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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091803

RESUMO

Mutations in CEP290 encoding a centrosomal protein important to cilia formation cause a spectrum of diseases, from isolated retinal dystrophies to multivisceral and sometimes embryo-lethal ciliopathies. In recent years, endogenous and/or selective non-canonical exon skipping of mutant exons have been documented in attenuated retinal disease cases. This observation led us to consider targeted exon skipping to bypass protein truncation resulting from a recurrent mutation in exon 36 (c.4723A > T, p.Lys1575*) causing isolated retinal ciliopathy. Here, we report two unrelated individuals (P1 and P2), carrying the mutation in homozygosity but affected with early-onset severe retinal dystrophy and congenital blindness, respectively. Studying skin-derived fibroblasts, we observed basal skipping and nonsense associated-altered splicing of exon 36, producing low (P1) and very low (P2) levels of CEP290 products. Consistent with a more severe disease, fibroblasts from P2 exhibited reduced ciliation compared to P1 cells displaying normally abundant cilia; both lines presented however significantly elongated cilia, suggesting altered axonemal trafficking. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs)-mediated skipping of exon 36 increased the abundance of the premature termination codon (PTC)-free mRNA and protein, reduced axonemal length and improved cilia formation in P2 but not in P1 expressing higher levels of skipped mRNA, questioning AON-mediated exon skipping to treat patients carrying the recurrent c.4723A > T mutation.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771326

RESUMO

CEP290 mutations cause a spectrum of ciliopathies from Leber congenital amaurosis type 10 (LCA10) to embryo-lethal Meckel syndrome (MKS). Using panel-based molecular diagnosis testing for inherited retinal diseases, we identified two individuals with some preserved vision despite biallelism for presumably truncating CEP290 mutations. The first one carried a homozygous 1 base-pair deletion in exon 17, introducing a premature termination codon (PTC) in exon 18 (c.1666del; p.Ile556Phefs*17). mRNA analysis revealed a basal exon skipping (BES) of exon 18, providing mutant cells with the ability to escape protein truncation, while disrupting the reading frame in controls. The second individual harbored compound heterozygous nonsense mutations in exon 8 (c.508A>T, p.Lys170*) and exon 32 (c.4090G>T, p.Glu1364*), respectively. Some CEP290 lacking exon 8 were detected in mutant fibroblasts but not in controls whereas some skipping of exon 32 occurred in both lines, but with higher amplitude in the mutant. Considering that the deletion of either exon maintains the reading frame in either line, skipping in mutant cells likely involves nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS) alone (exon 8), or with BES (exon 32). Skipping of PTC-containing exons in mutant cells allowed production of CEP290 isoforms with preserved ability to assemble into a high molecular weight complex and to interact efficiently with proteins important for cilia formation and intraflagellar trafficking. In contrast, studying LCA10 and MKS fibroblasts we show moderate to severe cilia alterations, providing support for a correlation between disease severity and the ability of cells to express shortened, yet functional, CEP290 isoforms.

4.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(7): 598-602, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The RTTN gene encodes Rotatin, a large centrosomal protein involved in ciliary functions. RTTN mutations have been reported in seven families and are associated with two phenotypes: polymicrogyria associated with seizures and primary microcephaly associated with primordial dwarfism. CASE: A targeted exome sequencing of morbid genes causing cerebral malformations identified novel RTTN compound heterozygous mutations in a family where three pregnancies were terminated because a severe fetal microcephaly was diagnosed. An autopsy performed on the second sib showed moderate growth restriction and a microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern. The histopathological study discovered a malformed cortical plate. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the involvement of RTTN gene mutations in microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern and describes the observed abnormal neuropathological findings.

