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1.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689128

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Dietary patterns may alter immune responses and increase asthma risk or affect lung function. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a pro-inflammatory diet (assessed by the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index, (E-DII®) or high dietary quality (assessed by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, AHEI-2010) are associated with current asthma, current asthma symptoms, and lung function in Hispanic adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 12,687 adults aged 18 to 76 years who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). The E-DII and AHEI-2010 were calculated based on two 24-hour dietary recalls. Logistic or linear regression was used for the multivariable analysis of E-DII or AHEI-2010 scores and current asthma, asthma symptoms, and lung function measures, adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, study center, Hispanic/Latino background, smoking status, and other covariates. RESULTS: A higher E-DII score was associated with current asthma (odds ratio [OR] for quartile 4 vs. 1=1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97-1.90) and asthma symptoms (OR for quartile 4 vs. 1=1.42, 95% CI=1.12-1.81). The AHEI-2010 score was not associated with current asthma or asthma symptoms. Among adults without asthma, a higher E-DII score was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC, and a higher AHEI-2010 score was associated with higher FEV1 and FVC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet increases the risk of asthma and asthma symptoms in Hispanic adults. An anti-inflammatory diet (indicated by a lower E-DII or a higher AHEI-2010 score) may positively influence lung function in Hispanic adults without asthma.

2.
Hisp Health Care Int ; : 1540415319881755, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To determine the prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) use among Hispanics/Latinos with arthritis symptoms and to characterize how demographic and cultural factors are associated with PO use. METHOD: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline visit data during 2008 to 2011 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a population-based cohort study of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos living in Chicago, Illinois, Miami, Florida, Bronx, New York, and San Diego, California. Included participants self-reported painful inflammation or swelling in one or more joints. Multivariate models controlling for physical and mental health scores were constructed to assess how demographic and cultural factors were associated with PO use. RESULTS: A total of 9.3% were using POs at the time of the baseline visit. In multivariate models, persons of Cuban background (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.21, 0.81]) and of Dominican background (AOR = 0.38, 95% CI [0.18, 0.80]) were significantly less likely to use POs compared with a reference group of persons of Mexican background. Greater language acculturation was also negatively associated with PO use (AOR = 0.68, 95% CI [0.53, 0.87]). CONCLUSION: POs were used relatively uncommonly, and use showed marked variation between Hispanic/Latino groups. Future study should determine mechanisms for why greater use of English among Hispanics/Latinos might influence PO use.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that chronic and acculturative stress would be negatively associated with neurocognitive function among middle aged to older Hispanics/Latinos. METHOD: Our analytic sample consisted of 3,265 participants (mean age = 56.7 (+/-0.24)) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos who participated in its Sociocultural Ancillary Study. During the baseline phase of this project, participants were assessed on multiple domains of neurocognitive function, and completed self-report measures of chronic and acculturative stress. RESULTS: Each standard deviation increase in chronic stress was associated with lower performance in a verbal learning task (B = -.17, 95% CI [-.32, -.01]); this association was no longer significant after adjusting for mental and physical health symptoms, including depression and anxiety symptoms, and cardiovascular health. A standard deviation increase in acculturative stress was associated with poorer performance in all cognitive measures (Bs range = -.13 to -1.03). Associations of acculturation stress with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, and word fluency remained significant after adjusting for mental and physical health symptoms. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that mental and physical health may help explain some cross-sectional associations between stress and cognition and highlight the need to examine culture-specific psychosocial stressors to better understand the context of psychosocial risk factors for neurocognitive performance.

4.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 219, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanics living in the USA may have unrecognized potential birthplace and lifestyle influences on the gut microbiome. We report a cross-sectional analysis of 1674 participants from four centers of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), aged 18 to 74 years old at recruitment. RESULTS: Amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene V4 and fungal ITS1 fragments from self-collected stool samples indicate that the host microbiome is determined by sociodemographic and migration-related variables. Those who relocate from Latin America to the USA at an early age have reductions in Prevotella to Bacteroides ratios that persist across the life course. Shannon index of alpha diversity in fungi and bacteria is low in those who relocate to the USA in early life. In contrast, those who relocate to the USA during adulthood, over 45 years old, have high bacterial and fungal diversity and high Prevotella to Bacteroides ratios, compared to USA-born and childhood arrivals. Low bacterial diversity is associated in turn with obesity. Contrasting with prior studies, our study of the Latino population shows increasing Prevotella to Bacteroides ratio with greater obesity. Taxa within Acidaminococcus, Megasphaera, Ruminococcaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Clostridiales, Christensenellaceae, YS2 (Cyanobacteria), and Victivallaceae are significantly associated with both obesity and earlier exposure to the USA, while Oscillospira and Anaerotruncus show paradoxical associations with both obesity and late-life introduction to the USA. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of the gut microbiome of Latinos demonstrates unique features that might be responsible for health disparities affecting Hispanics living in the USA.

