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2.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 15: 1274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567259

RESUMO

Background: A significant proportion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients present with poor performance status (PS) at baseline are almost always excluded from the clinical trials leading to availability of only limited data in this subgroup. Patients and methods: This was an observational single institutional study. The eligibility criteria for inclusion were a histologic or cytologic diagnosis of advanced NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS 3 or 4. All patients coming between June 2015 and December 2018 were evaluated for inclusion in this study. Results: A total of 245 patients were enrolled in the study. The median age of the patients was 63 years (range 25-89), 142 (58%) were male, 196 (80%) had adenocarcinoma histology and 192 (78.4%) has PS 3 while rest (21.6%) had PS 4. Out of 245 patients, 192 (78.4%) received oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and supportive care, 45 (18.4%) received supportive care alone, while 8 (3.2%) patients received chemotherapy along with supportive care. Median overall survival (OS) was 3 months (95% CI: 1.8-4.2) in patients who received oral TKI versus 1 month (1.0-2.9) in patients who received supportive care alone (log-rank p = 0.013). The median OS for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant patients who received oral TKI was 12 months (95% CI: 7.7-16.3), while it was 3 months (95% CI: 1.5-4.5) for patients who were EGFR wild-type and received TKI on compassionate basis (HR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32-0.77; p = 0.001). Conclusions: The use of oral TKI on a compassionate basis led to improvement in survival in the overall cohort of the patients; this was principally driven by EGFR-mutated patients.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 710585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568037

RESUMO

Background: Treatment of malignant melanoma has undergone a paradigm shift with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and targeted therapies. However, access to ICI is limited in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Patients and Methods: Histologically confirmed malignant melanoma cases registered from 2013 to 2019 were analysed for pattern of care, safety, and efficacy of systemic therapies (ST). Results: There were 659 patients with a median age of 53 (range 44-63) years; 58.9% were males; 55.2% were mucosal melanomas. Most common primary sites were extremities (36.6%) and anorectum (31.4%). Nearly 10.8% of the metastatic cohort were BRAF mutated. Among 368 non-metastatic patients (172 prior treated, 185 de novo, and 11 unresectable), with a median follow-up of 26 months (0-83 months), median EFS and OS were 29.5 (95% CI: 22-40) and 33.3 (95% CI: 29.5-41.2) months, respectively. In the metastatic cohort, with a median follow up of 24 (0-85) months, the median EFS for BSC was 3.1 (95% CI 1.9-4.8) months versus 3.98 (95% CI 3.2-4.7) months with any ST (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P = 0.011). The median OS was 3.9 (95% CI 3.3-6.4) months for BSC alone versus 12.0 (95% CI 10.5-15.1) months in any ST (HR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.28-0.50; P < 0.001). The disease control rate was 51.55%. Commonest grade 3-4 toxicity was anemia with chemotherapy (9.5%) and ICI (8.8%). In multivariate analysis, any ST received had a better prognostic impact in the metastatic cohort. Conclusions: Large real-world data reflects the treatment patterns adopted in LMIC for melanomas and poor access to expensive, standard of care therapies. Other systemic therapies provide meaningful clinical benefit and are worth exploring especially when the standard therapies are challenging to administer.

4.
South Asian J Cancer ; 10(2): 92-96, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568222

RESUMO

Introduction TFE Translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) represents 1 to 5% of all cases of renal cell carcinoma, with the highest frequency among children and young adults. Management of these tumors is not very well defined in literature. Although in pediatric age group it has favorable prognosis, in adults it has an aggressive nature, with poor outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of treatment outcome in adult patient 18 years or above treated at our hospital between January 2013 and November 2018. Material and Methods Clinical and pathological data of 26 patients from a single institution diagnosed with TRCC between January 2013 and November 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. All cases of TRCC were confirmed with immunohistochemistry or fluorescence in situ hybridization. We analyzed our data of patients treated with surgery only or who progressed after surgery and treated with systemic therapy or who presented with upfront unresectable or metastatic disease treated with systemic therapy with respect to event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Between January 2013 and November 2018, 26 adult patients who were treated at our center were eligible for this analysis as per our criteria. Out of 26 patients, 25 patients had radical surgery after evaluation and 1 had metastatic disease who was started on systemic therapy. Out 25 patients who were treated with radical surgery, 16 patients progressed and they were started on systemic therapy except for 1 patient who defaulted. Median time to start systemic therapy among patient treated with curative nephrectomy was 13 months. Median EFS and median OS among overall population were 22 and 30 months, respectively. Among 16 patients who were treated with systemic therapy, median EFS to first-line therapy was 8 months and to second-line therapy was 2.5 months. Median OS was 17 months in patients treated with systemic therapy. Conclusion TRCC is rare in adult population but carries significant risk of disease progression even after initial curative treatment with potential response to targeted therapy for short duration.

