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation multi-center prospective non-interventional study was designed to further decipher efficacy and safety of this procedure for severe systemic sclerosis patients in real-life practice and to search for prognostic factors. All consecutive adult systemic sclerosis patients undergoing a first autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between December 2012 and February 2016 were prospectively included in the study. Primary endpoint was progression free survival. Secondary endpoints were overall survival, non-relapse mortality, response and incidence of progression. Eighty systemic sclerosis patients were included. Median follow-up duration was 24 (6-57) months after stem cell transplantation using cyclophosphamide plus antithymocyte globulins conditioning for all, with CD34+ selection in 35 patients. At 2 years, progression free survival was 81.8%, overall survival was 90%, response was 88.7% and incidence of progression was 11.9%. The 100 days non-relapse mortality was 6.25% (n=5) with four deaths from cardiac event, including three due to cyclophosphamide toxicity. Modified Rodnan skin score and forced vital capacity improved with time (p< 0.001). By multivariate analysis, baseline skin score >24 and older age at transplant were associated with lower progression free survival (Hazard ration 3.32) and 1.77, respectively). CD34+-selection was associated with better response (Hazard ration: 0.46). This study confirms the efficacy of autologous stem cell transplantation in real-life practice for severe systemic sclerosis using non myeloablative conditioning. Careful cardio-pulmonary assessment to identify organ involvement at patient referral, reduced cyclophosphamide doses and CD34+ selection may improve outcomes. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02516124.

3.
Ann Hematol ; 99(2): 265-276, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897675

RESUMO

Autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) can achieve long-term remission in primary refractory or relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma (r/r HL); however, still up to 50% of patients relapse after autoSCT. In this retrospective analysis, we investigated the impact of autologous stem cell transplantation in a consecutive, unselected cohort of primary refractory and relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma patients (n = 66) with the majority of patients treated in the pre-brentuximab vedotin and immune checkpoint inhibitor era. In our cohort, a 5-year overall survival (OS) from autoSCT of 59.5% and a 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) after autoSCT of 46.1% was achieved. Multivariate analysis revealed primary refractory disease and early relapse (< 12 months) after initial therapy as well as the presence of B symptoms at relapse as independent risk factors associated with a higher risk for relapse and an inferior PFS and OS. Several other clinical factors, including the presence of extranodal disease at relapse and failure to achieve a complete response to salvage chemotherapy, were associated with a trend towards an inferior survival. Patients relapsing after autoSCT had a particularly poor outcome, regardless of eligibility to undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We further evaluated recently published prognostic models for r/r HL patients undergoing autoSCT and could validate several risk scores in our independent "real world" cohort.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/mortalidade , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autoenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(3): 248-256, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In an update of the randomized, open-label, phase III European Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) Elderly trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00209209), published in 2012, we aimed to confirm results on long-term outcome focusing on efficacy and safety of long-term use of rituximab maintenance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred sixty patients with newly diagnosed MCL underwent a first random assignment between rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide (R-FC) induction, followed by a second random assignment in 316 responders between rituximab and interferon alfa maintenance, to be continued until progression. We compared progression-free survival from the second randomization and overall survival (OS) from the first or second randomizations. RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 7.6 years, the previously described difference in OS between the induction arms persisted (median, 6.4 years after R-CHOP [n = 280] v 3.9 years after R-FC [n = 280]; P = .0054). Patients responding to R-CHOP had median progression-free survival and OS times of 5.4 and 9.8 years, respectively, when randomly assigned to rituximab (n = 87), compared with 1.9 years (P < .001) and 7.1 years (P = .0026), respectively, when randomly assigned to interferon alfa (n = 97). In 58% and 32% of patients treated with R-CHOP, rituximab maintenance was still ongoing 2 and 5 years from start of maintenance, respectively. After R-FC, rituximab maintenance was associated with an unexpectedly high cumulative incidence of death in remission (22% at 5 years). Toxicity of rituximab maintenance was low after R-CHOP (grade 3-4 leukopenia or infection < 5%) but more prominent in patients on rituximab maintenance after R-FC, in whom grade 3-4 leukopenia (up to 40%) and infections were frequent (up to 15%). CONCLUSION: The excellent results of R-CHOP followed by rituximab maintenance until progression for older patients with MCL persisted in a mature follow-up. Prolongation of rituximab maintenance beyond 2 years is effective and safe.

