Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 797
Filtrar
1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by surgery is the mainstay of treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Based on baseline 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), a new artificial intelligence model using metric learning (ML) was introduced to predict responses to NCRT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study used the data of 236 patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer; the data of 202 and 34 patients were for training and validation, respectively. All patients received pretreatment [18F]FDG-PET/CT, NCRT, and surgery. The treatment response was scored by Dworak tumor regression grade (TRG); TRG3 and TRG4 indicated favorable responses. The model employed ML combined with the Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection for dimensionality reduction. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the model's predictive performance. RESULTS: In the training cohort, 115 patients (57%) achieved TRG3 or TRG4 responses. The area under the ROC curve was 0.96 for the prediction of a favorable response. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 98.3%, 96.5%, and 97.5%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the validation cohort were 95.0%, 100%, and 98.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The new ML model presented herein was used to determined that baseline 18F[FDG]-PET/CT images could predict a favorable response to NCRT in patients with rectal cancer. External validation is required to verify the model's predictive value.

2.
J Pers Med ; 11(12)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34945720

RESUMO

Patients with bone metastases have poor prognoses. A bone scan is a commonly applied diagnostic tool for this condition. However, its accuracy is limited by the nonspecific character of radiopharmaceutical accumulation, which indicates all-cause bone remodeling. The current study evaluated deep learning techniques to improve the efficacy of bone metastasis detection on bone scans, retrospectively examining 19,041 patients aged 22 to 92 years who underwent bone scans between May 2011 and December 2019. We developed several functional imaging binary classification deep learning algorithms suitable for bone scans. The presence or absence of bone metastases as a reference standard was determined through a review of image reports by nuclear medicine physicians. Classification was conducted with convolutional neural network-based (CNN-based), residual neural network (ResNet), and densely connected convolutional networks (DenseNet) models, with and without contrastive learning. Each set of bone scans contained anterior and posterior images with resolutions of 1024 × 256 pixels. A total of 37,427 image sets were analyzed. The overall performance of all models improved with contrastive learning. The accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and negative predictive value (NPV) for the optimal model were 0.961, 0.878, 0.599, 0.712, 0.92 and 0.965, respectively. In particular, the high NPV may help physicians safely exclude bone metastases, decreasing physician workload, and improving patient care.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e046891, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both physical diseases such as infection and chronic pain and psychological disorders such as depression have been associated with herpes zoster (HZ) reactivation. However, the relationship between de Quervain syndrome (DQS), a painful tenosynovitis and HZ remains unclear. We investigated whether DQS increases the risk of HZ reactivation. DESIGN: A retrospective population-based cohort study. SETTING: Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: We used a subset of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database which contains the registration files and original claims data of 1 million randomly selected individuals from the National Health Insurance programme. The case group in this study comprised patients newly diagnosed with DQS between 2000 and 2012. Individuals without DQS comprised the control group. Cases and controls were 1:1 matched by age, sex and index year (defined as the year of DQS diagnosis). RESULTS: Approximately 55% of the participants were ≤49 years. Most participants were women (77%). The incidence rate of HZ in the DQS group was 8.39 per 1000 person years. After adjustments for age, sex and comorbidities, patients with DQS had a 1.30 times higher risk of HZ reactivation than the control group. Stratification analysis revealed taht DQS increases the HZ risk in individuals ≤64 years, women, and patients without comorbidities. CONCLUSION: DQS is associated with an increased risk of HZ. Clinicians should be aware of this risk when dealing with patients with DQS, particularly in young adults.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infection, chronic pain and depression are considered risk factors for herpes zoster (HZ). However, the correlation between plantar fascial fibromatosis (PFF) and HZ remains unknown. This study investigated HZ risk in patients with PFF. METHODS: Data was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, which is a subsample of the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database and contains 1 million NHI beneficiaries. Between 2000 and 2012, patients diagnosed as having PFF were included in the case cohort. Every case was age and sex-matched with individuals without PFF through 1:4 frequency matching (control cohort). The end of the follow-up was defined as December 31, 2013, the date of HZ diagnosis, death, emigration, or withdrawal from the NHI program. RESULTS: In total, 4,729 patients were diagnosed as having PFF and were matched with 18,916 individuals without PFF. Patients with PFF were 1.23 times more likely to develop HZ than were those without PFF. Among those aged ≥65 years, patients with PFF had a higher HZ risk than did those without PFF (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.48). Men with PFF had a significantly higher risk of HZ than did men without PFF (aHR = 1.44). CONCLUSION: Patients with PFF, particularly older and male patients, having a high HZ risk and may thus be vaccinated for HZ.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705851

