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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043559, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619192

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The South Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort (SAABC) is a prospective, longitudinal birth cohort established to: (1) estimate Aboriginal child dental disease compared with population estimates; (2) determine the efficacy of an early childhood caries intervention in early versus late infancy; (3) examine if efficacy was sustained over time and; (4) document factors influencing social, behavioural, cognitive, anthropometric, dietary and educational attainment over time. PARTICIPANTS: The original SAABC comprised 449 women pregnant with an Aboriginal child recruited February 2011 to May 2012. At child age 2 years, 324 (74%) participants were retained, at age 3 years, 324 (74%) participants were retained and at age 5 years, 299 (69%) participants were retained. Fieldwork for follow-up at age 7 years is underway, with funding available for follow-up at age 9 years. FINDINGS TO DATE: At baseline, 53% of mothers were aged 14-24 years and 72% had high school or less educational attainment. At age 3 years, dental disease experience was higher among children exposed to the intervention later rather than earlier in infancy. The effect was sustained at age 5 years, but rates were still higher than general child population estimates. Experiences of racism were high among mothers, with impacts on both tooth brushing and toothache. Compared with population estimates, levels of self-efficacy and self-rated oral health of mothers at baseline were low. FUTURE PLANS: Our data have contributed to a better understanding of the environmental, behavioural, dietary, biological and psychosocial factors contributing to Aboriginal child oral and general health, and social and emotional well-being. This is beneficial in charting the trajectory of cohort participants' health and well-being overtime, particularly in identifying antecedents of chronic diseases which are highly prevalent among Aboriginal Australians. Funding for continued follow-up of the cohort will be sought. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12611000111976; Post-results.

2.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 46, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpersonal racism has had a profound impact on Indigenous populations globally, manifesting as negative experiences and discrimination at an individual, institutional and systemic level. Interpersonal racism has been shown to negatively influence a range of health outcomes but has received limited attention in the context of oral health. The aim of this paper was to examine the effects of experiences of interpersonal racism on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among Indigenous South Australians. METHODS: Data were sourced from a large convenience sample of Indigenous South Australian adults between February 2018 and January 2019. Questionnaires were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, cultural values, utilization of dental services, and other related factors. OHRQoL was captured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. We defined the dependent variable 'poor OHRQoL' as the presence of one or more OHIP-14 items rated as 'very often' or 'fairly often'. Experiences of racism were recorded using the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experiences instrument. Interpersonal racism was classified into two categories ('no racism' vs 'any racism in ≥ 1 setting') and three categories ('no racism', 'low racism' (experienced in 1-3 settings), and 'high racism' (experienced in 4-9 settings)). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between interpersonal racism, covariates and OHRQoL, adjusting for potential confounding related to socioeconomic factors and access to dental services. RESULTS: Data were available from 885 participants (88.7% of the total cohort). Overall, 52.1% reported experiencing any interpersonal racism in the previous 12 months, approximately one-third (31.6%) were classified as experiencing low racism, and one-fifth (20.5%) experienced high racism. Poor OHRQoL was reported by half the participants (50.2%). Relative to no experiences of racism in the previous 12 months, those who experienced any racism (≥ 1 setting) were significantly more likely to report poor OHRQoL (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.43; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.08-1.92), after adjusting for age, education level, possession of an income-tested health care card, car ownership, self-reported oral health status, timing of and reason for last dental visit, not going to a dentist because of cost, and having no family support. This was particularly seen among females, where, relative to males, the odds of having poor OHRQoL among females experiencing racism were 1.74 times higher (95% CI: 1.07-2.81). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the experience of interpersonal racism has a negative impact on OHRQoL among Indigenous Australians. The association persisted after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Identifying this link adds weight to the importance of addressing OHRQoL among South Australian's Indigenous population by implementing culturally-sensitive strategies to address interpersonal racism.

