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1.
Hisp Health Care Int ; : 1540415319881755, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To determine the prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) use among Hispanics/Latinos with arthritis symptoms and to characterize how demographic and cultural factors are associated with PO use. METHOD: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline visit data during 2008 to 2011 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a population-based cohort study of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos living in Chicago, Illinois, Miami, Florida, Bronx, New York, and San Diego, California. Included participants self-reported painful inflammation or swelling in one or more joints. Multivariate models controlling for physical and mental health scores were constructed to assess how demographic and cultural factors were associated with PO use. RESULTS: A total of 9.3% were using POs at the time of the baseline visit. In multivariate models, persons of Cuban background (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.21, 0.81]) and of Dominican background (AOR = 0.38, 95% CI [0.18, 0.80]) were significantly less likely to use POs compared with a reference group of persons of Mexican background. Greater language acculturation was also negatively associated with PO use (AOR = 0.68, 95% CI [0.53, 0.87]). CONCLUSION: POs were used relatively uncommonly, and use showed marked variation between Hispanic/Latino groups. Future study should determine mechanisms for why greater use of English among Hispanics/Latinos might influence PO use.

2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689128

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Dietary patterns may alter immune responses and increase asthma risk or affect lung function. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a pro-inflammatory diet (assessed by the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index, (E-DII®) or high dietary quality (assessed by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, AHEI-2010) are associated with current asthma, current asthma symptoms, and lung function in Hispanic adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 12,687 adults aged 18 to 76 years who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). The E-DII and AHEI-2010 were calculated based on two 24-hour dietary recalls. Logistic or linear regression was used for the multivariable analysis of E-DII or AHEI-2010 scores and current asthma, asthma symptoms, and lung function measures, adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, study center, Hispanic/Latino background, smoking status, and other covariates. RESULTS: A higher E-DII score was associated with current asthma (odds ratio [OR] for quartile 4 vs. 1=1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97-1.90) and asthma symptoms (OR for quartile 4 vs. 1=1.42, 95% CI=1.12-1.81). The AHEI-2010 score was not associated with current asthma or asthma symptoms. Among adults without asthma, a higher E-DII score was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC, and a higher AHEI-2010 score was associated with higher FEV1 and FVC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet increases the risk of asthma and asthma symptoms in Hispanic adults. An anti-inflammatory diet (indicated by a lower E-DII or a higher AHEI-2010 score) may positively influence lung function in Hispanic adults without asthma.

3.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 219, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanics living in the USA may have unrecognized potential birthplace and lifestyle influences on the gut microbiome. We report a cross-sectional analysis of 1674 participants from four centers of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), aged 18 to 74 years old at recruitment. RESULTS: Amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene V4 and fungal ITS1 fragments from self-collected stool samples indicate that the host microbiome is determined by sociodemographic and migration-related variables. Those who relocate from Latin America to the USA at an early age have reductions in Prevotella to Bacteroides ratios that persist across the life course. Shannon index of alpha diversity in fungi and bacteria is low in those who relocate to the USA in early life. In contrast, those who relocate to the USA during adulthood, over 45 years old, have high bacterial and fungal diversity and high Prevotella to Bacteroides ratios, compared to USA-born and childhood arrivals. Low bacterial diversity is associated in turn with obesity. Contrasting with prior studies, our study of the Latino population shows increasing Prevotella to Bacteroides ratio with greater obesity. Taxa within Acidaminococcus, Megasphaera, Ruminococcaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Clostridiales, Christensenellaceae, YS2 (Cyanobacteria), and Victivallaceae are significantly associated with both obesity and earlier exposure to the USA, while Oscillospira and Anaerotruncus show paradoxical associations with both obesity and late-life introduction to the USA. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of the gut microbiome of Latinos demonstrates unique features that might be responsible for health disparities affecting Hispanics living in the USA.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15192, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645637

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that genes play a substantial role in determining a person's susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment. The existing studies on this subject have different results, which may be caused by difficulties in determining the phenotype or the limited number of participants involved. Here, we have gathered the largest sample to date (discovery n = 9,675; replication n = 10,963; validation n = 356,141), and examined phenotypes that represented low/mid and high frequency hearing loss on the pure tone audiogram. We identified 7 loci that were either replicated and/or validated, of which 5 loci are novel in hearing. Especially the ILDR1 gene is a high profile candidate, as it contains our top SNP, is a known hearing loss gene, has been linked to age-related hearing impairment before, and in addition is preferentially expressed within hair cells of the inner ear. By verifying all previously published SNPs, we can present a paper that combines all new and existing findings to date, giving a complete overview of the genetic architecture of age-related hearing impairment. This is of importance as age-related hearing impairment is highly prevalent in our ageing society and represents a large socio-economic burden.