5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642867

RESUMO

Importance: Lipid metabolism disruption and excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been observed in HIV-infected individuals, but the associations among HIV infection, plasma lipidome, and CVD risk have not been well understood. Objective: To evaluate plasma lipidomic profiles and their associations with carotid artery atherosclerosis in individuals with HIV and individuals without HIV. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective analysis in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study during a 7-year follow-up (from 2004-2006 to 2011-2013) at multicenter HIV cohorts in the United States. The study included 737 participants aged 35 to 55 years (520 with HIV and 217 without HIV) without CVD or carotid artery plaque at baseline. Data were analyzed between April 2017 and July 2019. Exposures: Two hundred eleven plasma lipid species. Main Outcomes and Measures: Poisson regression was used to examine the associations of baseline lipid species with risk of plaque measured by repeated B-mode carotid artery ultrasonography imaging. Results: Of the 737 included participants, 398 (54%) were women, 351 (48%) were African American (non-Hispanic), 156 of 737 (21%) were nonwhite Hispanic, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (6) years. After adjusting for demographic and behavioral factors, we identified 12 lipid species, representing independent signals for 10 lipid classes, associated with risk of plaque. Nine lipid species remained significant after further adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors, although many of them showed moderate to high association with conventional blood lipids (eg, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols and triglycerides). Cholesteryl ester (16:1) (risk ratio [RR] per standard deviation, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52), ceramide (16:0) (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63), lysophosphatidylcholine (20:4) (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.58), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (16:0) (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.57), phosphatidylethanolamine (38:6) (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08-1.64), phosphatidylethanolamine-plasmalogen (36:2) (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.52), phosphatidylserine-plasmalogen (36:3) (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.43), and triacylglycerol (54:6) (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54) were associated with increased risk of plaque, while phosphatidylcholine (36:4) (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.54-0.77) was associated with decreased risk of plaque. Most of these plaque-increased lipid species showed higher levels in individuals with HIV, particularly among individuals with HIV using antiretroviral therapy compared with individuals without HIV. Network analysis identified 9 lipid modules, and 2 modules composed of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines with long and unsaturated acyl chains, respectively, showed the strongest associations with increased risk of plaque. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identified multiple plasma lipid species associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis, and alterations in these lipid species might be associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy. Our data suggest unfavorable associations of long-chain and unsaturated triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines with carotid artery plaque formation.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15192, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645637

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that genes play a substantial role in determining a person's susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment. The existing studies on this subject have different results, which may be caused by difficulties in determining the phenotype or the limited number of participants involved. Here, we have gathered the largest sample to date (discovery n = 9,675; replication n = 10,963; validation n = 356,141), and examined phenotypes that represented low/mid and high frequency hearing loss on the pure tone audiogram. We identified 7 loci that were either replicated and/or validated, of which 5 loci are novel in hearing. Especially the ILDR1 gene is a high profile candidate, as it contains our top SNP, is a known hearing loss gene, has been linked to age-related hearing impairment before, and in addition is preferentially expressed within hair cells of the inner ear. By verifying all previously published SNPs, we can present a paper that combines all new and existing findings to date, giving a complete overview of the genetic architecture of age-related hearing impairment. This is of importance as age-related hearing impairment is highly prevalent in our ageing society and represents a large socio-economic burden.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV may affect the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) differently in men versus women. METHODS: We examined CVD mortality rates between 2007 and 2017 among all HIV-positive New York City residents age 13+ by sex, using data from city HIV surveillance and vital statistics and the National Death Index. Residents without HIV were enumerated using modified US intercensal estimates. We determined associations of HIV status with CVD mortality by sex after accounting for age, race/ethnicity, year, and neighborhood poverty, defined as the percent living below the federal poverty level. RESULTS: There were 3,234 CVD deaths reported among 147,915 HIV-positive New Yorkers, with the proportion of deaths due to CVD increasing from 11% in 2007 to 22% in 2017. The age-standardized CVD mortality rate was 2.7/1,000 person-years among both men and women with HIV. The relative rate of CVD mortality associated with HIV status was significantly higher among women (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.6-1.8) than men (aRR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3) overall, and within strata defined by neighborhood poverty. Sex differences in CVD mortality rates were the greatest comparing HIV-positive individuals having detectable HIV RNA and CD4+ T-cell counts <500 cells/uL with HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: One in five deaths among people with HIV is now associated with CVD. HIV providers should recognize CVD risk among women with HIV, and reinforce preventive measures (e.g., smoking cessation, blood pressure control, lipid management) and viremic control among all people living with HIV to reduce CVD mortality.