3.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 50, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between kidney disease and periodontal disease are not well documented among Aboriginal people of Australia. The purpose of this investigation was to report and compare demographic, oral health, anthropometric and systemic health status of Aboriginal Australians with kidney disease and to compare against relevant Aboriginal Australians and Australian population estimates. This provides much needed evidence to inform dental health service provision policies for Aboriginal Australians with kidney disease. METHODS: Sample frequencies and means were assessed in adults represented in six datasets including: (1) 102 Aboriginal Australians with kidney disease residing in Central Australia who participated in a detailed oral health assessment; (2) 312 Aboriginal participants of the Northern Territory's PerioCardio study; (3) weighted estimates from 4775 participants from Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH); (4) Australian 2016 Census (all Australians); (5) National Health Survey 2017-2018 (all Australians) and; (6) Australian Health Survey: Biomedical Results for Chronic Diseases, 2011-2012 (all Australians). Oral health status was described by periodontal disease and experience of dental caries (tooth decay). Statistically significant differences were determined via non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Aboriginal Australians with kidney disease were significantly older, less likely to have a tertiary qualification or be employed compared with both PerioCardio study counterparts and NSAOH participants. Severe periodontitis was found in 54.3% of Aboriginal Australians with kidney disease, almost 20 times the 2.8% reported in NSAOH. A higher proportion of Aboriginal Australians with kidney disease had teeth with untreated caries and fewer dental restorations when compared to NSAOH participants. The extent of periodontal attachment loss and periodontal pocketing among Aboriginal Australians with kidney disease (51.0%, 21.4% respectively) was several magnitudes greater than PerioCardio study (22.0%, 12.3% respectively) and NSAOH (5.4%, 1.3% respectively) estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Aboriginal Australians with kidney disease exhibited more indicators of poorer oral health than both the general Australian population and a general Aboriginal population from Australia's Northern Territory. It is imperative that management of oral health among Aboriginal Australians with kidney disease be included as part of their ongoing medical care.

4.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 45, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental and oral health workers have direct contact with respiratory aerosols of patients during procedures. This study aimed to determine the main concerns of dental and oral health workers globally during COVID-19 outbreaks and the coping strategies that help the resilience of dental and oral healthcare system. METHODS: This scoping study was conducted in August 2020. After adjusting the search strategy, a systematic search of five databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest and EMBASE) was conducted. Data was extracted using Microsoft Excel and the contents of retrieved articles were analysed through a qualitative thematic analysis applying MAX QDA10. RESULTS: Most articles were either editorial/letters to the editor/commentary formats (34%), or literature reviews (26%). About half of the articles belonged to three countries of Italy, China and the USA (each 16% and totally 48%). Thematic analysis of included papers led to the identification of four main global concerns and 19 sub-concerns. Economic, ethical, social and professional concerns are among dental and oral health concerns. Other results indicate on three main themes and 13 sub-themes as the coping strategies including patient management, infection control and virtual strategies. CONCLUSION: Dental and oral health care workers have many concerns relating to COVID-19 including economic, ethical, social and professional factors. Resolution of concerns may involve enhancing coping strategies relating to patient management and infection control strategies as well as using new technologies for virtual contact with the patient without any risk of infection.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Odontólogos , Saúde Global , Pessoal de Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Higienistas Dentários , Humanos
5.
Int Dent J ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Periodontal examinations are time-consuming and potentially uncomfortable for recipients. We modelled if self-reported questions alone, or combined with objective evidence of periodontal bone loss observable from radiographs, are accurate predictors of periodontitis. METHODS: Self-reported data from the Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Heath 2004-06 were compared with clinical periodontal examinations to assess the validity of 8 periodontitis screening questions in predicting moderate/severe periodontitis. To model alveolar bone loss, a proxy variable simulating radiographic clinical attachment level (rCAL) was created. Three multivariable binary logistic regression models were constructed: responses to 8 screening questions alone (Model 1), screening questions combined with 5 classic periodontitis risk indicators (age, sex, smoking status, country of birth, and diabetes status) (Model 2), and the addition of rCAL (Model 3). Predictive validity was determined via sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) scores and graphically represented using area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROC). RESULTS: Data from 3630 participants periodontally examined determined that 32.4% exhibited periodontitis. Periodontitis risk indicators were all significantly associated with periodontitis case status. Six of 8 screening questions (Model 1) were weak periodontitis predictors (Se = 0.28; Sp = 0.89; AUROC = 0.61). Combining 13 variables for (Model 2) improved prediction (Se = 0.55; Sp = 0.81; AUROC = 0.77). The addition of rCAL (Model 3) improved diagnostic capacity considerably (AUROC = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported questions combined with classic risk indicators are "useful" for periodontitis screening. Addition of radiographs markedly improved diagnostic validity. Based on modelling, nondental health care professionals may provisionally screen for periodontitis with minimal training.