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of statins and steroids on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke in patients with interstitial lung disease and pulmonary fibrosis (ILD-PF). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients with ILD-PF who were using statins (statin cohort, N = 11,567) and not using statins (nonstatin cohort, N = 26,159). Cox proportional regression was performed to analyze the cumulative incidence of CAD and stroke. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CAD and stroke were determined after sex, age, and comorbidities, as well as the use of inhaler corticosteroids (ICSs), oral steroids (OSs), and statins, were controlled for. RESULTS: Compared with those of patients without statin use, the aHRs (95% CIs) of patients with statin use for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79) and 0.52 (0.38-0.72), respectively. For patients taking single-use statins but not ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79)/0.69 (0.61-0.79) and 0.54 (0.39-0.74)/0.50 (0.32-0.79), respectively. For patients using ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.71 (0.42-1.18)/0.74 (0.64-0.85) and 0.23 (0.03-1.59)/0.54 (0.35-0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that statin use, either alone or in combination with OS use, plays an auxiliary role in the management of CAD and ischemic stroke in patients with ILD-PF.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar/complicações , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258771, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669756

RESUMO

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a prevalent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The atherogenic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is an established risk factor of cardiovascular disease, and evidence also suggests that postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) levels closely delineate CHD mortality in diabetes. The investigators hypothesized that postprandial plasma glucose excursion (PPGE), defined as the difference between 2-hour PPG and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), may be associated with plasma LDL cholesterol levels in patients with T2DM. This study enrolled diabetic participants for whom FPG and lipid profile were sampled after a 12-hour fast, followed by PPG sampling two hours after consuming a standard meal with 75 grams of carbohydrates. The study enrolled 379 participants who were divided into PPGE tertiles according to the difference between their 2-hour PPG and FPG. Participants in the highest PPGE tertile had considerably greater plasma LDL cholesterol levels than patients in the lowest tertile (126.7 mg/dL vs. 99.5 mg/dL, P <0.001). Linear regression analysis also demonstrated that the PPGE was positively correlated with plasma LDL cholesterol levels (ß coefficient: 0.165, P < 0.001). Postprandial glucose excursion positively correlated with plasma LDL cholesterol levels in individuals with T2DM. Participants with raised PPGE harbored greater LDL cholesterol levels than those with lower postprandial glucose fluctuations. Therefore, postprandial glucose excursion is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile and may be a modifiable risk factor of diabetic CHD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Glicemia/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial
8.
Postgrad Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in patients with breast cancer can adversely cause the heart to receive some radiation doses, which may lead to cardiovascular diseases. The results of previous research regarding this issue are not consistent. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan to evaluate whether adjuvant RT for breast cancer patients increased the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined data from the National Health Insurance Research Database, Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients, and Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. We identified 83,733 patients with breast cancer between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2017. Individuals without breast cancer from the general population were frequency-matched by age and index year with individuals with breast cancer. Participants were followed until the occurrence of a CHD event, the end of follow-up, or patient record removal due to death or withdrawal from the NHI. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to compare the risk of CHD in breast cancer patients with that in patients in the comparison cohort. RESULTS: Compared to breast cancer patients without RT, those who underwent RT had a similar risk of subsequently developing CHD (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.02). Similar results were observed in a subgroup of patients with left-sided breast cancer. However, among patients who received adjuvant RT, those with left-sided breast cancer had a significantly higher risk of CHD than did those with right-sided breast cancer (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.30). Patients who received RT in 2010 or later had a significantly lower risk of CHD compared with those who received RT before 2010 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.91). Higher prescribed doses of RT to the left-sided breast did not correspond to a higher risk of CHD. CONCLUSION: This large, nationwide cohort study suggests that adjuvant RT in patients with breast cancer did not increase the risk of CHD.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047039, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of statins on risk of cancer in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pulmonary fibrosis. SETTING: We retrospectively enrolled patients with ILD and pulmonary fibrosis and divided them into two cohorts by statin use (statin users (n=10 036) and statin non-users (n=10 036)). PARTICIPANTS: We selected patients with ILD and pulmonary fibrosis (N=53 862) from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Time-dependent Cox models were used to compare risk of cancer of propensity-matched statin users and non-users. Cumulative cancer incidence was analysed through Cox proportional regression. We calculated adjusted HRs (aHRs) and their 95% CIs for cancer after adjusting for sex, age, comorbidities, and use of inhaled corticosteroids, oral steroids and statins. RESULTS: Compared with statin non-users, the aHRs (95% CIs) for statin users were 0.60 (0.55 to 0.65) for cancer, 0.52 (0.35 to 0.78) for haematological malignancy, 0.52 (0.38 to 0.72) for cancer of the head and neck, 0.73 (0.59 to 0.89) for colorectal cancer, 0.34 (0.26 to 0.43) for liver cancer, 0.39 (0.23 to 0.67) for pancreatic cancer, 0.40 (0.17 to 0.96) for skin cancer, 0.67 (0.52 to 0.87) for breast cancer, 0.27 (0.14 to 0.54) for cervical cancer, 0.37 (0.30 to 0.46) for other immunological cancers, 0.73 (0.54 to 0.98) for bladder/kidney cancer and 0.88 (0.71 to 1.09) for lung cancer. CONCLUSION: Statin use is associated with lower risk of cancer in the ILD and pulmonary fibrosis cohort.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Neoplasias , Fibrose Pulmonar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 699359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540785