5.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(1): 105-113, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181510

RESUMO

Importance: Neurologic disorders with isolated symptoms or complex syndromes are relatively frequent among mitochondrial inherited diseases. Recessive RTN4IP1 gene mutations have been shown to cause isolated and syndromic optic neuropathies. Objective: To define the spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with mutations in RTN4IP1 encoding a mitochondrial quinone oxidoreductase. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study involved 12 individuals from 11 families with severe central nervous system diseases and optic atrophy. Targeted and whole-exome sequencing were performed-at Hospital Angers (France), Institute of Neurology Milan (Italy), Imagine Institute Paris (France), Helmoltz Zentrum of Munich (Germany), and Beijing Genomics Institute (China)-to clarify the molecular diagnosis of patients. Each patient's neurologic, ophthalmologic, magnetic resonance imaging, and biochemical features were investigated. This study was conducted from May 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Recessive mutations in RTN4IP1 were identified. Clinical presentations ranged from isolated optic atrophy to severe encephalopathies. Results: Of the 12 individuals in the study, 6 (50%) were male and 6 (50%) were female. They ranged in age from 5 months to 32 years. Of the 11 families, 6 (5 of whom were consanguineous) had a member or members who presented isolated optic atrophy with the already reported p.Arg103His or the novel p.Ile362Phe, p.Met43Ile, and p.Tyr51Cys amino acid changes. The 5 other families had a member or members who presented severe neurologic syndromes with a common core of symptoms, including optic atrophy, seizure, intellectual disability, growth retardation, and elevated lactate levels. Additional clinical features of those affected were deafness, abnormalities on magnetic resonance images of the brain, stridor, and abnormal electroencephalographic patterns, all of which eventually led to death before age 3 years. In these patients, novel and very rare homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations were identified that led to the absence of the protein and complex I disassembly as well as mild mitochondrial network fragmentation. Conclusions and Relevance: A broad clinical spectrum of neurologic features, ranging from isolated optic atrophy to severe early-onset encephalopathies, is associated with RTN4IP1 biallelic mutations and should prompt RTN4IP1 screening in both syndromic neurologic presentations and nonsyndromic recessive optic neuropathies.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 1006-1012, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198720

RESUMO

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a neurodegenerative disease of photoreceptor cells that causes blindness within the first year of life. It occasionally occurs in syndromic metabolic diseases and plurisystemic ciliopathies. Using exome sequencing in a multiplex family and three simplex case subjects with an atypical association of LCA with early-onset hearing loss, we identified two heterozygous mutations affecting Arg391 in ß-tubulin 4B isotype-encoding (TUBB4B). Inspection of the atomic structure of the microtubule (MT) protofilament reveals that the ß-tubulin Arg391 residue contributes to a binding pocket that interacts with α-tubulin contained in the longitudinally adjacent αß-heterodimer, consistent with a role in maintaining MT stability. Functional analysis in cultured cells overexpressing FLAG-tagged wild-type or mutant TUBB4B as well as in primary skin-derived fibroblasts showed that the mutant TUBB4B is able to fold, form αß-heterodimers, and co-assemble into the endogenous MT lattice. However, the dynamics of growing MTs were consistently altered, showing that the mutations have a significant dampening impact on normal MT growth. Our findings provide a link between sensorineural disease and anomalies in MT behavior and describe a syndromic LCA unrelated to ciliary dysfunction.


Assuntos
Amaurose Congênita de Leber/genética , Microtúbulos/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adulto , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
Brain ; 140(10): 2586-2596, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969390

RESUMO

Dominant optic atrophy is a blinding disease due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells, the axons of which form the optic nerves. In most cases, the disease is caused by mutations in OPA1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial large GTPase involved in cristae structure and mitochondrial network fusion. Using exome sequencing, we identified dominant mutations in DNM1L on chromosome 12p11.21 in three large families with isolated optic atrophy, including the two families that defined the OPA5 locus on chromosome 19q12.1-13.1, the existence of which is denied by the present study. Analyses of patient fibroblasts revealed physiological abundance and homo-polymerization of DNM1L, forming aggregates in the cytoplasm and on highly tubulated mitochondrial network, whereas neither structural difference of the peroxisome network, nor alteration of the respiratory machinery was noticed. Fluorescence microscopy of wild-type mouse retina disclosed a strong DNM1L expression in the ganglion cell layer and axons, and comparison between 3-month-old wild-type and Dnm1l+/- mice revealed increased mitochondrial length in retinal ganglion cell soma and axon, but no degeneration. Thus, our results disclose that in addition to OPA1, OPA3, MFN2, AFG3L2 and SPG7, dominant mutations in DNM1L jeopardize the integrity of the optic nerve, suggesting that alterations of the opposing forces governing mitochondrial fusion and fission, similarly affect retinal ganglion cell survival.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/genética , Peroxissomos/patologia , Retina/patologia , Retina/ultraestrutura
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 630-637, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965846