5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642867

RESUMO

Importance: Lipid metabolism disruption and excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been observed in HIV-infected individuals, but the associations among HIV infection, plasma lipidome, and CVD risk have not been well understood. Objective: To evaluate plasma lipidomic profiles and their associations with carotid artery atherosclerosis in individuals with HIV and individuals without HIV. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective analysis in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study during a 7-year follow-up (from 2004-2006 to 2011-2013) at multicenter HIV cohorts in the United States. The study included 737 participants aged 35 to 55 years (520 with HIV and 217 without HIV) without CVD or carotid artery plaque at baseline. Data were analyzed between April 2017 and July 2019. Exposures: Two hundred eleven plasma lipid species. Main Outcomes and Measures: Poisson regression was used to examine the associations of baseline lipid species with risk of plaque measured by repeated B-mode carotid artery ultrasonography imaging. Results: Of the 737 included participants, 398 (54%) were women, 351 (48%) were African American (non-Hispanic), 156 of 737 (21%) were nonwhite Hispanic, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (6) years. After adjusting for demographic and behavioral factors, we identified 12 lipid species, representing independent signals for 10 lipid classes, associated with risk of plaque. Nine lipid species remained significant after further adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors, although many of them showed moderate to high association with conventional blood lipids (eg, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols and triglycerides). Cholesteryl ester (16:1) (risk ratio [RR] per standard deviation, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52), ceramide (16:0) (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63), lysophosphatidylcholine (20:4) (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.58), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (16:0) (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.57), phosphatidylethanolamine (38:6) (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08-1.64), phosphatidylethanolamine-plasmalogen (36:2) (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.52), phosphatidylserine-plasmalogen (36:3) (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.43), and triacylglycerol (54:6) (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54) were associated with increased risk of plaque, while phosphatidylcholine (36:4) (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.54-0.77) was associated with decreased risk of plaque. Most of these plaque-increased lipid species showed higher levels in individuals with HIV, particularly among individuals with HIV using antiretroviral therapy compared with individuals without HIV. Network analysis identified 9 lipid modules, and 2 modules composed of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines with long and unsaturated acyl chains, respectively, showed the strongest associations with increased risk of plaque. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identified multiple plasma lipid species associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis, and alterations in these lipid species might be associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy. Our data suggest unfavorable associations of long-chain and unsaturated triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines with carotid artery plaque formation.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV may affect the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) differently in men versus women. METHODS: We examined CVD mortality rates between 2007 and 2017 among all HIV-positive New York City residents age 13+ by sex, using data from city HIV surveillance and vital statistics and the National Death Index. Residents without HIV were enumerated using modified US intercensal estimates. We determined associations of HIV status with CVD mortality by sex after accounting for age, race/ethnicity, year, and neighborhood poverty, defined as the percent living below the federal poverty level. RESULTS: There were 3,234 CVD deaths reported among 147,915 HIV-positive New Yorkers, with the proportion of deaths due to CVD increasing from 11% in 2007 to 22% in 2017. The age-standardized CVD mortality rate was 2.7/1,000 person-years among both men and women with HIV. The relative rate of CVD mortality associated with HIV status was significantly higher among women (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.6-1.8) than men (aRR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3) overall, and within strata defined by neighborhood poverty. Sex differences in CVD mortality rates were the greatest comparing HIV-positive individuals having detectable HIV RNA and CD4+ T-cell counts <500 cells/uL with HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: One in five deaths among people with HIV is now associated with CVD. HIV providers should recognize CVD risk among women with HIV, and reinforce preventive measures (e.g., smoking cessation, blood pressure control, lipid management) and viremic control among all people living with HIV to reduce CVD mortality.