RESUMO

Objective: This study investigated the medical care costs of stroke type between age-matched cohorts with and without dysmenorrhea using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods: We collected all 66,048 women with dysmenorrhea and 66,048 women without dysmenorrhea whose age (15-44-year-old) and index year (from 1997 to 2013) were matched for comparison. We assessed the incidence and compared the risk of stroke and stroke subtype in two cohorts. The proportional distributions of stroke subtypes by age between the two cohorts were compared among the women with stroke, and their hospitalization rate was also estimated. In addition, medical cost, length of stay, and the medical cost within 30 days after stroke were compared between the two cohorts. Results: The stroke risk in dysmenorrhea was greater than comparisons (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.11-1.42). Proportionally, hemorrhagic stroke (HS) significantly decreased with age in both cohorts, whereas ischemic stroke (IS) significantly increased with age when both cohorts were combined. The dysmenorrhea cohort had a higher portion of transient cerebral ischemia (TIA) stroke than comparisons (31.3 vs. 24.2%, p = 0.01) and a lower risk of hospitalization for IS (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.21-0.69). Among the four-stroke subtypes, the cost of care for TIA was the least (US$157 ± 254). The average cost for stroke care was not significantly different between women with and without dysmenorrhea. Conclusion: The hospitalization rate and medical costs of TIA are lower than other types. All women should prevent and treat TIA as soon as possible to avoid recurrence or progression to major stroke events and reduce medical costs, regardless of whether they have dysmenorrhea.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Adulto , Dismenorreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 584322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568351

RESUMO

Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the occurrence of herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with endometriosis. Methods: This retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Between 2000 and 2012, women aged ≥20 years with newly diagnosed endometriosis were enrolled into the endometriosis group. Each patient with endometriosis was randomly matched to 4 controls according to age and index year. All the patients were traced from the index date to HZ diagnosis, loss to follow-up, death, or the end of December 2013. Results: In total, 19,147 patients with newly diagnosed endometriosis and 76,588 participants without endometriosis were enrolled. The incidence of HZ was higher in endometriosis persons (5.36 per 1,000 person-years) than in matched controls (4.43 per 1,000 person-years) (p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and comorbidities, patients with endometriosis age ≤ 49 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.17) (p < 0.001) and 50-64 years (aHR = 1.27) (p < 0.05) showed significantly higher risk of HZ than the corresponding controls. Among women without any comorbidities, patients with endometriosis were 1.22 times (p < 0.001) more likely to have HZ than those without endometriosis. Conclusion: Taiwanese women with endometriosis may have a higher rate of HZ occurrence. Endometriosis seems to be a high burden for affected women. Therefore, we suggest that clinicians should be aware of HZ among women with endometriosis, although there may be ethnic differences.

