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1.
Surgery ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid overprescription in trauma contributes to the opioid epidemic through diversion of unused pills. Through our study, we sought to do the following: (1) understand the variation in opioid prescription after injury and its relationship to patient and/or clinical variables, and (2) study the relationship between opioid prescribing and long-term pain and analgesic use. METHOD: Trauma patients with an injury severity score ≥9 admitted to 3 level 1 trauma centers were screened for chronic pain and analgesic use 6 to 12 months postinjury. First, multivariable linear regression models were constructed with "oral morphine equivalents" and "number of opioid pills prescribed" at discharge as dependent variables. The coefficients of determination were calculated to determine how much of the variation in opioid prescription was explained by patient and clinical variables. Second, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was created to study the association between opioid prescription at discharge and chronic pain/analgesic use at 6 to 12 months. Analyses were adjusted for patient demographics, socioeconomics, comorbidities, injury parameters, and hospital course. RESULTS: Of the 2,702 patients included (mean [standard deviation] age: 61.0 [21.5]; 55% males), 74% were prescribed opioids at discharge (mean number of pills [standard deviation]: 24.0 [26.5]; mean oral morphine equivalent [standard deviation]: 204.8 [348.1]). The adjusted coefficients of determination for oral morphine equivalents and number of pills was 0.12 and 0.21, respectively, suggesting that the measured patient and clinical factors explain <21% of the variation in opioid prescribing in trauma. Patients prescribed opioids were more likely to have chronic pain (odds ratio [95%] confidence interval: 1.34 [1.05-1.71]) and use analgesics daily (odds ratio [95%] confidence interval: 1.86 [1.25-2.77]) 6 to 12 months postinjury. CONCLUSION: The variation in opioid prescription after traumatic injury is more affected by system and provider level rather than clinical or patient-related factors, and opioid prescribing correlates independently with long-term chronic pain and continued analgesic use postinjury. Efforts to decrease opioid use should prioritize standardizing prescription practices after traumatic injury.

2.
J Surg Res ; 274: 185-195, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative deaths (IODs) are rare but catastrophic. We systematically analyzed IODs to identify clinical and patient safety patterns. METHODS: IODs in a large academic center between 2015 and 2019 were included. Perioperative details were systematically reviewed, focusing on (1) identifying phenotypes of IOD, (2) describing emerging themes immediately preceding cardiac arrest, and (3) suggesting interventions to mitigate IOD in each phenotype. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included. Three IOD phenotypes were identified: trauma (T), nontrauma emergency (NT), and elective (EL) surgery patients, each with 2 sub-phenotypes (e.g., ELm and ELv for elective surgery with medical arrests or vascular injury and bleeding, respectively). In phenotype T, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated before incision in 42%, resuscitative thoracotomy was performed in 33%, and transient return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 30% of patients. In phenotype NT, ruptured aortic aneurysms accounted for half the cases, and median blood product utilization was 2,694 mL. In phenotype ELm, preoperative evaluation did not include electrocardiogram in 12%, cardiac consultation in 62%, stress test in 87%, and chest x-ray in 37% of patients. In phenotype ELv, 83% had a single peripheral intravenous line, and vascular injury was almost always followed by escalation in monitoring (e.g., central/arterial line), alert to the blood bank, and call for surgical backup. CONCLUSIONS: We have created a framework for IOD that can help with intraoperative safety and quality analysis. Focusing on interventions that address appropriateness versus futility in care in phenotypes T and NT, and on prevention and mitigation of intraoperative vessel injury (e.g., intraoperative rescue team) or preoperative optimization in phenotype EL may help prevent IODs.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Lesões do Sistema Vascular , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia , Humanos , Toracotomia
3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 355-361, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital identification of the injured patient likely to require emergent care remains a challenge. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) has been used in the prehospital setting to monitor respiratory physiology and confirmation of endotracheal tube placement. Low levels of ETCO2 have been demonstrated to correlate with injury severity and mortality in a number of in-hospital studies. We hypothesized that prehospital ETCO2 values would be predictive of mortality and need for massive transfusion (MT) in intubated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter trial with 24 participating centers. Prehospital, emergency department, and hospital values were collected. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and compared. Massive transfusion defined as >10 U of blood in 6 hours or death in 6 hours with at least 1 U of blood transfused. RESULTS: A total of 1,324 patients were enrolled. ETCO2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.67; confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.71) was better in predicting mortality than shock index (SI) (AUROC, 0.55; CI, 0.50-0.60) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AUROC, 0.58; CI, 0.53-0.62) (p < 0.0005). Prehospital lowest ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.69; CI, 0.64-0.75), SBP (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.70-0.81), and SI (AUROC, 0.74; CI, 0.68-0.79) were all predictive of MT. Analysis of patients with normotension demonstrated lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.66; CI, 0.61-0.71), which was more predictive of mortality than SBP (AUROC, 0.52; CI, 0.47-0.58) or SI (AUROC, 0.56; CI, 0.50-0.62) (p < 0.001). Lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.65-0.84), SBP (AUROC, 0.63; CI, 0.54-0.74), and SI (AUROC, 0.64; CI, 0.54-0.75) were predictive of MT in normotensive patients. ETCO2 cutoff for MT was 26 mm Hg. The positive predictive value was 16.1%, and negative predictive value was high at 98.1%. CONCLUSION: Prehospital ETCO2 is predictive of mortality and MT. ETCO2 outperformed traditional measures such as SBP and SI in the prediction of mortality. ETCO2 may outperform traditional measures in predicting need for transfusion in occult shock. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic test, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Estados Unidos , Sinais Vitais
5.