5.
Indian J Urol ; 37(3): 226-233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465951

RESUMO

Radical cystectomy with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection is the standard of care for muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The role of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy has evolved over the last 3-4 decades, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has now become the standard recommended treatment. However, there are many nuances to this and the utilization of chemotherapy has not been universal. The optimum chemotherapy regimen is still debated. Adjuvant radiation has a role in high-risk patients although not established and immunotherapy has shown promising results. We reviewed the evidence on NACT and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) regimens, NACT versus ACT, and the role of adjuvant radiotherapy and immunotherapy in MIBC.

7.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; 37(3): 379-385, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267455

RESUMO

Introduction: Primary Mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is a biologically and clinically distinct subset of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We analysed the outcomes of our cohort of PMBCL patients treated with Dose adjusted (DA)-R-EPOCH regimen. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive PMBCL patients who received chemotherapy consisting of DA-R-EPOCH with filgrastim support. Survival analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier method. All calculations were performed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Results: A total of 43 consecutive suspected PMBCL patients were reviewed for this study, 6 patients were excluded as diagnosis of PMBCL could not be established. All patients except one (97.3%) received 6 cycles of R-DA-EPOCH regimen. Median age of the patients was 27 years (range 15-58). Bulky disease (> 7 cm) was present in 97% patients and 54% patients had extranodal disease. With a median follow up of 40 months, 3-year overall survival was 80.6% (95% CI: 74.0-87.2). The 3-year event free survival was 78.4% (95% CI: 71.6-85.2). There were 6 (16.2%) relapses, 1 (2.7%) primary progression and 7 (23%) deaths. Mediastinal radiotherapy was administered to 17 (45.9%) patients. All the deaths were due to disease progression. Grade III/IV toxicities were seen in 28 (75.7%) patients, febrile neutropenia being the most common one. Conclusions: DA-R-EPOCH regimen is an effective and tolerable regimen in PMBCL patients even with adverse features.

8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049890

RESUMO

Melanocytic schwannoma (MS) is a rare nerve sheath tumour characterised by melanin-producing neoplastic schwann cells that typically affects the posterior spinal nerve roots. We report an ultrarare case of recurrent/metastatic MS associated with Carney complex in a young woman with family history of breast cancer. This highlights the novel approach of combined checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) and radiotherapy. The patient was initially treated with Nivolumab along with concurrent external beam radiotherapy. There was sustained clinical benefit achieved for over 15 months with preserved quality of life. Addition of Ipilimumab, which she tolerated reasonably well, helped to control the progressive disease again for another 12 months. She harboured a rare PRKAR1A R228 mutation (Carney complex) and received appropriate targeted therapy. She survived for 51 and 35 months from her initial diagnosis and start of CPI, respectively, which to the best of our knowledge is the longest documented survival in this rare entity.


Assuntos
Complexo de Carney , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural , Neuroma Acústico , Complexo de Carney/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo de Carney/genética , Complexo de Carney/radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Indian J Cancer ; 58(3): 365-370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753596

RESUMO

Background: In metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (M-STS), pazopanib has demonstrated promising activity; however, there is dearth of data from lower and middle income countries. It is important to explore the feasibility (toxicity, acceptance), efficacy (response rates, survival), and optimal dose requirement of pazopanib in M-STS in India. Methods: All patients who received pazopanib for M-STS in 2013-2018 in Tata Memorial Centre were included. Institutional ethics committee approval was obtained. Assessment for response with contrast computed tomography scans was done as per the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria. Pazopanib was continued until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Clinical benefit rates and survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method. All statistical calculations were done using SPSS version 21.0. Results: Seventy-two consecutive patients with a median follow-up of 17 (4-40) months were included in this study. Median lines of prior therapy were 2 (0-2). Among 50 evaluable patients, there were 12/50 (24%) partial responses, 25/50 (50%) stable disease, and 15/50 (30%) progressive disease. Median progression-free survival was 5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3-6.9) months and median overall survival was 11 (95% CI 6.8-15.2) months. Adverse effects (G2/G3) in patients: hand foot syndrome-28%, hyperbilirubinemia/transaminitis-10%, diarrhea-20%, hypertension-17%, hypothyroidism-15%, anemia-6%, and fatigue-17%. Notably, 40% patient required dose reduction and median dose was 600 (200-800) mg daily. Conclusion: Pazopanib was found a feasible treatment option for M-STS in India with internationally comparable outcomes. However, significant patients required dose modifications, and median tolerated dose was lower than the standard 800 mg dose. This novel finding merits confirmation in larger cohorts for reproducibility.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25115, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787593

