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1.
J Card Surg ; 37(1): 214-222, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency surgery, blood transfusion, and reoperation for bleeding have been associated with increased operative morbidity and mortality. The recent increased use of direct oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications has made the above more challenging. In addition, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), with its associated hemodilution, fibrinolysis, and platelet consumption, may exacerbate the pre-existing coagulopathy and increase the risk of bleeding. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine available literature with regard to treating patients who are on the above medications and require emergency cardiac surgery. RESULTS: Management decisions are typically made on a case-by-case basis. Surgery is delayed when possible, and less invasive percutaneous options should be considered if feasible. Attention is paid to exercising meticulous techniques, avoiding excessive hypothermia, and treating coexisting issues such as sepsis. Ensuring a dry operative field upon entry by correcting the coagulopathy with reversal agents is offset by the concern of potentially hindering efforts to anticoagulate the patient (heparin resistance) in preparation for CPB, in addition to possibly increasing the risk of thromboembolism. CONCLUSION: Proper knowledge of anticoagulants, their reversal agents, and the usefulness of laboratory testing are all essential. Platelet transfusion remains the mainstay for antiplatelet medications. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate is considered in patients on oral anticoagulants if CPB needs to be instituted quickly. Specific reversal agents such as idarucizumab and andexanet alfa can be considered if significant tissue dissection is anticipated, such as redo sternotomy, but are costly and may lead to heparin resistance and anticoagulant rebound.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is a useful tool for assessing low-gradient significant aortic stenosis (AS) and contractile reserve (CR), but its prognostic utility has become controversial in recent studies. We evaluated the impact of DSE on aortic valve physiological, structural and left ventricular parameters in low gradient AS. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing DSE for low-gradient AS evaluation from September 2010 to July 2016 were retrospectively studied, and DSE findings divided into four groups with and without severe AS and CR. Relationships between left ventricular chamber quantification, CR, aortic valve Doppler during DSE and calcium score (by CT) were analysed. RESULTS: There were 258 DSE studies performed on 243 patients, mean age 77.6±10.8 years and 183 (70.1%) were male. With increasing dobutamine dose, apart from systolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, flow, cardiac power output and longitudinal strain magnitude, along with aortic valve area and mean aortic gradient all significantly increased (P<0.05). Flow and mean gradient increased in both the presence and absence of CR, whereas stroke volume and aortic valve area increased mainly in those with CR only. The aortic valve area increased in both patients with low and high calcium score, however the baseline area was lower in those with a higher calcium score. CONCLUSION: During DSE, aortic valve area increases with increase aortic valve gradient. Higher calcium score is associated with lower baseline aortic valve area, but the area valve area still increases with dobutamine even in presence of high calcium score.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decompression sickness is a diving-related disease that results in various clinical manifestations, ranging from joint pain to severe pulmonary and CNS affection. Complications of this disease may sometimes persist even after treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In addition, it may hamper the quality of life by forcing divers to restrict their recreational practice. The presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) increases the risk of decompression sickness by facilitating air embolization. Therefore, PFO closure may play a role in reducing such complications. However, PFO closure remains associated with its own set of risks and complications. We sought to assess the benefit and harm of PFO closure for the prevention of decompression sickness in divers. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and Web of Science. Two-armed studies comparing the incidence of decompression sickness with or without PFO closure were included. We used a random-effects model to compute risk ratios comparing groups undergoing PFO closure to those not undergoing PFO closure. RESULTS: Four observational studies with a total of 309 divers (PFO closure: 141 and no closure: 168) met inclusion criteria. PFO closure was associated with a significantly lower incidence of decompression sickness (PFO-closure: 2.84%; no closure: 11.3%; RR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.89; NNTB = 11), with low heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). The mean follow-up was 6.12 years (Standard deviation 0.70). Adverse events occurred in 7.63% of PFO closures, including tachyarrhythmias and bleeding. CONCLUSION: PFO closure may potentially reduce the risk of decompression sickness among divers; however, it is not free of potential downsides, with nearly one in thirteen patients in our analysis experiencing an adverse event.