12.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14776, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify associations between the risk of acute respiratory failure (ARF) and types of antihypertensive agents in patients with viral pneumonia. METHODS: In this case-control study, data extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analysed. The base population comprised patients with viral pneumonia treated from 2000 to 2013. The case group comprised patients with ARF and the control group comprised participants without ARF. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: In total, 4427 viral pneumonia patients with ARF and 4427 matched control participants without ARF were recruited. Patients with diabetes, alcohol-related disease, asthma, chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, congestive heart failure, stroke, acute pulmonary oedema and shock had increased odds of developing ARF, especially shock (adjusted OR = 49.3; 95% CI = 27.4, 88.7), cancer (12.6; 8.67, 18.2) and stroke (7.51; 5.32, 10.6). Increasing odds of developing ARF were noted in patients using potassium-sparing diuretics (2.95; 1.54, 5.64), loop diuretics (68.2; 48.1, 96.6), calcium channel blockers (1.64; 1.26, 2.13) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (1.70; 1.15, 2.53). Patients with prescriptions of α-blockers (0.44; 0.26, 0.74), ß-blockers (0.37; 0.26, 0.52), thiazides (0.38; 0.25, 0.59) and angiotensin receptor blockers (0.65; 0.51, 0.83) had lower odds of having ARF. CONCLUSION: Patients with viral pneumonia who received α-blockers, ß-blockers, thiazides or angiotensin receptor blockers during hospitalisation had a lower risk of developing ARF.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048149, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have proposed associations between systemic sclerosis (SSc) and atherosclerosis and between SSc and cardiovascular disease. However, in Asia, no large-scale studies have focused on the association between peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and SSc. SETTING: A nationwide observation retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The National Health Insurance Research Database was used for selecting patients diagnosed with SSc from 2000 to 2011. Patients diagnosed with PAD before the index date were excluded. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The SSc cohort comprised 1106 patients with SSc, and the non-SSc cohort comprised 4424 matched controls. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for analysing the adjusted risk of PAD between the case and control patients. RESULTS: The SSc cohort exhibited a significantly higher risk (HR=2.15, 95% CI=1.47 to 3.14) of PAD than did the non-SSc cohort. Patients with heart failure exhibited the highest risk of PAD (adjusted HR=2.10, 95% CI=1.20 to 3.70). Moreover, even without any comorbidities, the SSc cohort exhibited a significantly higher risk (adjusted HR=4.17 fold, 95% CI=1.98 to 8.77) of PAD than did the non-SSc cohort. CONCLUSION: SSc is associated with a significantly high risk of PAD. Further studies are required to reduce the PAD risk among patients with SSc.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Humanos , Incidência , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14737, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use could reduce lesser risk of bacterial infections is unknown. We aimed to conduct a retrospective cohort propensity-matching study to investigate the association between HCQ use and the incidence of bacterial pneumonia in rheumatic patients. METHODS: The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of 23 million Taiwanese populations was used. We included patients who were newly diagnosed with rheumatic and immune disease (ICD-9-CM codes 696.0, 710, 714) within 2000-2012. HCQ users and non-users were then matched according to age, sex, urbanisation level, monthly income, comorbidities and medications in the ratio of 1:1 by the propensity score matching. Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the risk of bacterial pneumonia in rheumatic patients who used HCQ and who did not use HCQ. RESULTS: There were total 3285 patients with rheumatic and immune disease enrolled. The cumulative incidence curve of patients with the use of HCQ sulphate had no difference to that of patient without the use of HCQ sulphate in propensity score-matched cohort, (Log-rank test: P = .5). However, patients who used HCQ sulphate for more than 1400 average use days had a lesser risk of bacterial pneumonia (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.35, 0.89) in the cohort matched, with regarding HCQ non-users as a reference. CONCLUSION: Rheumatic patients taking HCQ had no overall significant differences of bacterial pneumonia incidences compared with rheumatic patients not taking HCQ. HCQ used more than >1400 days or lupus patients using HCQ was associated with lower risk of bacterial pneumonia.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Pneumonia Bacteriana , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049316, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This nationwide population-based cohort study was to compare the risk of aortic dissection (AD) or aortic aneurysm (AN) between the subjects with and without gallstone disease (GD). We also compare the risk of AD/AN between the patients with GD with and without cholecystectomy. SETTING: This nationwide population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: We extracted the hospitalisation database from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan and identified a total of 343 300 patients aged ≥20 years with GD newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 as the study cohort, including 191 111 with cholecystectomy and 152 189 without cholecystectomy, respectively. We randomly selected those without GD as the control cohort, by 1:1 propensity score matching with the study cohort based on age, sex, comorbidities and year of the index date for GD diagnosis. RESULTS: The incidence of AD/AN was 6.65/10 000 person-years for the GD cohort and 6.24/10 000 person-years for the non-GD cohort (adjusted HR (aHR)=1.11, 95% CI=1.09 to 1.13), respectively (p<0.001). Furthermore, the incidence of AD/AN in the patients with GD was 9.93/10 000 person-years for the non-cholecystectomy patients (aHR=1.24, 95% CI=1.22 to 1.26) and 4.63/10 000 person-years for the cholecystectomy patients (aHR=0.97, 95% CI=0.95 to 0.99), respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The GD cohort was associated with and greater risk of AD/AN than the non-GD cohort, but the risk of AD/AN in the patients with GD would decrease after cholecystectomy.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Colelitíase , Aneurisma Dissecante/epidemiologia , Aneurisma Dissecante/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 682341, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222182