8.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are less aware of their cholesterol levels and have a higher burden of associated adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes than non-Latino whites. Investigations of the associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in this population have often occurred within the context of metabolic syndrome and are limited to select lipids despite the fact that triglycerides (TGs) may be more relevant to the health of Hispanics/Latinos. METHODS: Baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, collected from 2008 to 2011, was used to investigate the associations of lipid levels (i.e., TG, total cholesterol, TC; low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C) with cognition (i.e., learning, memory, verbal fluency, and digit symbol substitution, DSS), adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: In 7413 participants ages 45 to 74 years from Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and South American backgrounds, separate, fully adjusted linear regression models revealed that TG levels were inversely associated with DSS performance; however, this relationship was no longer significant once additional cardiovascular disease risk factors were added to the model (p = .06). TC and LDL-C levels (separately) were positively associated with learning and verbal fluency regardless of adjustments (p-values < .05). Separate analyses investigating the effect modification by background and sex revealed a particularly robust association between TC levels and DSS performance for Puerto Ricans and Central Americans (albeit in opposite directions) and an inverse relationship between TG levels and DSS performance for women (p-values < .02). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to consider individual lipid levels and demographic characteristics when investigating associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in Hispanics/Latinos.

9.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545108

RESUMO

Hospitalized patients with hematological malignancy (HM) suffer an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We sought to identify risk factors and rate of VTE in hospitalized patients with HM using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2011 to 2015. We used ICD-9 codes to identify patients with HM as the primary diagnosis and VTE as a secondary diagnosis for hospitalization. The rate of VTE was highest in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (6.6%) followed by acute lymphocytic leukemia (6.1%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.0%). The highest risk of VTE occurred among patients with HM receiving chemotherapy (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.567-1.809) followed by infection such as pneumonia (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.201-1.436) and sepsis (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.524-1.621). Chemotherapy had the highest risk of developing VTE during hospitalization followed by sepsis and pneumonia. The identification of patients with HM most at risk for VTE could be used to design and test prophylactic strategy.

10.
Acad Radiol ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481346

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To quantify the costs and work of diagnostic radiology (DR) residents using the radiology key performance indicator turn-around time (TAT) as the outcome measure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an Institutional Review Board-approved study, the annual cost of a DR resident was determined using salary, benefits, and a cost allocation of faculty effort. The volume of cases reported in the 2015-16 academic year and median and interquartile range (IQR) TAT for a trainee preliminary (Complete to Prelim, C-P) or an attending final (Complete to Final, C-F) radiology report were measured and stratified by time of day and patient location. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used (significance, p values < 0.05). RESULTS: The annual cost of a DR resident was $99,109, 34% greater than direct salary/benefits and 27% of the direct salary/benefits cost of an attending. The total per minute cost of rendering care was $4.36 with both trainee ($0.70/minute) and faculty ($3.66/minute). Residents participated in 139,084/235,417 (59%) imaging studies. The C-P TAT was 74 (IQR, 27-180) minutes compared to 51 (IQR, 18-129) minutes C-F TAT of faculty working alone and C-F TAT of 213 (IQR, 71-469) minutes with a resident (p < 0.001). The C-P TAT vs C-F TAT between 4 pm-9 am and weekends with residents is 44 (IQR, 18-119) minutes vs 60 (IQR, 18-179) minutes without. CONCLUSION: The cost of training DR residents exceeds the salary and benefits allocated to their training. Residents increase the absolute professional labor cost of caring for a patient. Overall TAT is slower with residents but the care delivered by residents after-hours is faster.