4.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785587

RESUMO

Vitamin K2 serves an important role in cardiovascular health through regulation of calcium homeostasis. Its effects on the cardiovascular system are mediated through activation of the anti-calcific protein known as matrix Gla protein. In its inactive form, this protein is associated with various markers of cardiovascular disease including increased arterial stiffness, vascular and valvular calcification, insulin resistance and heart failure indices which ultimately increase cardiovascular mortality. Supplementation of vitamin K2 has been strongly associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes through its modification of systemic calcification and arterial stiffness. Although its direct effects on delaying the progression of vascular and valvular calcification is currently the subject of multiple randomised clinical trials, prior reports suggest potential improved survival among cardiac patients with vitamin K2 supplementation. Strengthened by its affordability and Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA)-proven safety, vitamin K2 supplementation is a viable and promising option to improve cardiovascular outcomes.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e017773, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779652

RESUMO

Background We evaluated whether a comprehensive STEMI protocol (CSP) focusing on guideline-directed medical therapy, trans-radial percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and rapid door to balloon time (D2BT) improves process and outcome metrics in patients with moderate or high socioeconomic deprivation. Methods and Results A total of 1761 patients with STEMI treated with PCI at a single hospital before (1/1/2011-7/14/2014) and after (7/15/2014-7/15/2019) CSP implementation were included in an observational cohort study. Neighborhood deprivation was assessed by the Area Deprivation Index and was categorized as low (≤ 50th percentile; 29.0%), moderate (51-90th percentile; 40.8%), and high (>90th percentile; 30.2%). The primary process outcome was D2BT. Achievement of guideline-recommend D2BT goals improved in all deprivation groups pre- vs. post-CSP (low: 67.8% vs. 88.5%; moderate: 50.7% vs. 77.6%; high: 65.5% vs. 85.6%; all p<0.001). Median D2BT among ED/in-hospital patients was significantly non-inferior in higher vs. lower deprivation groups post-CSP (non-inferiority limit = 5 minutes, p non-inferiority high vs. moderate 0.002, high vs. low <0.001, moderate vs. low 0.02). In-hospital mortality, the primary clinical outcome, was significantly lower post-CSP in patients with moderate / high deprivation in unadjusted (pre-CSP 7.0% vs. post-CSP 3.1%, OR 0.42 [95% CI 0.25, 0.72], p=0.002) and risk-adjusted (OR 0.42 [0.23, 0.77], p=0.005) models. Conclusions A CSP was associated with improved STEMI care across all deprivation groups and reduced mortality in those with moderate or high deprivation. Standardized initiatives to reduce care variability may mitigate social determinants of health in time-sensitive conditions such as STEMI.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and real-world outcomes of patients who require peripheral vascular intervention during the same hospitalization as transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) compared with TAVR alone. BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the prevalence and outcomes of combined TAVR and percutaneous peripheral vascular intervention. METHODS: All patients who underwent TAVR in 2016 and 2017 were identified using the Nationwide Readmissions Database. Outcomes of patients undergoing TAVR alone were compared with those of patients undergoing combined TAVR and peripheral intervention, TAVR and peripheral intervention with and without a history of peripheral artery disease, and alternative-access TAVR with transfemoral TAVR in individuals undergoing peripheral intervention. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 99,654 hospitalizations were identified, among which 4,397 patients (4.42%) underwent peripheral intervention during the same admission as TAVR. Patients who required peripheral intervention had increased mortality (4.2% vs 1.5%; P < 0.001), stroke (3.5% vs 1.8%; P < 0.001), acute kidney injury (17.6% vs 10.8%; P < 0.001), blood transfusion (16.0% vs 11.3%; P < 0.001), 30-day readmission (16.3% vs 12.1%; P < 0.001), median length of stay (4 days [interquartile range: 2-8 days] vs 3 days [interquartile range: 2-5 days]; P < 0.001), and hospitalization charges. Compared with patients undergoing peripheral intervention to facilitate transfemoral TAVR, alternative-access TAVR was associated with increased mortality (4.6% vs 3.0%; P = 0.036), acute kidney injury (22.7% vs 14.3%; P < 0.001), median length of stay (5 days [interquartile range: 3-10 days] vs 4 days [interquartile range: 2-7 days]; P < 0.001), and 30-day readmission (18.1% vs 15.5%; P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral vascular intervention may be used to facilitate transfemoral access or as a bailout for vascular complications during TAVR. Combined TAVR and peripheral intervention is associated with an increased risk for adverse events, though outcomes are better compared with alternative-access TAVR using a nonfemoral approach.

7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now frequently performed for severe aortic stenosis. Data regarding cardiac operations after TAVR are limited, however. Therefore, we investigated patient characteristics, operative timing and indications, and outcomes of these operations in a single-center experience. METHODS: From 1/2012-7/2020, 59 patients (median age 70) underwent cardiac operations after TAVR, 38 (64%) of the latter performed outside our center. Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality (STS-PROM) was calculated at time of prior TAVRs and at applicable index cardiac operations. RESULTS: From 2012-2018, there were fewer than 10 operations after TAVR, but 18 in 2019. Interval between prior TAVR and cardiac surgery decreased exponentially from 7 to less than 1 year over the experience. In applicable cases (n=19; 32%), median STS-PROM was 5.5% (15th-85th percentiles, 3.1%-25%); 40 (68%) were complex operations with no calculable STS-PROM. The TAVR valve was explanted in 46 (78%); 5 were isolated surgical AVRs. TAVR valve stenosis/regurgitation (n=34; 58%) was the leading indication, followed by paravalvular leak (14; 24%) and endocarditis (n=10/17%). When the TAVR valve was not explanted, mitral regurgitation was the leading indication for operation. Operative mortality was 5 (8.5%), postoperative stroke 2 (3.4%), and postoperative dialysis 6 (10%). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac operations after TAVR are increasing and interval between TAVR and operation decreasing. Most cardiac operations are complex, high-risk reoperations and isolated AVR rare. These findings should be considered when TAVR is selected for low-intermediate risk patients, particularly with multiple cardiac pathologies not addressed by TAVR.