RESUMO

Hearing loss and visual impairment in childhood have mostly genetic origins, some of them being related to sensorial neuronal defects. Here, we report on eight subjects from four independent families affected by auditory neuropathy and optic atrophy. Whole-exome sequencing revealed biallelic mutations in FDXR in affected subjects of each family. FDXR encodes the mitochondrial ferredoxin reductase, the sole human ferredoxin reductase implicated in the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) and in heme formation. ISC proteins are involved in enzymatic catalysis, gene expression, and DNA replication and repair. We observed deregulated iron homeostasis in FDXR mutant fibroblasts and indirect evidence of mitochondrial iron overload. Functional complementation in a yeast strain in which ARH1, the human FDXR ortholog, was deleted established the pathogenicity of these mutations. These data highlight the wide clinical heterogeneity of mitochondrial disorders related to ISC synthesis.


Assuntos
Ferredoxina-NADP Redutase/genética , Perda Auditiva Central/genética , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Ferredoxina-NADP Redutase/química , Ferredoxina-NADP Redutase/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Perda Auditiva Central/enzimologia , Perda Auditiva Central/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Atrofia Óptica/enzimologia , Atrofia Óptica/patologia , Linhagem , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 30(6): 563-570, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640947

RESUMO

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), first described in 1959, is a rare form of syndromic oculocutaneous albinism associated with bleeding diathesis and in some cases pulmonary fibrosis and granulomatous colitis. All 10 HPS types are caused by defects in vesicle trafficking of lysosome-related organelles (LRO) proteins. The HPS5 protein associates with HPS3 and HPS6 to form the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-2 (BLOC-2). Here, we report the clinical and genetic data of 11 patients with HPS-5 analyzed in our laboratory. We report 11 new pathogenic variants. The 11 patients present with ocular features that are typical for albinism, with mild hypopigmentation, and with no other major complication, apart from a tendency to bleed. HPS-5 therefore appears as a mild form of HPS, which is often clinically undistinguishable from mild oculocutaneous or ocular forms of albinism. Molecular analysis is therefore required to establish the diagnosis of this mild HPS form, which has consequences in terms of prognosis and of clinical management of the patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/genética , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541266

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the phenotype and genotype of a 10-year-old boy affected with enhanced S-cone syndrome associated with neovascularization. METHODS: Fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, full-field electroretinogram and NR2E3 molecular testing were performed. RESULTS: Best-corrected visual acuity was measured as 20/32, right eye and 20/20, left eye. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies showed unilateral macular retinochoroidal anastomosis on his right eye, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed typical signs of subretinal exudation and foveolar pseudoschisis consistent with the diagnosis of enhanced S-cone syndrome. Genetic analysis revealed biparental transmission of mutations in the enhanced S-cone syndrome-causing gene, NR2E3, namely, c.194_202del (p.Asn65_Cys67del), and c.932 G>A (p.Arg311Gln), supporting an autosomal recessive inheritance. The patient received three intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. CONCLUSION: Evidence of retinochoroidal anastomosis in an individual affected with enhanced S-cone syndrome supports the view that neovascularization can occur early in the course of the disease, and raises the question to know whether it might be responsible for previously described enhanced S-cone syndrome-associated hemorrhage-induced fibrosis.