7.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are less aware of their cholesterol levels and have a higher burden of associated adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes than non-Latino whites. Investigations of the associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in this population have often occurred within the context of metabolic syndrome and are limited to select lipids despite the fact that triglycerides (TGs) may be more relevant to the health of Hispanics/Latinos. METHODS: Baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, collected from 2008 to 2011, was used to investigate the associations of lipid levels (i.e., TG, total cholesterol, TC; low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C) with cognition (i.e., learning, memory, verbal fluency, and digit symbol substitution, DSS), adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: In 7413 participants ages 45 to 74 years from Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and South American backgrounds, separate, fully adjusted linear regression models revealed that TG levels were inversely associated with DSS performance; however, this relationship was no longer significant once additional cardiovascular disease risk factors were added to the model (p = .06). TC and LDL-C levels (separately) were positively associated with learning and verbal fluency regardless of adjustments (p-values < .05). Separate analyses investigating the effect modification by background and sex revealed a particularly robust association between TC levels and DSS performance for Puerto Ricans and Central Americans (albeit in opposite directions) and an inverse relationship between TG levels and DSS performance for women (p-values < .02). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to consider individual lipid levels and demographic characteristics when investigating associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in Hispanics/Latinos.

8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 37: 17-23.e3, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between undocumented immigration status and anxiety, depression, and use of anxiolytic or antidepressant medications in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of data collected between 2014 and 2017. Participants were categorized as U.S.-born citizens, naturalized citizens, documented noncitizens, or undocumented noncitizens. We calculated prevalence and prevalence ratios for anxiety, depression, and use of anxiolytic or antidepressant medication, by immigration status. RESULTS: Of 9257 participants, 1403 (15%) were undocumented noncitizens, 2872 (31%) were documented noncitizens, 3766 (41%) were naturalized citizens, and 1216 (13%) were U.S.-born citizens. Prevalence of anxiety was lower among undocumented than documented noncitizens (9 vs. 15%, P < .0001) but not significantly different in adjusted analyses. Prevalence of depression was similar among undocumented and documented noncitizens (20 vs. 24%, P = .07) and not significantly different in adjusted analyses. Among participants with depression, 7% of undocumented and 27% of documented noncitizens reported use of antidepressants (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.49, 95% CI 0.27-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Undocumented noncitizens had similar likelihood of anxiety and depression, but lower likelihood of antidepressant use, compared with documented noncitizens. These results may reflect the resilience of an undocumented population facing multiple stressors but suggest that this group may be undertreated for depression.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359766

RESUMO

C1q/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related proteins (CTRPs) have been linked to energy homeostasis and vascular health. People with HIV are susceptible to cardiometabolic disease, but the contributions of different CTRPs are unknown. We investigated the associations of HIV and related factors with serum CTRPs, and CTRPs' relationships with cardiometabolic phenotypes. This involved a cross-sectional analysis of participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study aged ≥35 with (n = 209) and without (n = 92) HIV who underwent carotid ultrasound in 2004-2005 and had stored serum available for measurement of total adiponectin and CTRPs 1, 3, 5, and 9. The Benjamini/Hochberg procedure was used to control the study-wide false-positive rate. HIV-positive women had significantly higher adiponectin than HIV-negative women after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical variables [beta = 0.29 (95% confidence interval 0.11-0.47)]. Among HIV-positive women, lower CD4 count was associated with higher adiponectin and history of AIDS with higher CTRP9, but these were only nominally significant. There was no relationship between HIV status and CTRP 1, 3, or 5, nor was antiretroviral therapy or viral load associated with any CTRP. In the entire cohort, higher adiponectin was associated with significantly lower fasting glucose and insulin resistance, while higher CTRP5 [beta = -0.02 (-0.033 to -0.007)]-and, at a nominal level, CTRPs 1 and 3-was associated with significantly lower carotid intima-media thickness. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged women, HIV serostatus was positively associated with adiponectin, but not CTRPs. In turn, serum adiponectin was inversely associated with glucose dysregulation, whereas CTRP5 was inversely associated with carotid intima-media thickness. Further research is needed to determine CTRPs' role in atherosclerosis.