10.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101033, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748783

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) has shown to reduce heart failure (HF) rehospitalization and all cause mortality. However, the 30-day all-cause readmission remains high (∼15%) after TMVr. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate a 30-day readmission risk calculator for TMVr. METHODS: Nationwide Readmission Database from January 2014 to December 2017 was utilized. A linear calculator was developed to determine the probability for 30-day readmission. Internal calibration with bootstrapped calculations were conducted to assess model accuracy. The root mean square error and mean absolute error were calculated to determine model performance. RESULTS: Of 8,339 patients who underwent TMVr, 1,246 (14.2%) were readmitted within 30 days. The final 30-day readmission risk prediction tool included the following variables: Heart failure, Atrial Fibrillation, Anemia, length of stay ≥4 days, Acute kidney injury (AKI), and Non-Home discharge, Non-Elective admission and Bleeding/Transfusion. The c-statistic of the prediction model was 0.63. The validation c-statistic for readmission risk tool was 0.628. On internal calibration, our tool was extremely accurate in predicting readmissions up to 20%. CONCLUSION: A simple and easy to use risk prediction tool identifies TMVr patients at increased risk of 30-day readmissions. The tool can guide in optimal discharge planning and reduce resource utilization.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence of multivalvular heart disease is increasing, with aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation being the most common. Data are limited on outcomes of patients undergoing multivalvular surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate contemporary trends and in-hospital outcomes for combined surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and mitral valve repair (MVr) or replacement (MVR). METHODS: We identified patient hospitalizations aged ≥18 years who underwent SAVR + MVr or MVR between 2004 and 2018 using the National Inpatient Sample. Data were weighted to estimate national estimates of the entire US hospitalized population. Exclusion criteria included endocarditis, history of heart transplant or left ventricular assist device, and any other concomitant valve surgery. RESULTS: Between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2018, there were 68,882 weighted admissions for SAVR with concomitant mitral valve surgery. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 8.34% with significantly higher inpatient mortality in SAVR + MVR group compared with SAVR + MVr group (9.91% vs 5.57%, p < 0.001). During the study period, adjusted in-hospital mortality decreased in both SAVR + MVr group (p-trend 0.004) and SAVR + MVR group (p-trend <0.001). Age ≥70 years was associated with higher in-hospital mortality compared to those < 70 years (9.95% vs 6.70%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Combined aortic and mitral valve surgery is associated with a high risk of in-hospital mortality, especially in patients ≥ 70 years of age. Further research is needed to assess the role of transcatheter approaches in the treatment of multivalvular heart disease.

15.
Heart Rhythm ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bradyarrhythmias leading to permanent pacemaker (PPM) continue to be a complication after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of bradyarrhythmias using ECG extended rhythm recording among patients pre and post TAVR and whether they can predict the need for PPM METHODS: This was a prospective single center study in patients undergoing TAVR. Patients received an ECG-patch for 2 weeks pre, immediately post, and 2-3 months after TAVR. Caring physicians were blinded to the results of the patch except when predefined urgent arrhythmias were detected. The main outcome was the need for PPM implantation after TAVR. RESULTS: We enrolled 110 patients of whom 96 underwent TAVR and were included in the final analysis. Bradyarrhythmias, defined as a pause ≥ 3 seconds, occurred in 5.2%, 12.7%, and 7% of patients pre-, immediately post-, and 2-3 months post- TAVR respectively. PPM implantation occurred in 12 (12.5%) patients of whom 9 (9.4%) underwent implantation during their index hospitalization while 3 (3.1%) required implantation post-discharge for indications other than heart block. No patients required PPM after receiving ECG-patch 2-3 months post-TAVR. Significant baseline predictors for the need for PPM included the presence of right bundle-branch block and increased QRS duration. Bradyarrhythmias detected by ECG-patch did not predict the need for a PPM at either index hospitalization or follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Bradyarrhythmias are common and can be detected with extended ECG monitoring before and after TAVR, however, in our study did not predict the need for a PPM after TAVR.