11.
J Med Genet ; 54(5): 346-356, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28031252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-syndromic hereditary optic neuropathy (HON) has been ascribed to mutations in mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics genes, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory enzyme genes or nuclear genes of poorly known mitochondrial function. However, the disease causing gene remains unknown in many families. The objective of the present study was to identify the molecular cause of non-syndromic LHON-like disease in siblings born to non-consanguineous parents of French origin. METHODS: We used a combination of genetic analysis (gene mapping and whole-exome sequencing) in a multiplex family of non-syndromic HON and of functional analyses in patient-derived cultured skin fibroblasts and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. RESULTS: We identified compound heterozygote NDUFS2 disease-causing mutations (p.Tyr53Cys; p.Tyr308Cys). Studies using patient-derived cultured skin fibroblasts revealed mildly decreased NDUFS2 and complex I abundance but apparently normal respiratory chain activity. In the yeast Y. lipolytica ortholog NUCM, the mutations resulted in absence of complex I and moderate reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Biallelism for NDUFS2 mutations causing severe complex I deficiency has been previously reported to cause Leigh syndrome with optic neuropathy. Our results are consistent with the view that compound heterozygosity for severe and hypomorphic NDUFS2 mutations can cause non-syndromic HON. This observation suggests a direct correlation between the severity of NDUFS2 mutations and that of the disease and further support that there exist a genetic overlap between non-syndromic and syndromic HON due to defective mitochondrial function.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Atrofia Óptica Hereditária de Leber/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Sequência Conservada/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/química , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Haplótipos/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , NADH Desidrogenase/química , Oftalmoscopia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Yarrowia/metabolismo
12.
Retin Cases Brief Rep ; 11(3): 221-226, 2017 Summer.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27203561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a patient with mutations in KCNJ13 presenting particular clinical features. METHODS: Standard ophthalmic examination, fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, full-field electroretinography. The 3 exons of KCNJ13 were polymerase chain reaction amplified and Sanger sequenced. PATIENTS: A 31-year-old man with Leber congenital amaurosis. RESULTS: Patient had nystagmus since childhood, best-corrected visual acuity limited to 20/400 OD and 20/200 OS, and had cataracts extracted in both eyes. There were clumpy pigment deposits mostly in macular area, causing an uneven line of retinal pigment epithelium on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. In retinal parts devoid of pigment deposits around the optic disk and in periphery, retinal thickness was increased and hyperreflective formations were present either in the inner nuclear layer or in the outer nuclear layer. The patient was compound heterozygous for new mutations in KCNJ13 which encodes the Kir 7.1 potassium channel, c.314G>T (p.Ser105Ile) in exon 2 and c.655C>T (p.Gln219*) in exon 3. Both mutations were absent from databases. CONCLUSION: KCNJ13 mutations are responsible for early-onset retinal dystrophy, featuring remarkable clumpy pigment deposits at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium, suggesting dysfunction and disorganization of this tissue. Parts of the retina remain relatively preserved anatomically but are increased in thickness. This distinct fundus appearance should help in identifying the "KCNJ13 retinal dystrophy" to orient the molecular diagnosis.


Assuntos
Amaurose Congênita de Leber/genética , Mutação , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Adulto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Amaurose Congênita de Leber/complicações , Amaurose Congênita de Leber/metabolismo , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/diagnóstico , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(7): 1895-8, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103084

RESUMO

Anophthalmia and microphthalmia are the most severe malformations of the eye, referring to a congenital absence, and a reduced size of the eyeball respectively. More than 20 genes have been shown to be mutated in patients with syndromic and non-syndromic forms of anophthalmia-microphthalmia. In a recent study combining autozygome and exome analysis, a homozygous loss of function mutation in TENM3 (previously named ODZ3) was reported in two siblings with isolated bilateral colobomatous microphthalmia from a consanguineous Saudi family. Herein, we report a third patient (not related to the previously reported family) with bilateral colobomatous microphthalmia and developmental delay in whom genetic studies identified a homozygous TENM3 splicing mutation c.2968-2A>T (p.Val990Cysfs*13). This report supports the association of TENM3 mutations with colobomatous microphthalmia and expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in this gene. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/genética , Coloboma/genética , Opacidade da Córnea/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Encefalopatias Metabólicas Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Criança , Coloboma/fisiopatologia , Opacidade da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Microftalmia/fisiopatologia , Mutação
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 971-980, 2016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108797