RESUMO

Background: Air pollution is speculated to affect the reproductive health of women. However, a longitudinal association between exposure to air pollution and dysmenorrhea has not been identified, which this study aimed to examine this point. Methods: Two nationwide databases, namely the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring database and the Taiwan National Health Research Institutes database were linked. Women with a history of dysmenorrhea (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 625.3) before 2000 were excluded. All participants were followed from January 1, 2000 until the diagnosis of dysmenorrhea, withdrawal from National Health Insurance, or December 31, 2013. Furthermore, air pollutants were categorized into quartiles with three cut-off points (25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles). The Cox regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios of dysmenorrhea. Results: This study enrolled 296,078 women. The mean concentrations of yearly air pollutants were 28.2 (±12.6) ppb for nitric oxides (NOx), 8.91 (±7.93) ppb for nitric oxide (NO), 19.3 (±5.49) ppb for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 0.54 (±0.18) ppm for carbon monoxide (CO), and 31.8 (±6.80) µg/m3 for PM2.5. In total, 12,514 individuals developed dysmenorrhea during the 12-year follow-up. Relative to women exposed to Q1 concentrations of NOx, women exposed to Q4 concentrations exhibited a significantly higher dysmenorrhea risk [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)= 27.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.6-31.3]; similarly higher risk was found for exposure to NO (aHR = 16.7, 95% CI = 15.4-18.4) and NO2 (aHR = 33.1, 95% CI = 30.9-37.4). For CO, the relative dysmenorrhea risk in women with Q4 level exposure was 28.7 (95% CI = 25.4-33.6). For PM2.5, women at the Q4 exposure level were 27.6 times (95% CI = 23.1-29.1) more likely to develop dysmenorrhea than those at the Q1 exposure level. Conclusion: Our results showed that women would have higher dysmenorrhea incidences while exposure to high concentrations of NO, NO2, NOx, CO, and PM2.5.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Dismenorreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 253, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common renal disorder affecting approximately 1 in 1000 live births. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease worldwide. This study investigated the risk of TB infection in patients with PKD. METHODS: A nationwide population-based cohort study was performed using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We used patients' hospitalization files for the entire analysis during 2000-2012. As per diagnosis, we divided patients into PKD and non-PKD cohorts and the major outcome was TB infection. RESULTS: A total of 13,540 participants with 6770 patients in each cohort were enrolled. The PKD cohort had a higher risk of TB infection than did the non-PKD cohort after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-2.43). When classifying by sites of pulmonary TB (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), the PKD cohort demonstrated a significantly higher risk of EPTB (aHR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.46-4.08) as well as a risk of PTB (aHR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.29-2.22). When stratified by the presence or absence of a comorbidity, high TB infection risk was noted in the PKD patients without any comorbidity (HR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.69-4.30). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest that PKD is associated with a 1.91-fold increased risk of TB infection. Medical professionls should maintain a high index of suspicion in daily practice for patients with PKD, particularly those with EPTB infection.