10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(8): 1488-1498, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the burden and clinical correlates of valvular heart disease in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1818 individuals from the population-based study of Latinos/Hispanics from 4 US metropolitan areas (Bronx, New York; Chicago, Illinois; San Diego, California; and Miami, Florida) underwent a comprehensive clinical and echocardiographic examination from October 1, 2011, through June 24, 2014. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of clinical and sociodemographic variables with valvular lesions. RESULTS: The mean age was 55.2±0.2 years; 57.4% were female. The prevalence of any valvular heart disease (AVHD) was 3.1%, with no considerable differences across sex, and a higher prevalence with increasing age. The proportion of US-born vs foreign-born individuals was similar in those with vs without AVHD (P=.31). The weighted prevalence of AVHD was highest in Central Americans (8.4%) and lowest in Mexicans (1.2%). Regurgitant lesions of moderate or greater severity were present in 2.4% of the population and stenotic lesions of moderate or greater severity in 0.2%. Compared with those without AVHD, individuals with AVHD were more likely to have health insurance coverage (59.6% vs 79.2%; P=.007) but similar income (P=.06) and educational status (P=.46). Univariate regression models revealed that regurgitant lesions were associated with lower body mass index whereas stenotic lesions were associated with higher body mass index. CONCLUSION: Our data provide the first population-based estimates of the prevalence of valvular heart disease in Hispanic/Latinos. Valvular heart disease is fairly common in the Hispanic/Latino population and may constitute an important public health problem.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1784-1791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-associated genetic variants and examine their implications for glycemic status evaluated by HbA1c in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with diverse genetic ancestries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HbA1c in 9,636 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without diabetes from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, followed by a replication among 4,729 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos from three independent studies. RESULTS: Our GWAS and replication analyses showed 10 previously known and novel loci associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance levels (P < 5.0 × 10-8). In particular, two African ancestry-specific variants, HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828, which are causal mutations for sickle cell disease and G6PD deficiency, respectively, had ∼10 times larger effect sizes on HbA1c levels (ß = -0.31% [-3.4 mmol/mol]) and -0.35% [-3.8 mmol/mol] per minor allele, respectively) compared with other HbA1c-associated variants (0.03-0.04% [0.3-0.4 mmol/mol] per allele). A novel Amerindian ancestry-specific variant, HBM-rs145546625, was associated with HbA1c and hematologic traits but not with fasting glucose. The prevalence of hyperglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) defined using fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test 2-h glucose was similar between carriers of HBB-rs334 or G6PD-rs1050828 HbA1c-lowering alleles and noncarriers, whereas the prevalence of hyperglycemia defined using HbA1c was significantly lower in carriers than in noncarriers (12.2% vs. 28.4%, P < 0.001). After recalibration of the HbA1c level taking HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828 into account, the prevalence of hyperglycemia in carriers was similar to noncarriers (31.3% vs. 28.4%, P = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: This study in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos found several ancestry-specific alleles associated with HbA1c through erythrocyte-related rather than glycemic-related pathways. The potential influences of these nonglycemic-related variants need to be considered when the HbA1c test is performed.

12.
Chest ; 156(5): 944-953, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results of previous studies examining associations between cigarette smoking and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are inconsistent. We therefore investigated this association in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). METHODS: A total of 13,863 US Hispanic/Latino subjects, 18 to 76 years old, provided smoking histories and underwent home SDB testing. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the independent association of smoking and SDB with covariate adjustment. Sex- and age-stratified analyses were performed. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of moderate to severe SDB was 9.7% (95% CI, 9.0-10.5). No independent and statistically significant association was observed between ever smoking (defined as minimum lifetime cigarette use of 100) and moderate to severe SDB (defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events per hour) (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.85-1.22; P = .85). Sex and age were effect modifiers of the aforementioned association. Stratification according to age and sex revealed that younger (aged 35-54 years) female smokers had 83% higher odds of SDB compared with younger female never smokers (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19-2.81; P = .01). A significant dose-response relation was noted between smoking intensity and SDB in younger female smokers (P < .01). Lastly, use of ≥ 10 cigarettes per day was associated with a nearly threefold increase in SDB odds in younger female ever smokers. These associations were not observed in younger male subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In the HCHS/SOL, no independent and statistically significant association was found between smoking and SDB. Sex and age stratification revealed a novel statistically significant association between smoking and SDB in younger (35-54 years old) female smokers. Our findings highlight the importance of investigating sex- and age-specific associations of SDB risk factors.