RESUMO

Gillespie syndrome (GS) is a rare variant form of aniridia characterized by non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability, and iris hypoplasia. Unlike the more common dominant and sporadic forms of aniridia, there has been no significant association with PAX6 mutations in individuals with GS and the mode of inheritance of the disease had long been regarded as uncertain. Using a combination of trio-based whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing in five simplex GS-affected families, we found homozygous or compound heterozygous truncating mutations (c.4672C>T [p.Gln1558(∗)], c.2182C>T [p.Arg728(∗)], c.6366+3A>T [p.Gly2102Valfs5(∗)], and c.6664+5G>T [p.Ala2221Valfs23(∗)]) and de novo heterozygous mutations (c.7687_7689del [p.Lys2563del] and c.7659T>G [p.Phe2553Leu]) in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 gene (ITPR1). ITPR1 encodes one of the three members of the IP3-receptors family that form Ca(2+) release channels localized predominantly in membranes of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. The truncation mutants, which encompass the IP3-binding domain and varying lengths of the modulatory domain, did not form functional channels when produced in a heterologous cell system. Furthermore, ITPR1 p.Lys2563del mutant did not form IP3-induced Ca(2+) channels but exerted a negative effect when co-produced with wild-type ITPR1 channel activity. In total, these results demonstrate biallelic and monoallelic ITPR1 mutations as the underlying genetic defects for Gillespie syndrome, further extending the spectrum of ITPR1-related diseases.


Assuntos
Aniridia/etiologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/etiologia , Genes Dominantes/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Aniridia/patologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Linhagem
16.
Genome Res ; 26(4): 474-85, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26893459

RESUMO

Ocular developmental anomalies (ODA) such as anophthalmia/microphthalmia (AM) or anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) have an estimated combined prevalence of 3.7 in 10,000 births. Mutations in SOX2 are the most frequent contributors to severe ODA, yet account for a minority of the genetic drivers. To identify novel ODA loci, we conducted targeted high-throughput sequencing of 407 candidate genes in an initial cohort of 22 sporadic ODA patients. Patched 1 (PTCH1), an inhibitor of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, harbored an enrichment of rare heterozygous variants in comparison to either controls, or to the other candidate genes (four missense and one frameshift); targeted resequencing of PTCH1 in a second cohort of 48 ODA patients identified two additional rare nonsynonymous changes. Using multiple transient models and a CRISPR/Cas9-generated mutant, we show physiologically relevant phenotypes altering SHH signaling and eye development upon abrogation of ptch1 in zebrafish for which in vivo complementation assays using these models showed that all six patient missense mutations affect SHH signaling. Finally, through transcriptomic and ChIP analyses, we show that SOX2 binds to an intronic domain of the PTCH1 locus to regulate PTCH1 expression, findings that were validated both in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results demonstrate that PTCH1 mutations contribute to as much as 10% of ODA, identify the SHH signaling pathway as a novel effector of SOX2 activity during human ocular development, and indicate that ODA is likely the result of overactive SHH signaling in humans harboring mutations in either PTCH1 or SOX2.


Assuntos
Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Anormalidades do Olho/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Receptor Patched-1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Loci Gênicos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Receptor Patched-1/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(7): 992-1000, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626311

RESUMO

Heterozygous COL2A1 variants cause a wide spectrum of skeletal dysplasia termed type II collagenopathies. We assessed the impact of this gene in our French series. A decision tree was applied to select 136 probands (71 Stickler cases, 21 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita cases, 11 Kniest dysplasia cases, and 34 other dysplasia cases) before molecular diagnosis by Sanger sequencing. We identified 66 different variants among the 71 positive patients. Among those patients, 18 belonged to multiplex families and 53 were sporadic. Most variants (38/44, 86%) were located in the triple helical domain of the collagen chain and glycine substitutions were mainly observed in severe phenotypes, whereas arginine to cysteine changes were more often encountered in moderate phenotypes. This series of skeletal dysplasia is one of the largest reported so far, adding 44 novel variants (15%) to published data. We have confirmed that about half of our Stickler patients (46%) carried a COL2A1 variant, and that the molecular spectrum was different across the phenotypes. To further address the question of genotype-phenotype correlation, we plan to screen our patients for other candidate genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Artrite/genética , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Descolamento Retiniano/genética , Artrite/patologia , Doenças do Colágeno/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/química , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Descolamento Retiniano/patologia
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(5): 754-60, 2015 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26593267