Assuntos
Doenças Renais Policísticas , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Doenças Renais Policísticas/complicações , Doenças Renais Policísticas/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
18.
Endocr Connect ; 10(7): 789-795, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137735

RESUMO

Objective: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a prevalent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The proatherogenic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is an established risk factor of cardiovascular disease, and evidence also suggests that postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) levels closely delineate CHD mortality in diabetes. The investigators hypothesized that the addition of telehealth consultation to standard antidiabetic therapy may help to reduce postprandial glucose variability and plasma LDL cholesterol levels in patients with T2DM. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled patients with newly diagnosed T2DM who received standard antidiabetic therapy with or without additional telehealth consultation. Participants received blood tests for plasma lipid profile and glucose levels at the diagnosis of diabetes and after 1 month of therapeutic intervention. Laboratory results were compared between treatment groups to determine the efficacy of complementary telehealth consultation. Results: In this study, 375 participants were enrolled. The standard treatment group had considerably greater levels of plasma LDL cholesterol than recipients of telehealth consultation (110 mg/dL vs 93.1 mg/dL, P < 0.001). Moreover, patients receiving standard treatment had greater levels of fasting plasma glucose (104 mg/dL vs 98.5 mg/dL, P = 0.027), 2-h PPG (169 mg/dL vs 111 mg/dL, P < 0.001), and postprandial glucose variability (65.4 mg/dL vs 12.8 mg/dL, P < 0.001) than participants under telehealth consultation. Conclusions: Telemedicine in addition to standard antidiabetic therapy helped to reduce plasma LDL cholesterol levels and postprandial glucose variability in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. Therefore, telehealth consultation is a suitable complement to pharmacologic therapy for diabetic patients to assist in the management of proatherogenic dyslipidemia and postprandial glucose variability.

19.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14476, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few large-scale cohort studies have investigated the association between community-acquired pneumonia and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). We aimed to study whether using ACEIs or ARBs had protective effects for community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: This database cohort study was conducted retrospectively in Taiwan. The hypertensive patients were the target population of this study. Patients with ARB use were defined as our first study cohort. The second study cohort comprised patients who used ACEI. Propensity-score matching at 1:1 was used between ARB users and non-ARB users. We recruited 67 944 participants for the ARB study and 58 062 participants for the ACEI study. The same matching was also performed between ACEI users and non-ACEI users. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to analyse the risk of the outcome of viral pneumonia. RESULTS: The hazard ratio of community-acquired pneumonia for ARB users relative to non-ARB users was 0.33. The hazard ratio of community-acquired pneumonia was 0.71 times in ACEI users compared with ACEI nonusers. In stratification analysis, both ARB and ACEI both exhibited a protective effect for community-acquired pneumonia in each age and sex group. In the analysis of the effects of therapy duration, patients using ARB for fewer than 100 days exhibited a greater reduction in the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (adjusted HR = 0.58) compared with the non-ARB cohort. For the ACEI study, patients who used ACEI for 121-450 days were more likely to exhibit reduced risks of community-acquired pneumonia (adjusted HR = 0.5). CONCLUSION: Both ACEI and ARB uses were associated with decreased risk of community-acquired pneumonia infection.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Pneumonia Viral , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14416, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) is heightened in patients with prostate cancer receiving injection therapy. METHODS: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2000 and 2012 were included in the case cohort, and men without prostate cancer were included as controls. Each patient with prostate cancer was matched with a control patient with the same index year, demographic variables and comorbidities, and comparisons were made using propensity score matching. The hazard ratio of DM was estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: This cohort study consisted of 1213 patients with prostate cancer and 1213 control patients. The risk of DM in patients with prostate cancer was 1.60 times (95% CI = 1.12, 2.27) that of patients without prostate cancer. Compared with the controls, the hazard ratios of DM for patients with prostate cancer not receiving oral hormone therapy, patients with prostate cancer receiving oral hormone therapy, and patients with prostate cancer not receiving injection hormone therapy were 1.65 (95% CI = 1.01, 2.70), 1.57 (95% CI = 1.07, 2.70), and 1.94 (95% CI = 1.34, 2.81), respectively. The risk of DM in patients who received injection hormone therapy was 0.45 times (95% CI = 0.25, 0.82) that of patients who did not receive injection hormone therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with prostate cancer had an increased risk of DM compared with patients without prostate cancer. Patients with prostate cancer who received injection therapy had a lower risk of DM compared with those who did not.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias da Próstata , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...