13.
AIDS ; 33(6): 1043-1052, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma acylcarnitine profiles and their relationships with progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis among individuals with and without HIV infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort studies of 499 HIV-positive and 206 HIV-negative individuals from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS: Twenty-four acylcarnitine species were measured in plasma samples of participants at baseline. Carotid artery plaque was assessed using repeated B-mode carotid artery ultrasound imaging in 2004-2013. We examined the associations of individual and aggregate short-chain (C2-C7), medium-chain (C8-C14) and long-chain acylcarnitines (C16-C26) with incident carotid artery plaque over 7 years. RESULTS: Among 24 acylcarnitine species, C8-carnitines and C20 : 4-carnitines showed significantly lower levels comparing HIV-positive to HIV-negative individuals (false discovery rate adjusted P < 0.05); and C20-carnitines and C26-carnitines showed significantly higher levels in HIV positive using antiretroviral therapy than those without antiretroviral therapy (false discovery rate adjusted P < 0.05). In the univariate analyses, higher aggregated short-chain and long-chain acylcarnitine scores were associated with increased risk of carotid artery plaque [risk ratios (RRs) = 1.22 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.45) and 1.20 (1.02-1.41) per SD increment, respectively]. The association for the short-chain acylcarnitine score remained significant [RR = 1.23 (1.05-1.44)] after multivariate adjustment (including traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors). This association was more evident in HIV-positive individuals without persistent viral suppression [RR = 1.37 (1.11-1.69)] compared with those with persistent viral suppression during follow-up [RR = 1.03 (0.76-1.40)] or HIV-negative individuals [RR = 1.02 (0.69-1.52)]. CONCLUSION: In two HIV cohorts, plasma levels of most acylcarnitines were not significantly different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. However, higher levels of aggregated short-chain acylcarnitines were associated with progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis.

14.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(4): 695-703, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis has not been sufficiently examined among people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: We analyzed data from PLWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS; n = 1,164) and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS; n = 387) with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Repeated measures of intima-media thickness of the right common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) were assessed using B-mode ultrasound from 2004 to 2013. Current alcohol consumption was collected at time of CCA-IMT measurement and was categorized according to gender-specific weekly limits. Group-based trajectory models categorized participants into past 10-year consumption patterns (1994 to 2004). Multivariate generalized estimating equations were conducted to assess the association of past and current alcohol use patterns on change in CCA-IMT by cohort, controlling for age, race, cigarette and illicit drug use, probable depression, HIV RNA viral load, antiretroviral therapy exposure, and hepatitis C coinfection. RESULTS: Among the WIHS, past heavy alcohol consumption was associated with increased CCA-IMT level over time (ß = 8.08, CI 0.35, 15.8, p = 0.04), compared to abstinence. Among the MACS, compared to abstinence, all past consumption patterns were associated with increased CCA-IMT over time (past low: ß = 15.3, 95% CI 6.46, 24.2, p < 0.001; past moderate: ß = 14.3, CI 1.36, 27.2, p = 0.03; past heavy: ß = 21.8, CI 4.63, 38.9, p = 0.01). Current heavy consumption was associated with decreased CCA-IMT among the WIHS (ß = -11.4, 95% CI -20.2, -2.63, p = 0.01) and MACS (ß = -15.4, 95% CI -30.7, -0.13, p = 0.04). No statistically significant time by consumption pattern effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: In both cohorts, 10-year heavy consumption was associated with statistically significant increases in carotid artery thickness, compared to abstinence. Long-term patterns of drinking at any level above abstinence were particularly significant for increases in IMT among men, with heavy consumption presenting with the greatest increase. Our results suggest a potentially different window of risk among past and current heavy drinkers. Further studies are needed to determine whether alcohol consumption level is associated with intermediate measures of atherosclerosis. Alcohol screening and interventions to reduce heavy consumption may benefit PLWH who are at risk of CVD.