11.
Med Decis Making ; 39(7): 816-826, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556793

RESUMO

Background. Conjoint analysis is widely used in studies of consumer preference but has only recently been applied to measure patient utilities for health outcomes. We compared the reliability, feasibility, and internal and predictive validity of conjoint scaling methods against better established rating scale and time tradeoff methods for assessing prostate cancer utilities in men at risk for prostate cancer. Methods. In total, 194 men who were biopsy negative for prostate cancer were randomly assigned to complete 2 preference assessment modules, either conjoint analysis and a rating scale module or conjoint analysis and a time tradeoff module. Each participant's most important attribute was identified and evaluated in relation to age group (age <65, age 65 and older), education (high school, some college, college graduate), race/ethnicity (white, black, Latino), and relationship status (in significant relationship v. not). The methods were also evaluated in terms of ease of use and satisfaction. Results. Rating scales were rated as easiest to use and respondents were more satisfied with rating scales and conjoint in comparison to time tradeoffs. Rating scales and conjoint measures demonstrated significantly higher internal validity compared to time tradeoff when evaluated through R2 of the fitted utility function. The 3 methods were similar in terms of predictive validity, but conjoint analysis outperformed the rating scale method when patients were presented with novel combinations of attribute levels (68% correct v. 43%, P = 0.003). Conclusions. Rating scales and conjoint analysis exercises offer greater ease of use and higher satisfaction when measuring patient preferences in men biopsied for prostate cancer in comparison to time tradeoff exercises. Conjoint analysis may be a more robust approach to preference measurement for men at risk for prostate cancer.

12.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(8): 1393-1400, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381402

RESUMO

In 2016 the newly appointed surgeon general of the Navy launched a value-based health care pilot project at Naval Hospital Jacksonville to explore whether multidisciplinary care teams (known as integrated practice units, or IPUs) and measurement of outcomes could improve the readiness of active duty personnel and lower the cost of delivering care to them, their dependents, and local retirees. This article describes the formation of the project's leadership structure, the selection of four conditions to be treated (low back pain, osteoarthritis, diabetes, and high-risk pregnancy), the creation of the care team for each condition, outcomes and costs measured, and the near-term changes in outcomes during the twelve-month pilot period. Patient outcomes improved for three of the four conditions. We describe factors that contributed to the project's success. After the pilot concluded, the Navy combined the back pain and osteoarthritis IPUs into a single musculoskeletal clinical unit and established a similar IPU at another naval hospital and its clinics. The diabetes IPU was continued, but the high-risk pregnancy IPU was not. We offer several observations on the elements that were key to the success of the project, explore challenges and opportunities, and suggest that the pilot described here could be taken to greater scale in the Military Health System and elsewhere.

13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 37: 17-23.e3, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between undocumented immigration status and anxiety, depression, and use of anxiolytic or antidepressant medications in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of data collected between 2014 and 2017. Participants were categorized as U.S.-born citizens, naturalized citizens, documented noncitizens, or undocumented noncitizens. We calculated prevalence and prevalence ratios for anxiety, depression, and use of anxiolytic or antidepressant medication, by immigration status. RESULTS: Of 9257 participants, 1403 (15%) were undocumented noncitizens, 2872 (31%) were documented noncitizens, 3766 (41%) were naturalized citizens, and 1216 (13%) were U.S.-born citizens. Prevalence of anxiety was lower among undocumented than documented noncitizens (9 vs. 15%, P < .0001) but not significantly different in adjusted analyses. Prevalence of depression was similar among undocumented and documented noncitizens (20 vs. 24%, P = .07) and not significantly different in adjusted analyses. Among participants with depression, 7% of undocumented and 27% of documented noncitizens reported use of antidepressants (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.49, 95% CI 0.27-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Undocumented noncitizens had similar likelihood of anxiety and depression, but lower likelihood of antidepressant use, compared with documented noncitizens. These results may reflect the resilience of an undocumented population facing multiple stressors but suggest that this group may be undertreated for depression.

