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1.
Stem Cell Reports ; 13(5): 939-955, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631020

RESUMO

Primary tauopathies are characterized neuropathologically by inclusions containing abnormal forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and clinically by diverse neuropsychiatric, cognitive, and motor impairments. Autosomal dominant mutations in the MAPT gene cause heterogeneous forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy (FTLD-Tau). Common and rare variants in the MAPT gene increase the risk for sporadic FTLD-Tau, including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). We generated a collection of fibroblasts from 140 MAPT mutation/risk variant carriers, PSP, CBD, and cognitively normal controls; 31 induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from MAPT mutation carriers, non-carrier family members, and autopsy-confirmed PSP patients; 33 genome engineered iPSCs that were corrected or mutagenized; and forebrain neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we present a resource of fibroblasts, iPSCs, and NPCs with comprehensive clinical histories that can be accessed by the scientific community for disease modeling and development of novel therapeutics for tauopathies.

2.
PLoS Genet ; 15(8): e1008295, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398187

RESUMO

The progressive failure of protein homeostasis is a hallmark of aging and a common feature in neurodegenerative disease. As the enzymes executing the final stages of autophagy, lysosomal proteases are key contributors to the maintenance of protein homeostasis with age. We previously reported that expression of granulin peptides, the cleavage products of the neurodegenerative disease protein progranulin, enhance the accumulation and toxicity of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). In this study we show that C. elegans granulins are produced in an age- and stress-dependent manner. Granulins localize to the endolysosomal compartment where they impair lysosomal protease expression and activity. Consequently, protein homeostasis is disrupted, promoting the nuclear translocation of the lysosomal transcription factor HLH-30/TFEB, and prompting cells to activate a compensatory transcriptional program. The three C. elegans granulin peptides exhibited distinct but overlapping functional effects in our assays, which may be due to amino acid composition that results in distinct electrostatic and hydrophobicity profiles. Our results support a model in which granulin production modulates a critical transition between the normal, physiological regulation of protease activity and the impairment of lysosomal function that can occur with age and disease.

3.
Biochemistry ; 58(23): 2670-2674, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099551

RESUMO

Progranulin (PGRN) is an evolutionarily conserved glycoprotein associated with several disease states, including neurodegeneration, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. This protein has recently been implicated in the regulation of lysosome function, whereby PGRN may bind to and promote the maturation and activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D (proCTSD, inactive precursor; matCTSD, mature, enzymatically active form). As the full-length PGRN protein can be cleaved into smaller peptides, called granulins, we assessed the function of these granulin peptides in binding to proCTSD and stimulating matCTSD enzyme activity in vitro. Here, we report that full-length PGRN and multi-granulin domain peptides bound to proCTSD with low to submicromolar binding affinities. This binding promoted proCTSD destabilization, the magnitude of which was greater for multi-granulin domain peptides than for full-length PGRN. Such destabilization correlated with enhanced matCTSD activity at acidic pH. The presence and function of multi-granulin domain peptides have typically been overlooked in previous studies. This work provides the first in vitro quantification of their binding and activity on proCTSD. Our study highlights the significance of multi-granulin domain peptides in the regulation of proCTSD maturation and enzymatic activity and suggests that attention to PGRN processing will be essential for the future understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to neurodegenerative disease states with loss-of-function mutations in PGRN.

4.
J Mol Biol ; 431(5): 1038-1047, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690031

RESUMO

Single-copy loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin gene (PGRN) underlie the neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal lobar degeneration, while homozygous loss-of-function of PGRN results in the lysosomal storage disorder neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Despite evidence that normal PGRN levels are critical for neuronal health, the function of this protein is not yet understood. Here, we show that PGRN stimulates the in vitro maturation of the lysosomal aspartyl protease cathepsin D (CTSD). CTSD is delivered to the endolysosomal system as an inactive precursor (proCTSD) and requires sequential cleavage steps via intermediate forms to achieve the mature state (matCTSD). In co-immunoprecipitation experiments, PGRN interacts predominantly with immature pro- and intermediate forms of CTSD. PGRN enhances in vitro conversion of proCTSD to matCTSD in a concentration-dependent manner. Differential scanning fluorimetry shows a destabilizing effect induced by PGRN on proCTSD folding (∆Tm = -1.7 °C at a 3:1 molar ratio). We propose a mechanism whereby PGRN binds to proCTSD, destabilizing the propeptide from the enzyme catalytic core and favoring conversion to mature forms of the enzyme. Further understanding of the role of PGRN in CTSD maturation will assist in the development of targeted therapies for neurodegenerative disease.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(9): 1498-1514, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590647