15.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 150: 38-47, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779969

RESUMO

AIMS: Insulin resistance (IR) adversely impacts memory and executive functioning in non-Hispanic whites without diabetes. Less is known in Hispanics/Latinos, despite the fact that Hispanics/Latinos have higher rates of insulin resistance than non-Hispanic whites. We investigated the association between IR and cognition and its variation by age. METHODS: Data from 5987 participants 45-74 years old without diabetes from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. IR was considered continuously using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and also dichotomized based on clinically relevant thresholds for hyperinsulinemia (fasting insulin > 84.73 pmol/L or HOMA-IR > 2.6) and sample-based norms (75th percentile of fasting insulin or HOMA-IR). Cognitive testing included the Brief Spanish English Verbal Learning Test (B-SEVLT), Verbal Fluency, and Digit Symbol Substitution. RESULTS: There was 90% overlap in participant categorization comparing clinically relevant and sample-based thresholds. In separate fully-adjusted linear regression models, age modified the association between HOMA-IR and Digit Symbol Substitution (p = 0.02); advancing age combined with higher HOMA-IR levels resulted in higher scores. Age also modified the association between clinically relevant hyperinsulinemia and B-SEVLT recall (p = 0.03); with increasing age came worse performance for individuals with hyperinsulinemia. CONCLUSION: The relationship of IR with cognition in Hispanics/Latinos without diabetes may reflect an age- and test-dependent state.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Diabetes Mellitus , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Circulation ; 139(17): 2003-2011, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ceramides have been implicated in the pathophysiology of HIV infection and cardiovascular disease. However, no study, to our knowledge, has evaluated circulating ceramide levels in association with subclinical cardiovascular disease risk among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Plasma levels of 4 ceramide species (C16:0, C22:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were measured among 398 women (73% HIV+) and 339 men (68% HIV+) without carotid artery plaques at baseline from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. We examined associations between baseline plasma ceramides and risk of carotid artery plaque formation, assessed by repeated B-mode carotid artery ultrasound imaging over a median 7-year follow-up. RESULTS: Plasma levels of C16:0, C22:0, and C24:1 ceramides were significantly higher in HIV-infected individuals compared with those without HIV infection (all P<0.001), and further analysis indicated that elevated ceramide levels were associated with antiretroviral therapy use, particularly protease inhibitor use, in HIV-infected individuals (all P<0.001). All 4 ceramides were highly correlated with each other ( r=0.70-0.94; all P<0.001) and significantly correlated with total-cholesterol ( r=0.42-0.58; all P<0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( r=0.24-0.42; all P<0.001) levels. Of note, C16:0 and C24:1 ceramides, rather than C22:0 and C24:0 ceramides, were more closely correlated with specific monocyte activation and inflammation markers (eg, r=0.30 between C16:0 ceramide and soluble CD14; P<0.001) and surface markers of CD4+ T-cell activation. A total of 112 participants developed carotid artery plaques over 7 years, and higher levels of C16:0 and C24:1 ceramides were significantly associated with increased risk of carotid artery plaques (relative risk [95% CI]=1.55 [1.29, 1.86] and 1.51 [1.26, 1.82] per standard deviation increment, respectively; both P<0.001), after adjusting for demographic and behavioral factors. After further adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors and immune activation markers, these associations were attenuated but remained significant. The results were consistent between men and women and between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants. CONCLUSIONS: In 2 HIV cohorts, elevated plasma levels of C16:0 and C24:1 ceramides, correlating with immune activation and inflammation, were associated with antiretroviral therapy use and progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis.