6.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 327, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders (hereafter respectfully referred to as Indigenous Australians) experience disproportionately poor health and low life expectancy compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Poor oral health is a critical, but understudied, contributor to this health gap. A considerable body of evidence links poor oral health to increased risks of other chronic non-communicable conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and poor emotional wellbeing.  MAIN: The oral microbiota is indisputably associated with several oral diseases that disproportionately affect Indigenous Australians. Furthermore, a growing literature suggests direct and indirect links between the oral microbiota and systemic chronic non-communicable diseases that underpin much of the Indigenous health gap in Australia. Recent research indicates that oral microbial communities are shaped by a combination of cultural and lifestyle factors and are inherited from caregivers to children. Systematic differences in oral microbiota diversity and composition have been identified between Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals in Australia and elsewhere, suggesting that microbiota-related diseases may be distinct in Indigenous Australians.  CONCLUSION: Oral microbiota research involving Indigenous Australians is a promising new area that could benefit Indigenous communities in numerous ways. These potential benefits include: (1) ensuring equity and access for Indigenous Australians in microbiota-related therapies; (2) opportunities for knowledge-sharing and collaborative research between scientists and Indigenous communities; and (3) using knowledge about the oral microbiota and chronic disease to help close the gaps in Indigenous oral and systemic health.

7.
J Oral Microbiol ; 12(1): 1830623, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149844

RESUMO

A once-annual caries preventive (Intervention) treatment was offered to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander schoolchildren-a population with disproportionately poorer oral health than non-Indigenous Australian children-in the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA) of Far North Queensland (FNQ), which significantly improved their oral health. Here, we examine the salivary microbiota of these children (mean age = 10 ± 2.96 years; n = 103), reconstructing the bacterial community composition with high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Microbial communities of children who received the Intervention had lower taxonomic diversity than those who did not receive treatment (Shannon, p < 0.05). Moreover, the Intervention resulted in further decreased microbial diversity in children with active carious lesions existing at the time of saliva collection. Microbial species associated with caries were detected; Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus gasseri, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Parascardovia denticolens, and Mitsuokella HMT 131 were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in children with severe caries, especially in children who did not receive the Intervention. These insights into microbial associations and community differences prompt future considerations to the mechanisms behind caries-preventive therapy induced change;  important for understanding  the long-term implications of like treatment to improve oral health disparities within Australia. Trial registration: ANZCTR, ACTRN12615000693527. Registered 3 July 2015, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368750&isReview=true.

8.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 483, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Periodontal disease is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), with both conditions being highly prevalent among Australia's Aboriginal population. This paper reflects on the lessons learned following implementation of a periodontal intervention in the Central Australian region of the Northern Territory among Aboriginal adults with CKD. RESULTS: Between Oct 2016 and May 2019, research staff recruited 102 eligible participants. This was far below the anticipated recruitment rate. The challenges faced, and lessons learned, were conceptualised into five specific domains. These included: (1) insufficient engagement with the Aboriginal community and Aboriginal community-controlled organisations; (2) an under-appreciation of the existing and competing patient commitments with respect to general health and wellbeing, and medical treatment to enable all study commitments; (3) most study staff employed from outside the region; (4) potential participants not having the required number of teeth; (5) invasive intervention that involved travel to, and time at, a dental clinic. A more feasible research model, which addresses the divergent needs of participants, communities and service partners is required. This type of approach, with sufficient time and resourcing to ensure ongoing engagement, partnership and collaboration in co-design throughout the conduct of research, challenges current models of competitive, national research funding.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) is increasing globally. Common oral conditions such as periodontitis may contribute. We undertook a meta-analysis to quantify the association between periodontitis, oral HPV and OPSCCs. METHODS: Multiple electronic databases were searched until 12 February 2020. Studies conducted in males and/or females aged ≥ 18 years that examined periodontitis, periodontal procedures, oral HPV infection, and where possible, oral cancers, were eligible. Meta-analyses were conducted and the GRADE approach was used to examine the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Of 2709 studies identified, 13 met the eligibility criteria. Five studies could be included in the meta-analyses. There was no significant increase in the odds of high-risk oral HPV infection among individuals with confirmed periodontitis (odds ratio 4.71, 95% confidence interval 0.57-38.97). Individuals with periodontitis had a 3.65 times higher odds of having any type of oral HPV infection compared with those without periodontitis (95% confidence interval 1.67-8.01). The overall body of evidence was rated as low to very-low certainty. CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis confirms there is a positive association between periodontitis and oral HPV infection, although the overall quality of this evidence is low. Evidence for an association between periodontitis and high-risk oral HPV infection is inconclusive.

