*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(29): e2202496119, 2022 Jul 19.*

##### RESUMO

Resistivity saturation is found on both superconducting and insulating sides of an "avoided" magnetic-field-tuned superconductor-to-insulator transition (H-SIT) in a two-dimensional In/InOx composite, where the anomalous metallic behavior cuts off conductivity or resistivity divergence in the zero-temperature limit. The granular morphology of the material implies a system of Josephson junctions (JJs) with a broad distribution of Josephson coupling EJ and charging energy EC, with an H-SIT determined by the competition between EJ and EC. By virtue of self-duality across the true H-SIT, we invoke macroscopic quantum tunneling effects to explain the temperature-independent resistance where the "failed superconductor" side is a consequence of phase fluctuations and the "failed insulator" side results from charge fluctuations. While true self-duality is lost in the avoided transition, its vestiges are argued to persist, owing to the incipient duality of the percolative nature of the dissipative path in the underlying random JJ system.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(13)2022 Jan 20.*

##### RESUMO

Experiments investigating magnetic-field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition (HSIT) mostly focus on two-dimensional material systems where the transition and its proximate ground-state phases, often exhibit features that are seemingly at odds with the expected behavior. Here we present a complementary study of a three-dimensional pressure-packed amorphous indium-oxide (InOx) powder where granularity controls the HSIT. Above a low threshold pressure of â¼0.2 GPa, vestiges of superconductivity are detected, although neither a true superconducting transition nor insulating behavior are observed. Instead, a saturation at very high resistivity at low pressure is followed by saturation at very low resistivity at higher pressure. We identify both as different manifestations of anomalous metallic phases dominated by superconducting fluctuations. By analogy with previous identification of the low resistance saturation as a 'failed superconductor', our data suggests that the very high resistance saturation is a manifestation of a 'failed insulator'. Above a threshold pressure of â¼6 GPa, the sample becomes fully packed, and superconductivity is robust, withTCtunable with pressure. A quantum critical point atPCâ¼ 25 GPa marks the complete suppression of superconductivity. For a finite pressure belowPC, a magnetic field is shown to induce a HSIT from a true zero-resistance superconducting state to a weakly insulating behavior. Determining the critical field,HC, we show that similar to the 2D behavior, the insulating-like state maintains a superconducting character, which is quenched at higher field, above which the magnetoresistance decreases to its fermionic normal state value.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(7): 077001, 2021 Feb 19.*

##### RESUMO

A liquid of superconducting vortices generates a transverse thermoelectric response. This Nernst signal has a tail deep in the normal state due to superconducting fluctuations. Here, we present a study of the Nernst effect in two-dimensional heterostructures of Nb-doped strontium titanate (STO) and in amorphous MoGe. The Nernst signal generated by ephemeral Cooper pairs above the critical temperature has the magnitude expected by theory in STO. On the other hand, the peak amplitude of the vortex Nernst signal below T_{c} is comparable in both and in numerous other superconductors despite the large distribution of the critical temperature and the critical magnetic fields. In four superconductors belonging to different families, the maximum Nernst signal corresponds to an entropy per vortex per layer of ≈k_{B}ln2.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(2)2021 Jan 12.*

##### RESUMO

The magnetic-field-tuned superconductor-to-insulator transition was studied in a hybrid system of superconducting indium islands, deposited on an indium oxide (InOx) thin film, which exhibits global superconductivity at low magnetic fields. Vacuum annealing was used to tune the conductivity of the InOx film, thereby tuning the inergrain coupling and the nature of the transition. The hybrid system exhibits a "giant" magnetoresistance above the magnetic-field-tuned superconductor-to-insulator transition (H-SIT), with critical behavior similar to that of uniform InOx films but at much lower magnetic fields, that manifests the duality between Cooper pairs and vortices. A key feature of this hybrid system is the separation between the quantum criticality and the onset of nonequilibrium behavior.

*Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(4): 045001, 2020 Apr 01.*

##### RESUMO

We present the first measurements of Hall conductivity utilizing a torque magnetometry method. A Corbino disk exhibits a magnetic dipole moment proportional to Hall conductivity when voltage is applied across a test material. This magnetic dipole moment can be measured through torque magnetometry. The symmetry of this contactless technique allows for the measurement of Hall conductivity in previously inaccessible materials. Finally, we calculate a low-temperature noise bound, demonstrate the lack of systematic errors, and measure the Hall conductivity of sputtered indium tin oxide.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(40): 19869-19874, 2019 Oct 01.*

##### RESUMO

Analyses of thermal diffusivity data on complex insulators and on strongly correlated electron systems hosted in similar complex crystal structures suggest that quantum chaos is a good description for thermalization processes in these systems, particularly in the high-temperature regime where the many phonon bands and their interactions dominate the thermal transport. Here we observe that for these systems diffusive thermal transport is controlled by a universal Planckian timescale [Formula: see text] and a unique velocity [Formula: see text] Specifically, [Formula: see text] for complex insulators, and [Formula: see text] in the presence of strongly correlated itinerant electrons ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are the phonon and electron velocities, respectively). For the complex correlated electron systems we further show that charge diffusivity, while also reaching the Planckian relaxation bound, is largely dominated by the Fermi velocity of the electrons, hence suggesting that it is only the thermal (energy) diffusivity that describes chaos diffusivity.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(40): 405702, 2019 Oct 09.*

##### RESUMO

It has been known for decades that thermal conductivity of insulating crystals becomes proportional to the inverse of temperature when the latter is comparable to, or higher than, the Debye temperature. This behavior has been understood as resulting from Umklapp scattering among phonons. We put under scrutiny the magnitude of the thermal diffusion constant in this regime and find that it does not fall below a threshold set by the square of sound velocity times the Planckian time ([Formula: see text]). The conclusion, based on scrutinizing the ratio in cubic crystals with high thermal resistivity, appears to hold even in glasses where Umklapp events are not conceivable. Explaining this boundary, reminiscent of a recently-noticed limit for charge transport in metals, is a challenge to theory.