RESUMO

Autosomal-recessive optic neuropathies are rare blinding conditions related to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and optic-nerve degeneration, for which only mutations in TMEM126A and ACO2 are known. In four families with early-onset recessive optic neuropathy, we identified mutations in RTN4IP1, which encodes a mitochondrial ubiquinol oxydo-reductase. RTN4IP1 is a partner of RTN4 (also known as NOGO), and its ortholog Rad8 in C. elegans is involved in UV light response. Analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals with a RTN4IP1 mutation showed loss of the altered protein, a deficit of mitochondrial respiratory complex I and IV activities, and increased susceptibility to UV light. Silencing of RTN4IP1 altered the number and morphogenesis of mouse RGC dendrites in vitro and the eye size, neuro-retinal development, and swimming behavior in zebrafish in vivo. Altogether, these data point to a pathophysiological mechanism responsible for RGC early degeneration and optic neuropathy and linking RTN4IP1 functions to mitochondrial physiology, response to UV light, and dendrite growth during eye maturation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/genética , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Degeneração Neural , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
19.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 4: e250, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26325627

RESUMO

Leber congenital amaurosis is a severe hereditary retinal dystrophy responsible for neonatal blindness. The most common disease-causing mutation (c.2991+1655A>G; 10-15%) creates a strong splice donor site that leads to insertion of a cryptic exon encoding a premature stop codon. Recently, we reported that splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSO) allow skipping of the mutant cryptic exon and the restoration of ciliation in fibroblasts of affected patients, supporting the feasibility of a SSO-mediated exon skipping strategy to correct the aberrant splicing. Here, we present data in the wild-type mouse, which demonstrate that intravitreal administration of 2'-OMePS-SSO allows selective alteration of Cep290 splicing in retinal cells, including photoreceptors as shown by successful alteration of Abca4 splicing using the same approach. We show that both SSOs and Cep290 skipped mRNA were detectable for at least 1 month and that intravitreal administration of oligonucleotides did not provoke any serious adverse event. These data suggest that intravitreal injections of SSO should be considered to bypass protein truncation resulting from the c.2991+1655A>G mutation as well as other truncating mutations in genes which like CEP290 or ABCA4 have a mRNA size that exceed cargo capacities of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved adeno-associated virus (AAV)-vectors, thus hampering gene augmentation therapy.

20.
J Med Genet ; 52(10): 657-65, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26275418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bidirectional intraflagellar transport (IFT) consists of two major protein complexes, IFT-A and IFT-B. In contrast to the IFT-B complex, all components of IFT-A have recently been linked to human ciliopathies when defective. We therefore hypothesised that mutations in additional IFT-B encoding genes can be found in patients with multisystemic ciliopathies. METHODS: We screened 1628 individuals with reno-ocular ciliopathies by targeted next-generation sequencing of ciliary candidate genes, including all IFT-B encoding genes. RESULTS: Consequently, we identified a homozygous mutation in IFT81 affecting an obligatory donor splice site in an individual with nephronophthisis and polydactyly. Further, we detected a loss-of-stop mutation with extension of the deduced protein by 10 amino acids in an individual with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-1. This proband presented with retinal dystrophy and brain lesions including cerebellar atrophy, a phenotype to which the IFT81 variant might contribute. Cultured fibroblasts of this latter affected individual showed a significant decrease in ciliated cell abundance compared with controls and increased expression of the transcription factor GLI2 suggesting deranged sonic hedgehog signalling. CONCLUSIONS: This work describes identification of mutations of IFT81 in individuals with symptoms consistent with the clinical spectrum of ciliopathies. It might represent the rare case of a core IFT-B complex protein found associated with human disease. Our data further suggest that defects in the IFT-B core are an exceedingly rare finding, probably due to its indispensable role for ciliary assembly in development.


Assuntos
Cílios/genética , Cílios/patologia , Olho/patologia , Rim/patologia , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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