RESUMO

Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) underlie multiple neurodegenerative disorders, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. A novel variant in MAPT resulting in an alanine to threonine substitution at position 152 (A152T tau) has recently been described as a significant risk factor for both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease. Here we use complementary computational, biochemical, molecular, genetic and imaging approaches in Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse models to interrogate the effects of the A152T variant on tau function. In silico analysis suggests that a threonine at position 152 of tau confers a new phosphorylation site. This finding is borne out by mass spectrometric survey of A152T tau phosphorylation in C. elegans and mouse. Optical pulse-chase experiments of Dendra2-tau demonstrate that A152T tau and phosphomimetic A152E tau exhibit increased diffusion kinetics and the ability to traverse across the axon initial segment more efficiently than wild-type (WT) tau. A C. elegans model of tauopathy reveals that A152T and A152E tau confer patterns of developmental toxicity distinct from WT tau, likely due to differential effects on retrograde axonal transport. These data support a role for phosphorylation of the variant threonine in A152T tau toxicity and suggest a mechanism involving impaired retrograde axonal transport contributing to human neurodegenerative disease.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(22): 3951-3963, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137327

RESUMO

Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by tau protein pathology in the nervous system. EIF2AK3 (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3), also known as PERK (protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase), was identified by genome-wide association study as a genetic risk factor in several tauopathies. PERK is a key regulator of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), an intracellular signal transduction mechanism that protects cells from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. PERK variants had previously been identified in Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, and these variants completely abrogated the function of PERK's kinase domain or prevented PERK expression. In contrast, the PERK tauopathy risk variants were distinct from the Wolcott-Rallison variants and introduced missense alterations throughout the PERK protein. The function of PERK tauopathy variants and their effects on neurodegeneration are unknown. Here, we discovered that tauopathy-associated PERK alleles showed reduced signaling activity and increased PERK protein turnover compared to protective PERK alleles. We found that iPSC-derived neurons carrying PERK risk alleles were highly vulnerable to ER stress-induced injury with increased tau pathology. We found that chemical inhibition of PERK in human iPSC-derived neurons also increased neuronal cell death in response to ER stress. Our results indicate that tauopathy-associated PERK alleles are functional hypomorphs during the UPR. We propose that reduced PERK function leads to neurodegeneration by increasing neuronal vulnerability to ER stress-associated damage. In this view, therapies to enhance PERK signaling would benefit at-risk carriers of hypomorphic alleles.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1806: 193-206, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956278

RESUMO

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has proven to be a powerful model organism for the study of many biological processes, with major implications for human health and disease. As progranulin is a pleiotropic, secreted protein with both cell autonomous and non-autonomous roles, a multicellular organism such as C. elegans is ideal for the investigation of its normal function and pathological effects. The C. elegans genome contains a progranulin-like gene known as pgrn-1. The nematode pgrn-1 encodes a protein with three cysteine-rich granulin domains, compared to the seven and a half granulins in the human protein. We have shown that C. elegans mutants lacking pgrn-1 appear grossly normal, but exhibit accelerated apoptotic cell engulfment as well as a stress resistance phenotype (Kao et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4441-4446, 2011; Judy et al., PLoS Genet 9:e1003714, 2013). In addition, the roles of individual granulins can also be dissected in C. elegans (Salazar et al., J Neurosci 35:9315-9328, 2015). Here, we describe methods for studying apoptosis and stress response in C. elegans.