*Sci Adv ; 4(4): eaaq0330, 2018 04.*

##### RESUMO

Bismuth, one of the heaviest semimetals in nature, ignited the interest of the materials physics community for its potential impact on topological quantum material systems that use its strong spin-orbit coupling and unique orbital hybridization. In particular, recent theoretical predictions of unique topological and superconducting properties of thin bismuth films and interfaces prompted intense research on the growth of submonolayers to a few monolayers of bismuth on different substrates. Similar to bulk rhombohedral bismuth, the initial growth of bismuth films on most substrates results in buckled bilayers that grow in either the (111) or (110) directions, with a lattice constant close to that of bulk Bi. By contrast, we show a new growth pattern for bismuth monolayers on NbSe2. We find that the initial growth of Bi can form a strongly bonded commensurate layer, resulting in a compressively strained two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattice. We also observed unique pattern of 1D ripples and domain walls is observed. The single layer of bismuth also introduces strong marks on the electronic properties at the surface.

*Sci Adv ; 3(9): e1700612, 2017 09.*

##### RESUMO

Electrons confined to two dimensions display an unexpected diversity of behaviors as they are cooled to absolute zero. Noninteracting electrons are predicted to eventually "localize" into an insulating ground state, and it has long been supposed that electron correlations stabilize only one other phase: superconductivity. However, many two-dimensional (2D) superconducting materials have shown surprising evidence for metallic behavior, where the electrical resistivity saturates in the zero-temperature limit; the nature of this unexpected metallic state remains under intense scrutiny. We report electrical transport properties for two disordered 2D superconductors, indium oxide and tantalum nitride, and observe a magnetic field-tuned transition from a true superconductor to a metallic phase with saturated resistivity. This metallic phase is characterized by a vanishing Hall resistivity, suggesting that it retains particle-hole symmetry from the disrupted superconducting state.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(21): 5378-5383, 2017 05 23.*

##### RESUMO

The thermal diffusivity in the [Formula: see text] plane of underdoped YBCO crystals is measured by means of a local optical technique in the temperature range of 25-300 K. The phase delay between a point heat source and a set of detection points around it allows for high-resolution measurement of the thermal diffusivity and its in-plane anisotropy. Although the magnitude of the diffusivity may suggest that it originates from phonons, its anisotropy is comparable with reported values of the electrical resistivity anisotropy. Furthermore, the anisotropy drops sharply below the charge order transition, again similar to the electrical resistivity anisotropy. Both of these observations suggest that the thermal diffusivity has pronounced electronic as well as phononic character. At the same time, the small electrical and thermal conductivities at high temperatures imply that neither well-defined electron nor phonon quasiparticles are present in this material. We interpret our results through a strongly interacting incoherent electron-phonon "soup" picture characterized by a diffusion constant [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the soup velocity, and scattering of both electrons and phonons saturates a quantum thermal relaxation time [Formula: see text].

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(2): 280-5, 2016 Jan 12.*

##### RESUMO

We combine measurements of the longitudinal (ρxx) and Hall (ρxy) resistivities of disordered 2D amorphous indium-oxide films to study the magnetic-field tuned superconductor-to-insulator transition (H-SIT) in the T --> 0 limit. At the critical field, Hc, the full resistivity tensor is T independent with ρxx(Hc) = h/4e(2) and ρxy(Hc) = 0 within experimental uncertainty in all films (i.e., these appear to be "universal" values); this is strongly suggestive that there is a particle-vortex self-duality at H = Hc. The transition separates the (presumably) superconducting state at H < Hc from a "Hall-insulator" phase in which ρxx --> ∞ as T --> 0 whereas ρxy approaches a nonzero value smaller than its "classical value" H/nec; i.e., 0 < ρxy < H/nec. A still higher characteristic magnetic field, Hc* > Hc, at which the Hall resistance is T independent and roughly equal to its classical value, ρxy ≈ H/nec, marks an additional crossover to a high-field regime (probably to a Fermi insulator) in which ρxy > H/nec and possibly diverges as T --> 0. We also highlight a profound analogy between the H-SIT and quantum-Hall liquid-to-insulator transitions (QHIT).

*Rev Sci Instrum ; 85(10): 103707, 2014 Oct.*

##### RESUMO

The Sagnac Interferometer has historically been used for detecting non-reciprocal phenomena, such as rotation. We demonstrate an apparatus in which this technique is employed for high resolution measurements of the Magneto-Optical Polar Kerr effect-a direct indicator of magnetism. Previous designs have incorporated free-space components which are bulky and difficult to align. We improve upon this technique by using all fiber-optic coupled components and demonstrate operation at a new wavelength, 820 nm, with which we can achieve better than 1 µrad resolution. Mounting the system on a piezo-electric scanner allows us to acquire diffraction limited images with 1.5 µm spatial resolution. We also provide extensive discussion on the details and of the Sagnac Interferometer's construction.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 97(16): 167002, 2006 Oct 20.*

##### RESUMO

The polar Kerr effect in the spin-triplet superconductor Sr2RuO4 was measured with high precision using a Sagnac interferometer with a zero-area Sagnac loop. We observed nonzero Kerr rotations as big as 65 nanorad appearing below Tc in large domains. Our results imply a broken time-reversal symmetry state in the superconducting state of Sr2RuO4, similar to 3He-A.