5.
Eur J Haematol ; 104(1): 26-35, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with multiple myeloma (MM), unexpected bleeding complications remain a major issue. Since routine coagulation parameters are often inconspicuous, diagnosis and treatment of the underlying coagulation disorders are challenging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In our single-center observational study, we analyzed 164 patients with MM for coagulation disorders and bleeding complications. RESULTS: Prolonged closure times (CTs), measured by PFA-100, were the most common, abnormal coagulation test, found in 66% of bleeding patients vs 5% in non-bleeding, followed by qualitative defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios), found in 34% vs 1% in the non-bleeding group. Increased serum free light chains (SFLC) and SFLC ratios were significantly associated with prolonged CTs and acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). Prolonged CTs and AVWS were associated with disease progression, determined by dynamics of SFLC ratios (P < .001), serum creatinine level (P = .013), Beta-2 microglobulin (P = .03), LDH (P = .016), and bone marrow infiltration (P < .001). Of note, response to myeloma therapy was frequently correlated with normalization of coagulation parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding complications in MM are predominantly caused by defects in primary hemostasis and associated with disease progression. In a peri-interventional workup, determination of CTs and VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios are of significant importance to assess bleeding risk.

6.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 212, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that leads to extensive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are potent immunoregulatory T lymphocytes being able to orchestrate dysregulated immune responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate numbers and function of iNKT cells in patients with SSc and to analyze their correlation with disease parameters. METHODS: Human iNKT cells from 88 patients with SSc and 33 healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Their proliferative capacity and cytokine production were investigated following activation with CD1d ligand α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). RESULTS: We observed an absolute and relative decrease of iNKT cells in patients with SSc compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, the subtype of SSc, disease severity, or treatment with immunosuppressive drugs did not affect iNKT cell numbers. However, T helper (Th) cell immune polarization was biased towards a Th17 immunophenotype in SSc patients. Moreover, iNKT cells from patients with SSc showed a significantly decreased expansion capacity upon stimulation with α-GalCer. CONCLUSION: iNKT cells are deficient and functionally impaired in patients with SSc. Therefore, adoptive transfer strategies using culture-expanded iNKT cells could be a novel approach to treat SSc patients.

7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2595-2604, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) are a rare and heterogeneous group of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, showing a generally poor prognosis. In this retrospective analysis, we aimed to investigate the impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) in PTCL. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 58 consecutive unselected PTCL patients aged 21-71 years undergoing autoSCT as first-line consolidation as well as in the relapse setting was performed. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 67 months. A 5-year overall survival (OS) of 53% and a 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) after autoSCT of 44% was achieved. The overall relapse rate after autoSCT was 50%. On multivariate analysis, standard baseline characteristics such as age, disease stage and international prognostic index (IPI) score failed to predict outcome in our cohort. First-line treatment with autoSCT was not associated with a benefit in OS when compared to patients receiving autoSCT at relapse. Notably, autoSCT seemed to be a suitable approach even for older transplant-eligible patients (aged ≥ 60 years), with a similar 5-year OS of 49% when compared to younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that autoSCT can achieve long-term survival in PTCL patients even after relapse and should also be considered for eligible older patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Leukemia ; 33(11): 2710-2719, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462732