8.
Brain ; 140(12): 3329-3345, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053860

RESUMO

Accurately predicting the underlying neuropathological diagnosis in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) poses a daunting challenge for clinicians but will be critical for the success of disease-modifying therapies. We sought to improve pathological prediction by exploring clinicopathological correlations in a large bvFTD cohort. Among 438 patients in whom bvFTD was either the top or an alternative possible clinical diagnosis, 117 had available autopsy data, including 98 with a primary pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 15 with Alzheimer's disease, and four with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who lacked neurodegenerative disease-related pathology outside of the motor system. Patients with FTLD were distributed between FTLD-tau (34 patients: 10 corticobasal degeneration, nine progressive supranuclear palsy, eight Pick's disease, three frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism associated with chromosome 17, three unclassifiable tauopathy, and one argyrophilic grain disease); FTLD-TDP (55 patients: nine type A including one with motor neuron disease, 27 type B including 21 with motor neuron disease, eight type C with right temporal lobe presentations, and 11 unclassifiable including eight with motor neuron disease), FTLD-FUS (eight patients), and one patient with FTLD-ubiquitin proteasome system positive inclusions (FTLD-UPS) that stained negatively for tau, TDP-43, and FUS. Alzheimer's disease was uncommon (6%) among patients whose only top diagnosis during follow-up was bvFTD. Seventy-nine per cent of FTLD-tau, 86% of FTLD-TDP, and 88% of FTLD-FUS met at least 'possible' bvFTD diagnostic criteria at first presentation. The frequency of the six core bvFTD diagnostic features was similar in FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP, suggesting that these features alone cannot be used to separate patients by major molecular class. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that nearly all pathological subgroups and even individual patients share atrophy in anterior cingulate, frontoinsula, striatum, and amygdala, indicating that degeneration of these regions is intimately linked to the behavioural syndrome produced by these diverse aetiologies. In addition to these unifying features, symptom profiles also differed among pathological subtypes, suggesting distinct anatomical vulnerabilities and informing a clinician's prediction of pathological diagnosis. Data-driven classification into one of the 10 most common pathological diagnoses was most accurate (up to 60.2%) when using a combination of known predictive factors (genetic mutations, motor features, or striking atrophy patterns) and the results of a discriminant function analysis that incorporated clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological data.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Doença de Pick/patologia , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Autopsia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência Frontotemporal/psicologia , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/psicologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Doença de Pick/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Pick/psicologia , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/psicologia
10.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 18(6): 325-333, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435163

RESUMO

The discovery that heterozygous and homozygous mutations in the gene encoding progranulin are causally linked to frontotemporal dementia and lysosomal storage disease, respectively, reveals previously unrecognized roles of the progranulin protein in regulating lysosome biogenesis and function. Given the importance of lysosomes in cellular homeostasis, it is not surprising that progranulin deficiency has pleiotropic effects on neural circuit development and maintenance, stress response, innate immunity and ageing. This Progress article reviews recent advances in progranulin biology emphasizing its roles in lysosomal function and brain innate immunity, and outlines future avenues of investigation that may lead to new therapeutic approaches for neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/biossíntese , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Progranulinas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27453930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: MCP-1 and eotaxin-1 are encoded on chromosome 17 and have been shown to reduce hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. We investigated whether these chemokines selectively associate with memory in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. METHODS: MCP-1 and eotaxin-1 were assayed in controls, MCI, and AD dementia patients with varying phenotypes (n = 171). A subset of 55 individuals had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans available. Composite scores for cognitive variables were created, and medial temporal lobe volumes were obtained. RESULTS: An interaction was noted between MCP-1 and eotaxin-1, such that deleterious associations with memory were seen when both chemokines were elevated. These associations remained significant after adding APOE genotype and comparison (non-chromosome 17) chemokines into the model. These chemokines predicted left medial temporal lobe volume and were not related to other cognitive domains. DISCUSSION: These results suggest a potentially selective role for MCP-1 and eotaxin-1 in memory dysfunction in the context of varied MCI and AD dementia phenotypes.

12.
J Neurosci ; 35(25): 9315-28, 2015 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26109656

RESUMO

Mutations in the human progranulin gene resulting in protein haploinsufficiency cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions. Although progress has been made in understanding the normal functions of progranulin and TDP-43, the molecular interactions between these proteins remain unclear. Progranulin is proteolytically processed into granulins, but the role of granulins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease is unknown. We used a Caenorhabditis elegans model of neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy to specifically interrogate the contribution of granulins to the neurodegenerative process. Complete loss of the progranulin gene did not worsen TDP-43 toxicity, whereas progranulin heterozygosity did. Interestingly, expression of individual granulins alone had little effect on behavior. In contrast, when granulins were coexpressed with TDP-43, they exacerbated its toxicity in a variety of behaviors including motor coordination. These same granulins increased TDP-43 levels via a post-translational mechanism. We further found that in human neurodegenerative disease subjects, granulin fragments accumulated specifically in diseased regions of brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a toxic role for granulin fragments in a neurodegenerative disease model. These studies suggest that presence of cleaved granulins, rather than or in addition to loss of full-length progranulin, may contribute to disease in TDP-43 proteinopathies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Proteinopatias TDP-43/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Caenorhabditis elegans , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Progranulinas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
13.
PLoS Genet ; 9(9): e1003714, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24068943