10.
Gerontology ; 66(5): 447-459, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610336

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis - the pathophysiological mechanism shared by most cardiovascular diseases - can be directly or indirectly assessed by a variety of clinical tests including measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, -ankle-brachial index, pulse wave velocity, and coronary -artery calcium. The Prospective Studies of Atherosclerosis -(Proof-ATHERO) consortium (https://clinicalepi.i-med.ac.at/research/proof-athero/) collates de-identified individual-participant data of studies with information on atherosclerosis measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and incidence of cardiovascular diseases. It currently comprises 74 studies that involve 106,846 participants from 25 countries and over 40 cities. In summary, 21 studies recruited participants from the general population (n = 67,784), 16 from high-risk populations (n = 22,677), and 37 as part of clinical trials (n = 16,385). Baseline years of contributing studies range from April 1980 to July 2014; the latest follow-up was until June 2019. Mean age at baseline was 59 years (standard deviation: 10) and 50% were female. Over a total of 830,619 person-years of follow-up, 17,270 incident cardiovascular events (including coronary heart disease and stroke) and 13,270 deaths were recorded, corresponding to cumulative incidences of 2.1% and 1.6% per annum, respectively. The consortium is coordinated by the Clinical Epidemiology Team at the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria. Contributing studies undergo a detailed data cleaning and harmonisation procedure before being incorporated in the Proof-ATHERO central database. Statistical analyses are being conducted according to pre-defined analysis plans and use established methods for individual-participant data meta-analysis. Capitalising on its large sample size, the multi-institutional collaborative Proof-ATHERO consortium aims to better characterise, understand, and predict the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503229

RESUMO

Oral health inequalities reflect social injustice. This is because oral health simultaneously reflects material circumstances, access to health services and inequities across the life course. Oral health inequalities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations are among the largest in the world. This paper provides a critical commentary on Indigenous oral health inequalities at an international level based on existing literature and policies. We include the role of systematic and institutionalized racism and how this enables the persistence and flourishing of Indigenous oral health inequalities. We discuss theoretical frameworks-including Shiffman and Smith's Political Power Framework-that underpin the power constructs that contribute to those. This theory posits that power is exercised in four ways: (i) the power of ideas; (ii) the power of the issue; (iii) the power of the actors; and (iv) the power of the political context. We will demonstrate, using examples of Indigenous oral health inequalities from several countries, how intervening at key leverage points, acting simultaneously on multiple subsystems and counteracting the social determinants of health are crucial strategies for ameliorating Indigenous oral health inequalities at a global level.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Racismo , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Circulation ; 142(7): 621-642, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To quantify the association between effects of interventions on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) progression and their effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We systematically collated data from randomized, controlled trials. cIMT was assessed as the mean value at the common-carotid-artery; if unavailable, the maximum value at the common-carotid-artery or other cIMT measures were used. The primary outcome was a combined CVD end point defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization procedures, or fatal CVD. We estimated intervention effects on cIMT progression and incident CVD for each trial, before relating the 2 using a Bayesian meta-regression approach. RESULTS: We analyzed data of 119 randomized, controlled trials involving 100 667 patients (mean age 62 years, 42% female). Over an average follow-up of 3.7 years, 12 038 patients developed the combined CVD end point. Across all interventions, each 10 µm/y reduction of cIMT progression resulted in a relative risk for CVD of 0.91 (95% Credible Interval, 0.87-0.94), with an additional relative risk for CVD of 0.92 (0.87-0.97) being achieved independent of cIMT progression. Taken together, we estimated that interventions reducing cIMT progression by 10, 20, 30, or 40 µm/y would yield relative risks of 0.84 (0.75-0.93), 0.76 (0.67-0.85), 0.69 (0.59-0.79), or 0.63 (0.52-0.74), respectively. Results were similar when grouping trials by type of intervention, time of conduct, time to ultrasound follow-up, availability of individual-participant data, primary versus secondary prevention trials, type of cIMT measurement, and proportion of female patients. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of intervention effects on cIMT progression predicted the degree of CVD risk reduction. This provides a missing link supporting the usefulness of cIMT progression as a surrogate marker for CVD risk in clinical trials.