14.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(11): 1013-1019, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study examined whether comorbid low mental health functioning inflates the cost of treating a chronic disease. METHODS: Data were from the 2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=33,893). Costs were estimated from medical records and self-reported health care use. The mental component summary (MCS) score of the 12-item Short Form (SF-12) was used as a measure of mental health status. A general linear model estimated costs with fixed effects for chronic disease (present or absent) and mental health functioning (lowest, middle, and highest MCS score tertiles indicating low, middle, and high levels of mental health functioning, respectively). The SF-12 physical component summary score was a covariate. Eight conditions (arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], high cholesterol, cancer, diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease, and asthma) were analyzed separately. RESULTS: For each analysis, presence or absence of the chronic condition had a strong impact on cost. Lower mental health functioning also had a significant impact on cost. However, the interaction between mental health functioning and chronic disease diagnoses was statistically significant for only three conditions and accounted for only a small variation in cost. Sensitivity analyses using MCS score as a continuous variable, using a log10 transformation of the cost variable, and focusing only on persons with scores on the extreme low end did not significantly alter the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectation, the combination of poor mental functioning and chronic disease diagnosis did not have a strong synergistic effect on cost. Mental and general medical conditions appear to have independent effects on health care costs.

15.
Addict Behav ; 99: 106087, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466016

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoking and binge or excess drinking are unhealthy behaviors that frequently co-occur. Studies of Hispanics/Latinos have mostly been of Mexican Americans although there are substantial differences in smoking and drinking by heritage background. Associated with co-use by 5 subpopulations. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of 16,412 Hispanics/Latinos from Miami, the Bronx, Chicago and San Diego collected between 2008 and 2011 as part of the HCHS/SOL were analyzed. Smoking and alcohol consumption and demographic data were measured by self-report. Prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption and co-use were reported. Logistic regression models examined the odds of co-use of smoking and binge or excess alcohol use by Hispanic/Latino background group. RESULTS: Men of Cuban (10.3%), Puerto Rican (8.9%), and Mexican (8.9%) background had the highest prevalence of co-use of smoking and binge drinking compared to men of Central American (6.1%) and Dominican (6.6%) background. Women of Dominican (16.4%) and Puerto Rican (19.7%) background had the highest prevalence of binge drinking compared to women of Central American (10%) and Cuban (8%) background and Puerto Rican (34.1%) and Cuban (21.8%) women were the most likely to report current smoking compared to women of Central American (8.3%) and Mexican (10.4%) background. Acculturation was not associated with co-use among men and women. Elevated depressive symptoms were positively associated with smoking and binge drinking among men, OR = 1.5 [1.2-2.0], and women, OR = 1.5 [1.1-2.2]. Puerto Rican women had increased odds of co-use of smoking and binge or excess drinking compared to Mexican American women, OR = 3.2 [1.5-6.6]. CONCLUSIONS: Puerto Rican and Dominican Latinas and Central American and South American men have a higher prevalence of co-use.

16.
Health Psychol ; 38(8): 669-671, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368750

RESUMO

Behavioral interventions can be offered within a wide range of contexts, including public health, medicine, surgery, physical rehabilitation, nutrition, and other health services. These differing services compete for the same resources and it is difficult to compare their value. Systematic standardized methodologies for valuing outcomes are available and are being applied by economists and health services researchers, but are not widely used in our field. With support from the Society for Health Psychology, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the Office for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health, two working group meetings were held to consider the use of well-established cost-effectiveness methodologies for the evaluation of behavioral and public health interventions. In this special section, we acknowledge a wide range of variability in terms of behavioral interventions typically delivered in nonclinical versus more traditional clinical settings. Three articles address (1) standardizing methods for conducting cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, (2) providing examples to illustrate progress in applying these methods to evaluate interventions delivered in whole or in part in clinical settings, and (3) providing nonclinical intervention examples selected to highlight the challenges and opportunities for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions in more diverse settings. The ability of our field to communicate cost-effectiveness data to policy makers, employers, and insurers that incorporates implementation costs is central to the likelihood of our interventions being adopted by practitioners and reimbursed by payers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

17.
Health Psychol ; 38(8): 672-679, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368751

RESUMO

Health care remains the most expensive sector in the U.S. economy, now accounting for nearly 1 in every 5 dollars spent. The purpose of health care is to improve the health of populations. However, formal medical care is one of many alternatives for improving health. In order to make better use of scarce resources, cost-effectiveness methodologies have been developed to evaluate how to produce the most health within the constraints of available resources. Standardized cost-effectiveness methodologies are now commonly used in the evaluation of medical therapies and new technologies. However, these methods have rarely been employed for the evaluation of behavioral interventions. Behavioral interventions often use measures that are not generally applied in other areas of health outcomes research. A consequence of neglecting to employ standardized cost-effectiveness analysis is that behavioral, psychological, and environmental interventions may be left out of resource allocation discussions. The purpose of this paper is to review standardized approaches to cost-effectiveness analysis and to encourage their use for the evaluation of behavioral intervention programs. Application of standardized methods of cost-effectiveness analysis will allow direct comparisons between investing in behavioral interventions programs in comparison to a wide range of other alternatives. The methods are general and can be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of social and environmental interventions in addition to traditional medical and surgical treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