RESUMO

This phase 3 trial compared tandem autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) versus autoSCT followed by reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation (auto/alloSCT) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) with deletion of (del) chromosome 13q (del13q). The availability/absence of a human leukocyte antigen-matched-related or matched-unrelated donor (MUD) determined the nature of the second SCT. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat population (n = 199). Auto/alloSCT was performed in 126 patients; 74 received MUD allografts. After 91 months median follow-up, median PFS with auto/allo versus tandem autoSCT was 34.5 versus 21.8 months (P = 0.003; adjusted hazard ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.84). Median overall survival (OS) was 70.2 versus 71.8 months (P = 0.856). Two-year non-relapse mortality with auto/allo versus tandem autoSCT was 14.3% versus 4.1% (P = 0.008). In patients harboring both del13q and del17p, median PFS and OS were 37.5 and 61.5 months with auto/allo (n = 19) versus 6.1 and 23.4 months with tandem autoSCT (n = 6) (P = 0.0002 and 0.032). Our findings suggest that auto/alloSCT significantly extends PFS versus tandem autoSCT in del13q MM, and indicate some survival benefit for first-line alloSCT in high-risk MM.

10.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(11): 2167-2171, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284069

RESUMO

This retrospective study by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation analyzed the outcome of 2224 patients with myelofibrosis (MF) who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) between 2000 and 2014; 781 (35%) underwent myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and 1443 (65%) reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). Median patient age was 52.9 years (range, 18 to 74 years) and 57.5 years (range, 21 to 76 years) in the MAC and RIC cohorts, respectively. Donor type was similar: matched sibling donors (MAC, 317 [41%]; RIC, 552 [38%]) and unrelated donors (MAC, 464 [59%]; RIC, 891 [62%]). Median time to both neutrophil and platelet (>20 × 109/L) engraftment did not differ between cohorts. Rates of grade II to IV acute GVHD were 28% (MAC) and 31% (RIC; P = NS). Cumulative chronic GVHD rates (limited/extensive) were 22%/27% (MAC) and 19%/31% (RIC; P = .10). Cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 25.5%, 32.2%, and 34.6% (MAC) and 26.3%, 32.8%, and 34.4% (RIC), respectively. There was a trend toward a higher relapse rate with RIC regimens compared with MAC (P = .08); rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 10.9%, 17.2%, and 20.1% (MAC) and 14%, 19.7%, and 23.2% (RIC), respectively. No significant difference in 5-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) was noted: MAC (53.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49.1% to 56.9%) and RIC (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.3% to 53.7%); P = .78. Regarding the composite end point of GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS), the unadjusted Kaplan-Meier estimate of 5-year GRFS was 32.4% (95% CI, 29.0% to 36.1%) in the MAC group and 26.1% (95% CI, 23.9% to 28.2%) in the RIC group (P = .001). In the MAC cohort, multivariable analysis confirmed worse OS and NRM with older age (>50 years), using an unrelated donor and a Karnofsky Performance Status of 80 or less. For the RIC cohort, worse OS and NRM were associated with age 60 to 70 years compared with younger recipients, use of a mismatched donor, and poor performance status. In conclusion, although similar OS rates existed for both cohorts overall, this study suggests that MAC should still be used for younger individuals suitable for such an approach due to a trend toward less relapse and an overall suggested advantage of improved GRFS, albeit this should be examined in a more homogeneous cohort. RIC allo-SCT still offers significant survival advantage in the older, fitter MF allograft patient, and optimization to reduce significant relapse and NRM rates is required.

11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354710

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a curative treatment option for hematologic malignancies but relapse remains the most common cause of death. Infusion of donor lymphocytes (DLIs) can induce remission and prolong survival by exerting graft-vs.-leukemia (GVL) effects. However, sufficient tumor control cannot be established in all patients and occurrence of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) prevents further dose escalation. Previous data indicate that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells promote anti-tumor immunity without exacerbating GVHD. In the present study we investigated lysis of leukemic blasts through iNKT cells from donor-derived lymphocytes for leukemia control and found that iNKT cells constitute about 0.12% of cryopreserved donor T cells. Therefore, we established a 2-week cell culture protocol allowing for a robust expansion of iNKT cells from cryopreserved DLIs (DLI-iNKTs) that can be used for further preclinical and clinical applications. Such DLI-iNKTs efficiently lysed leukemia cell lines and primary patient AML blasts ex vivo in a dose- and CD1d-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of CD1d on target cells was required to release proinflammatory cytokines and proapoptotic effector molecules. Our results suggest that iNKT cells from donor-derived lymphocytes are involved in anti-tumor immunity after allo-HCT and therefore may reduce the risk of relapse and improve progression-free and overall survival.