J Surg Res ; 266: 35-43, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bedside experience and studies of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicate COVID-19 to be a devastating multisystem disease. We aim to describe the incidence, associated variables, and outcomes of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for all critically ill adult patients (≥18 years old) admitted to the ICU at a large academic medical center with confirmed COVID-19 between March 13, 2020 and April 18, 2020 were prospectively collected. Patients with serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations greater than 1000 U/L were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis. Patients were further stratified as having moderate (serum CK concentration 1000-4999 U/L) or severe (serum CK concentration ≥5000 U/L) rhabdomyolysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify outcomes and variables associated with the development of rhabdomyolysis. RESULTS: Of 235 critically ill COVID-19 patients, 114 (48.5%) met diagnostic criteria for rhabdomyolysis. Patients with rhabdomyolysis more often required mechanical ventilation (P < 0.001), prone positioning (P < 0.001), pharmacological paralysis (P < 0.001), renal replacement therapy (P = 0.010), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (P = 0.025). They also had longer median ICU length of stay (LOS) (P < 0.001) and hospital LOS (P < 0.001). No difference in mortality was observed. Male sex, patients with morbid obesity, SOFA score, and prone positioning were independently associated with rhabdomyolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of critically ill COVID-19 patients in our cohort met diagnostic criteria for rhabdomyolysis. Male sex, morbid obesity, SOFA score, and prone position were independently associated with rhabdomyolysis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Rabdomiólise/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Decúbito Ventral , Estudos Prospectivos , Rabdomiólise/sangue , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(5): 880-890, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe characteristics, multisystem outcomes, and predictors of mortality of the critically ill COVID-19 patients in the largest hospital in Massachusetts. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection between March 14, 2020, and April 28, 2020, were included; hospital and multisystem outcomes were evaluated. Data were collected from electronic records. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300 during admission and bilateral radiographic pulmonary opacities. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for available confounders were performed to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 235 patients were included. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 5 (3-8), and the median (IQR) PaO2/FiO2 was 208 (146-300) with 86.4% of patients meeting criteria for ARDS. The median (IQR) follow-up was 92 (86-99) days, and the median ICU length of stay was 16 (8-25) days; 62.1% of patients were proned, 49.8% required neuromuscular blockade, and 3.4% required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The most common complications were shock (88.9%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (69.8%), secondary bacterial pneumonia (70.6%), and pressure ulcers (51.1%). As of July 8, 2020, 175 patients (74.5%) were discharged alive (61.7% to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility), 58 (24.7%) died in the hospital, and only 2 patients were still hospitalized, but out of the ICU. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.12), higher median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at ICU admission (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), elevated creatine kinase of ≥1,000 U/L at hospital admission (OR, 6.64; 95% CI, 1.51-29.17), and severe ARDS (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.18-23.29) independently predicted hospital mortality.Comorbidities, steroids, and hydroxychloroquine treatment did not predict mortality. CONCLUSION: We present here the outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Age, acuity of disease, and severe ARDS predicted mortality rather than comorbidities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Gravidade do Paciente , Injúria Renal Aguda/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Bacteriana/virologia , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Decúbito Ventral , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Choque/virologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Eur Spine J ; 29(10): 2491-2504, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Posterior short-segment fixation (4-screw construct = 4S) is the conventional surgical technique for thoracolumbar fractures. The effect of adding two intermediate pedicle screws at the fractured level (6-screw construct = 6S) is still a matter of debate. This review aims to compare the results between 4 and 6S pedicle screw fixation for thoracolumbar fractures. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. The databases PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar were searched until January 2020. Inclusion criteria were studies comparing 4S and 6S techniques in patients with thoracolumbar fractures. Non-comparative studies and studies without full text were excluded. Cochrane risk of bias was assessed, and the GRADE approach was used to present the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies, of which 21 randomized controlled trials, with a total of 1890 patients (940 with 4S and 950 with 6S) were included. Meta-analysis showed that the 6S technique resulted in significantly lower pain scores, better short-term and long-term Cobb angles, less loss of correction and less implant failures. However, longer operation time and more blood loss were seen with the 6S technique. Length of hospital stay, Oswestry Disability Index scores and infections did not differ significantly between the 6S and 4S techniques. Quality of the evidence according to GRADE was moderate to low. CONCLUSION: In the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures, adding intermediate screws at the fracture level (6S) results in less post-operative pain, better radiological outcomes and less implant failure at the cost of a longer operation time and higher blood loss.


Assuntos
Parafusos Pediculares , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/lesões , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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