RESUMO

Animals have many ways of protecting themselves against stress; for example, they can induce animal-wide, stress-protective pathways and they can kill damaged cells via apoptosis. We have discovered an unexpected regulatory relationship between these two types of stress responses. We find that C. elegans mutations blocking the normal course of programmed cell death and clearance confer animal-wide resistance to a specific set of environmental stressors; namely, ER, heat and osmotic stress. Remarkably, this pattern of stress resistance is induced by mutations that affect cell death in different ways, including ced-3 (cell death defective) mutations, which block programmed cell death, ced-1 and ced-2 mutations, which prevent the engulfment of dying cells, and progranulin (pgrn-1) mutations, which accelerate the clearance of apoptotic cells. Stress resistance conferred by ced and pgrn-1 mutations is not additive and these mutants share altered patterns of gene expression, suggesting that they may act within the same pathway to achieve stress resistance. Together, our findings demonstrate that programmed cell death effectors influence the degree to which C. elegans tolerates environmental stress. While the mechanism is not entirely clear, it is intriguing that animals lacking the ability to efficiently and correctly remove dying cells should switch to a more global animal-wide system of stress resistance.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caspases/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais/genética
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(11): 4441-6, 2011 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21368173

RESUMO

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome that is the second most common cause of early-onset dementia. Mutations in the progranulin gene are a major cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration [Baker M, et al. (2006) Nature 442:916-919 and Cruts M, et al. (2006) Nature 442:920-924]. Although progranulin is involved in wound healing, inflammation, and tumor growth, its role in the nervous system and the mechanism by which insufficient levels result in neurodegeneration are poorly understood [Eriksen and Mackenzie (2008) J Neurochem 104:287-297]. We have characterized the normal function of progranulin in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that mutants lacking pgrn-1 appear grossly normal, but exhibit fewer apoptotic cell corpses during development. This reduction in corpse number is not caused by reduced apoptosis, but instead by more rapid clearance of dying cells. Likewise, we found that macrophages cultured from progranulin KO mice displayed enhanced rates of apoptotic-cell phagocytosis. Although most neurodegenerative diseases are thought to be caused by the toxic effects of aggregated proteins, our findings suggest that susceptibility to neurodegeneration may be increased by a change in the kinetics of programmed cell death. We propose that cells that might otherwise recover from damage or injury are destroyed in progranulin mutants, which in turn facilitates disease progression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Mutação/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/embriologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Cinética , Longevidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Biológicos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fagocitose
15.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 23(4): 365-70, 2009 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19935145

RESUMO

Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) share alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity. These "synucleinopathies" have overlapping signs and symptoms, but less is known about similarities and differences in their cognitive and neuropsychiatric profiles. We compared the cognitive and neuropsychiatric profiles of individuals with PD, MSA, and DLB. Overall, the DLB group showed the most cognitive impairment, the MSA group demonstrated milder impairment, and the PD group was the least cognitively impaired. The DLB and MSA groups showed worse executive function and visuospatial skills than PD, whereas DLB showed impaired memory relative to both PD and MSA. On the neuropsychiatric screening, all groups endorsed depression and anxiety; the DLB group alone endorsed delusions and disinhibition. Consistent with their greater level of cognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment, the DLB group showed the greatest amount of functional impairment on a measure of instrumental activities of daily living (Functional Activities Questionnaire). We found that MSA subjects had cognitive difficulties that fell between the mild deficits of the PD group and the more severe deficits of the DLB group. PD, MSA, and DLB groups have similar neuropsychiatric profiles of increased depression and anxiety. Similar underlying alpha-synuclein pathology may contribute to these shared features.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , alfa-Sinucleína/fisiologia , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/classificação , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/patologia , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/psicologia , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/patologia , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , alfa-Sinucleína/efeitos adversos
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