12.
Nature ; 572(7768): 254-259, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316209

RESUMO

Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) often achieve remission after therapy, but subsequently die of relapse1 that is driven by chemotherapy-resistant leukaemic stem cells (LSCs)2,3. LSCs are defined by their capacity to initiate leukaemia in immunocompromised mice4. However, this precludes analyses of their interaction with lymphocytes as components of anti-tumour immunity5, which LSCs must escape to induce cancer. Here we demonstrate that stemness and immune evasion are closely intertwined in AML. Using xenografts of human AML as well as syngeneic mouse models of leukaemia, we show that ligands of the danger detector NKG2D-a critical mediator of anti-tumour immunity by cytotoxic lymphocytes, such as NK cells6-9-are generally expressed on bulk AML cells but not on LSCs. AML cells with LSC properties can be isolated by their lack of expression of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) in both CD34-expressing and non-CD34-expressing cases of AML. AML cells that express NKG2DLs are cleared by NK cells, whereas NKG2DL-negative leukaemic cells isolated from the same individual escape cell killing by NK cells. These NKG2DL-negative AML cells show an immature morphology, display molecular and functional stemness characteristics, and can initiate serially re-transplantable leukaemia and survive chemotherapy in patient-derived xenotransplant models. Mechanistically, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) represses expression of NKG2DLs. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of PARP1 induces NKG2DLs on the LSC surface but not on healthy or pre-leukaemic cells. Treatment with PARP1 inhibitors, followed by transfer of polyclonal NK cells, suppresses leukaemogenesis in patient-derived xenotransplant models. In summary, our data link the LSC concept to immune escape and provide a strong rationale for targeting therapy-resistant LSCs by PARP1 inhibition, which renders them amenable to control by NK cells in vivo.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Evasão Tumoral , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(6): e204-e208, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930192

RESUMO

We aimed to validate the MYelofibrosis SECondary to PV and ET prognostic model (MYSEC-PM) in 159 patients with myelofibrosis secondary to polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry undergoing transplantation from matched siblings or unrelated donors. Furthermore, we aimed to test its prognostic performance in comparison with the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS). Score performance was analyzed using the concordance index (C): the probability that a patient who experienced an event had a higher risk score than a patient who did not (C > .5 suggesting predictive ability). Median follow-up of the total cohort was 41 months (range, 34 to 54), 45 months in post-PV and 38 months in post-ET myelofibrosis. Survival at 1, 2, and 4 years was 70% (95% CI, 63% to 77%), 61% (95% CI, 53% to 69%), and 52% (95% CI, 43% to 61%) for the total cohort; 70% (95% CI, 59% to 80%), 61% (95% CI, 49% to 73%), and 51% (95% CI, 38% to 64%) for post-PV; and 71% (95% CI, 61% to 81%), 61% (95% CI, 50% to 72%), and 54% (95% CI, 42% to 66%) for post-ET myelofibrosis (P = .78). Overall, the DIPSS was not significantly predictive of outcome (P = .28). With respect to the MYSEC-PM, overall survival at 4 years was 69% for the low-risk, 55% for the intermediate 1-risk, 47% for the intermediate 2-risk, and 22% (0% to 45%) for the high-risk groups. The prognostic model was predictive of survival overall (P = .05), whereas groups with intermediate 2 and high risk showed no significant difference (P = .44). Assessment of prognostic utility yielded a C-index of .575 (95% CI, .502 to .648) for the DIPSS, whereas assessment of the MYSEC-PM resulted in a C-statistics of .636 (95% CI, .563 to .708), indicating improvement in prediction of post-transplant survival using the new MYSEC-PM. In addition, transplantations from an unrelated donor in comparison with an HLA-identical sibling showed worse outcome (P = .04), and transplant recipients seropositive for cytomegalovirus in comparison with seronegative recipients (P = .01) showed worse survival. In conclusion, incorporating transplant-specific and clinical and mutational information together with the MYSEC-PM may enhance risk stratification.