17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(1): 36-43, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expression of tissue factor (TF) on the surface of activated monocytes may trigger thrombosis, leading to clotting risk, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. TF-positive microparticles (MP-TF) represent a functionally active form of TF that may be promulgated by long-term HIV infection. We hypothesized that greater MP-TF activity is associated with carotid artery plaque in HIV+ women. SETTING: In a case-control study nested within the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), eligible HIV+ participants underwent B-mode carotid artery ultrasound at 2 study visits occurring 7 years apart. Cases were defined by the presence of at least 1 carotid artery plaque assessed at either visit. Cases were matched 1:2 to controls who were found not to have carotid artery plaques. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression estimated the association of MP-TF activity with the presence of carotid artery plaque, adjusting for demographic and behavioral characteristics, HIV-related factors, cardiometabolic risk factors, and serum inflammation biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, sCD14, sCD163, Gal-3, and Gal-3BP). RESULTS: Elevated MP-TF activity (>0.537 pg/mL) was found to be significantly associated with greater odds of plaque (adjusted odds ratio 3.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 14.07, P = 0.04). The association was attenuated after further adjustment for IL-6 but was unaffected by adjustment for other biomarkers including those denoting monocyte activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a link among HIV infection, innate immune system perturbation, coagulation, and atherosclerosis.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 843, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696834

RESUMO

Five sequence variants in SLC16A11 (rs117767867, rs13342692, rs13342232, rs75418188, and rs75493593), which occur in two non-reference haplotypes, were recently shown to be associated with diabetes in Mexicans from the SIGMA consortium. We aimed to determine whether these previous findings would replicate in the HCHS/SOL Mexican origin group and whether genotypic effects were similar in other HCHS/SOL groups. We analyzed these five variants in 2492 diabetes cases and 5236 controls from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), which includes U.S. participants from six diverse background groups (Mainland groups: Mexican, Central American, and South American; and Caribbean groups: Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Dominican). We estimated the SNP-diabetes association in the six groups and in the combined sample. We found that the risk alleles occur in two non-reference haplotypes in HCHS/SOL, as in the SIGMA Mexicans. The haplotype frequencies were very similar between SIGMA Mexicans and the HCHS/SOL Mainland groups, but different in the Caribbean groups. The SLC16A11 sequence variants were significantly associated with risk for diabetes in the Mexican origin group (P = 0.025), replicating the SIGMA findings. However, these variants were not significantly associated with diabetes in a combined analysis of all groups, although the power to detect such effects was 85% (assuming homogeneity of effects among the groups). Additional analyses performed separately in each of the five non-Mexican origin groups were not significant. We also analyzed (1) exclusion of young controls and, (2) SNP by BMI interactions, but neither was significant in the HCHS/SOL data. The previously reported effects of SLC16A11 variants on diabetes in Mexican samples was replicated in a large Mexican-American sample, but these effects were not significant in five non-Mexican Hispanic/Latino groups sampled from U.S. populations. Lack of replication in the HCHS/SOL non-Mexicans, and in the entire HCHS/SOL sample combined may represent underlying genetic heterogeneity. These results indicate a need for future genetic research to consider heterogeneity of the Hispanic/Latino population in the assessment of disease risk, but add to the evidence suggesting SLC16A11 as a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.

20.
Epidemiology ; 30(1): 69-74, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV are at risk of increased myocardial infarction (MI). Cumulative HIV viral load (VL) has been proposed as a better measure of HIV inflammation than other measures of VL, like baseline VL, but its associations with MI are not known. METHODS: The multisite Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort includes clinical data and centrally adjudicated MI with distinction between atheroembolic MI (type 1) and MI related to supply-demand mismatch (type 2). We examined CNICS participants who were not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at enrollment. Cumulative VL (copy-days of virus) from 6 months after enrollment was estimated with a time-weighted sum using the trapezoidal rule. We modeled associations of cumulative and baseline VL with MI by type using marginal structural Cox models. We contrasted the 75% percentile of the VL distribution with the 25% percentile. RESULTS: Among 11,324 participants, 218 MIs occurred between 1996 and 2016. Higher cumulative VL was associated with risk of all MI (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26, 2.36), type 1 MI (HR = 1.23; 95% CI = 0.78, 1.96), and type 2 MI (HR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.74, 3.66). While off ART, cumulative VL had a stronger association with type 1 MI (HR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.15, 3.94) than type 2 MI (HR = 1.25; 95% CI = 0.70, 2.25). Baseline VL was associated with all MI (HR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.01), type 1 MI (HR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.38), and type 2 MI (HR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.10, 2.08). CONCLUSIONS: Higher cumulative and baseline VL is associated with all MI, with a particularly strong association between cumulative VL and type 2 MI.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Viremia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
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