13.
Aust Dent J ; 65 Suppl 1: S40-S46, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of root caries in Australia is expected to increase due to an ageing population and increase in tooth retention. This report presents findings from the Australian National Study of Adult Oral Health 2017-18. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 15 731 Australians aged ≥15 years participated in a telephone or online survey. Of those, 5022 dentate people underwent an oral assessment. Carious root surfaces were defined as ≥1 mm of affected dentine/cementum. Prevalence was defined as the percentage with ≥one natural tooth with untreated caries on root surfaces. Severity was measured as the mean number of root surfaces with caries. RESULTS: Prevalence of untreated root caries in the Australian adult dentate population was 8.2% and increased with increasing age (range 2%-17.8%). Men (9.3%) compared to women (7.2%), people living in remote (18.0%) versus regional (9.3%) and major cities (7.6%), and those with the lowest household income (15.4%) compared to middle (7.6%) and highest tertile (3.2%) had untreated root caries. The average number of decayed or filled root surfaces in the Australian adult population was 1.1 (95% CI 0.9, 1.2). CONCLUSIONS: Root caries was associated with older age, living outside a major city and lower income.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Radicular , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Prevalência
14.
Aust Dent J ; 65 Suppl 1: S79-S84, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper examines oral hygiene behaviours (tooth brushing, mouthwash use and dental floss) by a range of explanatory variables. METHODS: Explanatory variables included age, sex, region, income, area-based SES, dental insurance and visiting pattern. The data reported were collected in the interview survey in NSAOH 2017-18. RESULTS: A higher percentage of females brushed with toothpaste at least daily (98.0%) and used floss in the last week (62.6%) than males (94.6% and 48.5% respectively). There was an income gradient in tooth brushing. Higher percentages brushed in the high income (96.8%) than middle (96.2%) and low-income tertiles (93.6%). A higher percentage of the high-income tertile (58.2%) flossed than the lower tertile (53.3%). Those with unfavourable visit patterns had lower percentages who brushed daily (92.7%) than the intermediate (96.7%) or favourable (98.2%) groups. There was a gradient in flossing by visiting, with a lower percentage flossing for the unfavourable visiting group (38.5%) than for the intermediate (52.8%) or favourable groups (67.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Oral hygiene behaviours were associated with gender, socioeconomic status and dental visiting. A higher percentage of women brushed and flossed than men. Lower socioeconomic status and those with unfavourable visiting patterns had lower frequencies of brushing and flossing.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Higiene Bucal , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Escovação Dentária
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(11): e1915611, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774519