14.
Br J Haematol ; 186(1): 60-71, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916396

RESUMO

Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is an effective method to establish full donor chimerism or to prevent and treat relapse after allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Usually, DLIs are collected from naïve donors as steady-state lymphocytes. When donor lymphocytes are collected during stem cell apheresis, donors are pre-treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, the impact of G-CSF stimulation and the resulting composition of DLIs on beneficial anti-leukaemic responses and survival remain elusive. Therefore, we performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the role of G-CSF-DLIs: 44 patients received either steady-state DLIs or G-CSF-DLIs to prevent and treat relapse or establish full donor chimerism after allo-HCT. The G-CSF-DLI patient cohort showed an improved conversion to full donor chimerism and a lower cumulative incidence of relapse or disease progression without a significantly increased cumulative incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). CD34+ cells, monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and monocytes as well as donor age and the subsequent occurrence of chronic GVHD were identified as risk factors that significantly improve overall survival after DLI administration. In conclusion, our data suggest that administration of G-CSF-DLIs results in graft-versus-leukaemia effects without exacerbating GVHD, therefore, improving survival after DLIs.

15.
Haematologica ; 104(5): 929-936, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655377

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a clinical and transplant-specific prognostic score using data from a large cohort of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry. A Cox model was fitted to detect clinical and transplant-related variables prognostic of outcome. Then, cross-validation was performed to evaluate the validity and consistency of the model. Seven independent risk factors for survival were identified: age ≥50 years, matched unrelated donor, Karnofsky Performance Status <90%, very poor cytogenetics or monosomal karyotype, positive cytomegalovirus status of the recipient, blood blasts >1%, and platelet count ≤50 × 109/L prior to transplantation. Incorporating these factors into a four-level risk score yielded hazard ratios for death, with low-risk (score of 0-1) as reference, of 2.02 (95% CI: 1.41-2.90) for the intermediate-risk group (score of 2-3), 3.49 (95% CI: 2.45-4.97) for the high-risk group (score of 4-5), and 5.90 (95% CI: 4.01-8.67) for the very high-risk group (score of >5). The score was predictive of survival, relapse-free survival, relapse, and non-relapse mortality (P<0.001, respectively). Cross-validation yielded significant and reproducible improvement in prognostic ability with C-statistics being 0.609 (95% CI: 0.588-0.629) versus 0.555 for the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo registry and 0.579 for the Center for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research registry. Prediction was even further augmented after applying a nomogram using age and platelets as continuous variables showing C-statistics of 0.628 (95% CI: 0.616-0.637). In conclusion, compared to existing prognostic systems, this proposed transplant-specific risk score offers improved performance with respect to post-transplant risk stratification in myelodysplastic syndromes.