18.
Health Psychol ; 38(8): 680-688, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368752

RESUMO

In this report, we offer three examples of how economic data could promote greater adoption of behavioral and psychosocial interventions in clinical settings where primary or specialty medical care is delivered to patients. The examples are collaborative care for depression, chronic pain management, and cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia. These interventions illustrate differences in the availability of cost and cost-effectiveness data and in the extent of intervention adoption and integration into routine delivery of medical care. Collaborative care has been widely studied from an economic perspective, with most studies demonstrating its relative cost-effectiveness per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and some studies demonstrating its potential for cost neutrality or cost savings. The success of collaborative care for depression can be viewed as a model for how to promote greater adoption of other interventions, such as psychological therapies for chronic pain and insomnia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(8): 1488-1498, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the burden and clinical correlates of valvular heart disease in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1818 individuals from the population-based study of Latinos/Hispanics from 4 US metropolitan areas (Bronx, New York; Chicago, Illinois; San Diego, California; and Miami, Florida) underwent a comprehensive clinical and echocardiographic examination from October 1, 2011, through June 24, 2014. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of clinical and sociodemographic variables with valvular lesions. RESULTS: The mean age was 55.2±0.2 years; 57.4% were female. The prevalence of any valvular heart disease (AVHD) was 3.1%, with no considerable differences across sex, and a higher prevalence with increasing age. The proportion of US-born vs foreign-born individuals was similar in those with vs without AVHD (P=.31). The weighted prevalence of AVHD was highest in Central Americans (8.4%) and lowest in Mexicans (1.2%). Regurgitant lesions of moderate or greater severity were present in 2.4% of the population and stenotic lesions of moderate or greater severity in 0.2%. Compared with those without AVHD, individuals with AVHD were more likely to have health insurance coverage (59.6% vs 79.2%; P=.007) but similar income (P=.06) and educational status (P=.46). Univariate regression models revealed that regurgitant lesions were associated with lower body mass index whereas stenotic lesions were associated with higher body mass index. CONCLUSION: Our data provide the first population-based estimates of the prevalence of valvular heart disease in Hispanic/Latinos. Valvular heart disease is fairly common in the Hispanic/Latino population and may constitute an important public health problem.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359766

RESUMO

C1q/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related proteins (CTRPs) have been linked to energy homeostasis and vascular health. People with HIV are susceptible to cardiometabolic disease, but the contributions of different CTRPs are unknown. We investigated the associations of HIV and related factors with serum CTRPs, and CTRPs' relationships with cardiometabolic phenotypes. This involved a cross-sectional analysis of participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study aged ≥35 with (n = 209) and without (n = 92) HIV who underwent carotid ultrasound in 2004-2005 and had stored serum available for measurement of total adiponectin and CTRPs 1, 3, 5, and 9. The Benjamini/Hochberg procedure was used to control the study-wide false-positive rate. HIV-positive women had significantly higher adiponectin than HIV-negative women after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical variables [beta = 0.29 (95% confidence interval 0.11-0.47)]. Among HIV-positive women, lower CD4 count was associated with higher adiponectin and history of AIDS with higher CTRP9, but these were only nominally significant. There was no relationship between HIV status and CTRP 1, 3, or 5, nor was antiretroviral therapy or viral load associated with any CTRP. In the entire cohort, higher adiponectin was associated with significantly lower fasting glucose and insulin resistance, while higher CTRP5 [beta = -0.02 (-0.033 to -0.007)]-and, at a nominal level, CTRPs 1 and 3-was associated with significantly lower carotid intima-media thickness. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged women, HIV serostatus was positively associated with adiponectin, but not CTRPs. In turn, serum adiponectin was inversely associated with glucose dysregulation, whereas CTRP5 was inversely associated with carotid intima-media thickness. Further research is needed to determine CTRPs' role in atherosclerosis.

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