RESUMO

Importance: For an intervention delivered in early childhood to have meaningful translational effect, long-term follow-up is necessary, especially among underserved indigenous children among whom preventable dental disease is common. Objectives: To test the long-term effectiveness of an early-childhood dental intervention through a follow-up at age 5 years among Aboriginal children in Australia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial followed up on participants of the Baby Teeth Talk Study, a 2-group parallel, outcome assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial conducted among Aboriginal children in South Australia, Australia. Participants included 448 mother or caregiver-child dyads who were enrolled in the Baby Teeth Talk trial between February 2010 and May 2011 and were randomized in the present trial to the immediate intervention group or the delayed intervention group. Intention-to-treat principles were used for all data analyses to estimate the effect of the intervention on dental caries experience. Data analysis was performed from April 10 to May 27, 2019. Interventions: The intervention comprised 4 services to participants: (1) dental care to mothers during pregnancy, (2) application of fluoride varnish to children's teeth, (3) anticipatory guidance in the form of oral health educational packages, and (4) motivational interviewing for pregnant mothers and children at ages 6, 12, and 18 months in the immediate intervention group and at ages 24, 30, and 36 months in the delayed intervention group. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the mean number, in the primary dentition, of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmft) at age 5 years. Individual components of the dmft index were examined, as was the prevalence of dmft greater than 0. Results: Of the 449 Aboriginal mothers and children recruited, 223 (49.7%) were randomized to the immediate intervention group and 225 (50.1%) to the delayed intervention group. The mean dmft at age 5 years was 2.10 (95% CI, 2.04 to 2.16) for children in the immediate intervention group and 2.91 (95% CI, 2.83 to 3.00) for children in the delayed intervention group (adjusted mean difference, -1.02; 95% CI, -1.81 to -0.22). When considering children in nonmetropolitan locations, the differences were stark; the mean dmft was 2.46 (95% CI, 2.38-2.54) for children in the immediate intervention group and 3.65 (95% CI, 3.53 to 3.78) for children in the delayed intervention group, with an adjusted mean difference of -1.52 (95% CI, -2.61 to -0.43). Most of this difference was accounted for by missing teeth, with the mean number of missing teeth of children in the immediate intervention group living in nonmetropolitan locations being 0.29 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.31) compared with 1.02 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07) for their counterparts in the delayed intervention group. A 3-fold difference was observed in the percentage of missing teeth greater than 0 between children in the immediate intervention group and those in the delayed intervention group (10.8 [95% CI, 10.2 to 11.4] vs 31.0 [95% CI, 30.1 to 31.8]). Conclusions and Relevance: This trial found that a multifaceted initiative to reduce early-childhood caries continued to be efficacious in participating indigenous children aged 5 years, especially those residing in nonmetropolitan locations and with teeth missing because of dental disease. Trial Registration: anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12611000111976.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Pré-Escolar , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Método Simples-Cego
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e190648, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874781

RESUMO

Importance: Testing the long-term usefulness of a childhood intervention and determining the best age of implementation are important for translation and policy change. Objectives: To investigate among children aged 3 years the long-term effectiveness an intervention that aimed to reduce dental caries among South Australian Aboriginal children and to assess if children in the delayed intervention (DI) group had any benefit from the intervention from ages 2 to 3 years and if the intervention usefulness was greater when delivered between pregnancy and age 2 years (immediate intervention [II] vs ages 2 to 3 years [DI]). Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. The study enrolled 448 pregnant women across South Australia, Australia, at baseline (February 1, 2011, to May 30, 2012), with 223 randomly allocated to the II group and 225 to the DI group. Three-year follow-up data were collected November 2014 to February 2016. Interventions: The intervention comprised dental treatment to mothers, fluoride varnish application to children, and motivational interviewing delivered together with anticipatory guidance. This was delivered during pregnancy and at child ages 6, 12, and 18 months for the II group and at child ages 24, 30, and 36 months for the DI group. Main Outcomes and Measures: The mean number of decayed teeth measured at child age 3 years. Results: There were 324 children at age 3 years (52.3% male). The mean number of decayed teeth at age 3 years was 1.44 (95% CI, 1.38-1.50) for the II group and 1.86 (95% CI, 1.89-2.03) for the DI group (mean difference, -0.41; 95% CI, -0.52 to -0.10). The predicted mean number of decayed teeth at age 3 years for the DI group was 2.15. Between ages 2 and 3 years, the caries increment for the II group was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.89), compared with 0.97 (95% CI, 0.87-1.17) for the DI group (P = .05). Conclusions and Relevance: At the 3-year follow-up, II children had less dental caries than DI children, DI children developed dental caries at a lower trajectory than predicted had the intervention not been received at ages 2 to 3 years, and the caries increment was less between ages 2 to 3 years among II children compared with DI children. This study suggests that the best time to implement the intervention is earlier rather than later infancy. Trial Registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Ideintifier: ACTRN12611000111976.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Austrália , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 24(2): 202-212, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359889