16.
Exp Hematol ; 71: 51-60, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615903

RESUMO

We describe the establishment of an embryoid-body-based protocol for hematopoietic/myeloid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells that allows the generation of CD34+ cells or mature myeloid cells in vitro. Using this model, we were able to recapitulate the defective granulocytic differentiation in patients with severe congenital neutropenia (CN), an inherited preleukemia bone marrow failure syndrome. Importantly, in vitro maturation arrest of granulopoiesis was associated with an elevated unfolded protein response (UPR) and enhanced expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21. Consistent with this, we found that CD34+ cells of CN patients were highly susceptible to DNA damage and showed diminished DNA repair. These observations suggest that targeting the UPR pathway or inhibiting DNA damage might protect hematopoietic cells of CN patients from leukemogenic transformation, at least to some extent.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Leucemia/etiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Neutropenia/congênito , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Leucemia/metabolismo , Leucemia/patologia , Neutropenia/etiologia , Neutropenia/metabolismo , Neutropenia/patologia
17.
Ann Surg ; 270(2): 327-332, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to report the first case of resection and partial liver segment 2-3 transplantation with delayed total hepatectomy (RAPID) from living donor in a patient affected of irresectable colorectal liver metastases (i-CRLM) BACKGROUND:: A renaissance of liver transplantation (LT) for i-CRLM has been recently observed. The Norwegian SECA trial demonstrated a 5-year overall survival rate of approximately 60%, notwithstanding early tumor recurrence. The RAPID technique was recently introduced as alternative to whole deceased donor LT, but it is limited by poor availability of splittable organs and many organisational aspects. In this context left lateral living donor LT may be the ideal solution. METHODS: Report about the technique and results of living donor RAPID procedure. TECHNIQUE: A 49 years old woman affected with i-CRLM from adenocarcinoma of right colon, underwent a left hepatectomy with ligation of right portal vein maintaining the right hepatic artery patent. Subsequently, the left lateral lobe from her son was implanted as auxiliary partial orthotopic LT. Two weeks later completion of hepatectomy was performed. RESULTS: The donor postoperative course was uneventful. The recipient developed postoperatively a slight small for size syndrome which spontaneously resolved. No graft dysfunction and no rejection were observed. At POM 5 micrometastases occurred in bones and lungs, which were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, respectively. Almost 2 years later the patient is alive, in good general condition, although slight progression of bone and lung metastases. CONCLUSIONS: LT poses a valid treatment option for i-CRLM. In times of organ paucity, "living donor-RAPID" procedure may represent a paradigm shift in the management of i-CRLM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Hepatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Doadores Vivos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Adulto Jovem
19.
Blood ; 133(6): 550-565, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530751

RESUMO

Antileukemia immunity plays an important role in disease control and maintenance of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-free remission in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thus, antigen-specific immunotherapy holds promise for strengthening immune control in CML but requires the identification of CML-associated targets. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based approach to identify naturally presented HLA class I- and class II-restricted peptides in primary CML samples. Comparative HLA ligandome profiling using a comprehensive dataset of different hematological benign specimens and samples from CML patients in deep molecular remission delineated a panel of novel frequently presented CML-exclusive peptides. These nonmutated target antigens are of particular relevance because our extensive data-mining approach suggests the absence of naturally presented BCR-ABL- and ABL-BCR-derived HLA-restricted peptides and the lack of frequent tumor-exclusive presentation of known cancer/testis and leukemia-associated antigens. Functional characterization revealed spontaneous T-cell responses against the newly identified CML-associated peptides in CML patient samples and their ability to induce multifunctional and cytotoxic antigen-specific T cells de novo in samples from healthy volunteers and CML patients. Thus, these antigens are prime candidates for T-cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches that may prolong TKI-free survival and even mediate cure of CML patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Ligantes
20.
J Leukoc Biol ; 105(3): 531-538, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556925

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can be defined as a clonal expansion of B cells with stereotypic BCRs. Somatic hypermutation of the BCR heavy chains (IGVH) defines a subgroup of patients with a better prognosis. In up to 10% of CLL cases, a transformation to an aggressive B cell lymphoma (Richter's syndrome) with a dismal prognosis can be observed over time. NFAT proteins are transcription factors originally identified in T cells, which also play an important role in B cells. The TCL1 transgenic mouse is a well-accepted model of CLL. Upon B cell-specific deletion of NFAT2, TCL1 transgenic mice develop a disease resembling human Richter's syndrome. Whereas TCL1 B cells exhibit tonic anergic BCR signaling characteristic of human CLL, loss of NFAT2 expression leads to readily activated BCRs indicating different BCR usage with altered downstream signaling. Here, we analyzed BCR usage in wild-type and TCL1 transgenic mice with and without NFAT2 deletion employing conventional molecular biology techniques and next-generation sequencing (NGS). We demonstrate that the loss of NFAT2 in CLL precipitates the selection of unmutated BCRs and the preferential usage of certain VDJ recombinations, which subsequently results in the accelerated development of oligoclonal disease.


Assuntos
Evolução Clonal , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Animais , Células Clonais , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Recombinação V(D)J/genética
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