17.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 7: 100182, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611632

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the association between vegetarian versus non-vegetarian diet on mortality due to ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or all-cause mortality. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane databases, and ClinicalTrials.Gov from the inception of the databases to October 2019 with no language restriction. Randomized controlled trials or prospective observational studies comparing the association between vegetarian versus non-vegetarian diets among adults and reporting major adverse cardiovascular outcomes were selected. We used Paule-Mandel estimator for tau2 with Hartung-Knapp adjustment for random effects model to estimate risk ratio [RR] with 95% confidence interval [CI].The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome was ischemic heart disease mortality. Results: Eight observational studies (n = 131,869) were included in the analysis. Over a weighted mean follow-up of 10.68 years, very low certainty of evidence concluded that a vegetarian diet compared with a non-vegetarian diet was associated with similar risk of all-cause (RR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.65-1.07, I2 : 97%) or cerebrovascular mortality (RR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.63-1.14, I2 : 90%), but was associated with a reduced risk of ischemic heart disease mortality (RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.55-0.89, I2 : 82%). Conclusion: A vegetarian diet, compared with a non-vegetarian diet, was associated with a reduced risk of ischemic heart disease mortality, whereas it had no effect on all-cause and cerebrovascular mortality. However, the results are to be considered with caution considering the low certainty of evidence. Despite recent studies supporting no restriction on animal protein intake gaining wide media attention and public traction, consideration for vegetarianism amongst those with risk factors for coronary artery disease should be contemplated.

18.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101005, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627825

RESUMO

ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) remains a major modern-day public health problem. We aimed to assess the demographic trends in STEMI related hospitalizations in the United States over a period of fifteen years. The nationwide inpatient sample was queried to obtain information of patients hospitalized with STEMI from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2016. Annual hospitalization rates were calculated and annual percentage change (APC) was evaluated using regression analysis. A total of 4,121,155 eligible patients were included in this analysis. Overall, the total number of STEMI hospitalization decreased from 421,043 in 2002 to 208,510 in 2016 (P-trend <0.01). With the decreasing trend, the rate was relatively higher among males as compared to females, whites as compared to non-whites, and lower as compared to high socioeconomic status (SES). The rate of PCI in STEMI patients increased from 32.8% in 2002 to 67.8% in 2016 (APC = 5.392%, 95% CI [4.384-6.411], P < 0.001), but was higher among males as compared to females, urban as compared to rural hospitals and higher as compared to lower SES. In-hospital mortality decreased from 11% in 2002 to 10.5% in 2016 (APC = -0.771%, 95% CI [-1.230 to -0.311], P = 0.003), but remained higher among females, rural hospitals and low SES as compared to their correspondent groups. Among STEMI patients, the prevalence of individual comorbidities was noted to be increasing over the study period. Although there has been a declining trend in the number of STEMI hospitalizations, patients with modifiable risk factors presenting with STEMI has been on the rise. Females, rural communities and lower SES groups need special attention because of greater vulnerability.

20.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(19): 2158-2169, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the impact of computed tomography (CT)-based area and perimeter oversizing on the incidence of paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) and valve hemodynamics in patients treated with the SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve (THV). BACKGROUND: The incremental value of considering annular perimeter or left ventricular outflow tract measurements and the impact of THV oversizing on valve hemodynamics are not well defined. METHODS: The PARTNER 3 (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves 3) trial included 495 low-surgical-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent THV implantation. THV sizing was based on annular area assessed by CT. Area- and perimeter-based oversizing was determined using systolic annular CT dimensions and nominal dimensions of the implanted THV. PVR, effective orifice area, and mean gradient were assessed on 30-day transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: Of 485 patients with available CT and echocardiography data, mean oversizing was 7.9 ± 8.7% for the annulus area and 2.1 ± 4.1% for the perimeter. A very low incidence of ≥moderate PVR (0.6%) was observed, including patients with minimal annular oversizing. Incidence of ≥mild PVR and need for procedural post-dilatation were inversely related to the degree of oversizing. For patients with annular dimensions suitable for 2 THV sizes, the larger THV with both area and perimeter oversizing was associated with the lowest incidence of ≥mild PVR (12.0% vs 43.4%; P < 0.0001). Left ventricular outflow tract area oversizing was not associated with PVR. THV prosthesis size, rather than degree of oversizing, had greatest impact on effective orifice area and mean gradient. CONCLUSIONS: In low-surgical-risk patients, a low incidence of ≥moderate PVR was observed, including patients with minimal THV oversizing. The degree of prosthesis oversizing had the greatest impact on reducing mild PVR and incidence of post-dilatation, without impacting valve hemodynamics. In selected patients with annular dimensions in between 2 valve sizes, the larger THV device oversized to both the annular area and perimeter reduced PVR and optimized THV hemodynamics.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica , Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Desenho de Prótese , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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