RESUMO

AIM: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney failure is increasing globally and evidence from observational studies suggest periodontal disease may contribute to kidney functional decline. METHODS: Electronic searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases were conducted for the purposes of conducting a systematic review. Hand searching of reference lists was also performed. Meta-analysis of observational studies involving periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease in adults was performed. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies was selected from an initial 4055 abstracts. Pooled estimates indicated the odds of having CKD were 60% higher among patients with periodontitis: pooled OR 1.60 (95% CI 1.44-1.79, I2 35.2%, P = 0.11) compared to those without. Conversely, a similar magnitude but non-significant higher odds of having periodontal disease was found among people with CKD 1.69 (95% CI: 0.84, 3.40, I2 = 89.8%, P < 0.00) versus non-CKD. Meta-regression revealed study quality based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and statistical adjustment for potential confounders explained almost 35% of the heterogeneity in the studies investigating the association between CKD and periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate evidence for a positive association between periodontitis and CKD exists. Evidence for the opposite direction is extremely weak based on significant heterogeneity between studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Clin Periodontol ; 45(12): 1408-1420, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394558

RESUMO

AIMS: To comprehensively review, identify and critically assess the performance of models predicting the incidence and progression of periodontitis. METHODS: Electronic searches of the MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, DOSS, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest databases, and hand searching of reference lists and citations were conducted. No date or language restrictions were used. The Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies checklist was followed when extracting data and appraising the selected studies. RESULTS: Of the 2,560 records, five studies with 12 prediction models and three risk assessment studies were included. The prediction models showed great heterogeneity precluding meta-analysis. Eight criteria were identified for periodontitis incidence and progression. Four models from one study examined the incidence, while others assessed progression. Age, smoking and diabetes status were common predictors used in modelling. Only two studies reported external validation. Predictive performance of the models (discrimination and calibration) was unable to be fully assessed or compared quantitatively. Nevertheless, most models had "good" ability to discriminate between people at risk for periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: Existing predictive modelling approaches were identified. However, no studies followed the recommended methodology, and almost all models were characterized by a generally poor level of reporting.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Incidência , MEDLINE , Medição de Risco
19.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 167(2): 423-437, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159882

RESUMO

Nearly all Indigenous populations today suffer from worse health than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and despite interventions against known factors, this health "gap" has not improved. The human microbiome-the beneficial, diverse microbial communities that live on and within the human body-is a crucial component in developing and maintaining normal physiological health. Disrupting this ecosystem has repercussions for microbial functionality, and thus, human health. In this article, we propose that modern-day Indigenous population health may suffer from disrupted microbial ecosystems as a consequence of historical colonialism. Colonialism may have interrupted the established relationships between the environment, traditional lifeways, and microbiomes, altering the Indigenous microbiome with detrimental health consequences.


Assuntos
Colonialismo , Disbiose/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Saúde Pública , Dieta/etnologia , Humanos , Mudança Social
20.
EClinicalMedicine ; 1: 43-50, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193658

RESUMO

Background: Dental disease has far-reaching impacts on child health and wellbeing. We worked with Aboriginal Australian communities to develop a multifaceted oral health promotion initiative to reduce children's experience of dental disease at age 2 years. Methods: This was a single-blind, parallel-arm, randomised controlled trial. Participants were recruited from health service providers across South Australia. Women pregnant with an Aboriginal child were eligible. The intervention comprised: (1) provision of dental care to mothers during pregnancy; (2) application of fluoride varnish to teeth of children at ages 6, 12 and 18 months; (3) motivational interviewing delivered in conjunction with; (4) anticipatory guidance. The primary outcome was untreated dental decay as assessed by the number of teeth with cavitated and non-cavitated carious lesions (mean dt) at child age 24 months. Analyses followed intention-to-treat principles. The RCT was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12611000111976. Findings: Women (n = 448) were recruited from February 2011 to May 2012, resulting in 223 children in the treatment group and 225 in the control. Mean dt at age two years was 0.62 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.65) for the intervention group and 0.89 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.92) for the control group (mean difference - 0.27 (95% CI - 0.31, - 0.22)). Interpretation: A culturally-appropriate intervention at four time-points from pregnancy through to 18-months resulted in improvements in the oral health of Aboriginal children. Further consultation with Aboriginal communities is essential for understanding how to best sustain these oral health improvements for young Aboriginal children.

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