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are rapidly being incorporated as treatment option either alone or in combination with chemotherapy in most of the solid tumors. Since there is very limited data of ICI in patients with poor performance status (PS) from the real world settings, we performed a retrospective audit of patients who received ICI and report the analysis based on ECOG PS of these patients.This study is a retrospective audit of a prospectively collected database of patients receiving ICIs for advanced solid tumors in any line between August 2015 and November 2018 at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS statistical software for windows version 20.0.A total of 155 patients who received ICIs during the specified period were evaluated for this study. Baseline ECOG PS 0-1 (n = 103, 66.4%) patients was associated with median OS 9.1 (95% CI [confidence interval], 4.4-NR) months when compared to ECOG 2-4 (n = 52, 33.5%) which had a median OS of 2.9 (95% CI; 1.8-5.5) months (HR, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.1-2.7, log rank P = .017). The disease control rate for the poor PS group was 34.6%. However, 27.3% patients (95% CI: 20.3-34.3) were still alive at 1 year. Median OS in patients with PS 2 was 3.7 months (95% CI: 0-11.6) as compared to 1.8 months (95% CI: 0.2-3.4) for those with PS 3-4 (HR-2.0; 95% CI: 1.0-3.9, P = .041). The tolerance to ICIs was good with no grade 3/4 toxicities in 44 (84.6%) patients.Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a safe and effective therapeutic option even in solid tumor patients with poor performance status.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cancer Med ; 10(5): 1525-1534, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors (Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab) are approved for multiple indications in solid tumors. However access to these therapies is limited in low and middle income countries. Hence we performed an audit to identify accessibility, adverse event rates, compliance, progression free survival and overall survival in solid tumors. METHODS: This was a single center retrospective analysis of prospective data base of patients with non-melanoma solid tumors who were treated with immunotherapy from August 2015 to November 2018. Adverse events during immunotherapy were documented and graded using CTCAE (Common terminology criteria for adverse events), v. 4.02. The response rates to immunotherapy, toxicities and the time to onset and resolution of toxicities were also evaluated as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: Out of 9610 patients, only 155 patients (1.61%) could receive immunotherapy. The most common malignancies included metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, metastatic urothelial carcinoma and relapsed/recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Median overall survival in patients who received immunotherapy in non-melanoma solid malignancies was 5.37 months (95% CI, 3.73-9.73). Poor performance status at baseline was the only adverse prognostic factor. The median progression free survival was 2.57 months (95% CI, 1.73-3.83). Immunotherapy was well tolerated with most common side effects being fatigue 14.8% and anorexia 5.8%. The cumulative incidence of immune related adverse events like hepatitis, pneumonitis, colitis and nephritis was less than 10%. CONCLUSION: Real-world data in Indian setting confirms the benefit of immunotherapy in patients with advanced non-melanoma solid tumors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia Adotiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anorexia/induzido quimicamente , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/provisão & distribuição , Índia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(10): 6275-6290, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209466

RESUMO

Systemic treatment in small cell lung carcinoma has been a challenge for oncologists for decades. The high propensity for recurrence is usually due to distant metastasis, which makes systemic treatment an essential component of treatment in small cell lung carcinoma. The regimen of cisplatin and etoposide (established in the mid-1980's) concurrently with thoracic radiotherapy followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) remains the standard of care in limited stage disease. Despite numerous trials, this regimen has not been improved upon. The standard combination regimen of cisplatin and etoposide has been compared to alternative platinum-containing regimens with drugs like epirubicin, irinotecan, paclitaxel, topotecan, pemetrexed, amrubicin and belotecan. Non-platinum containing regimens like ifosfamide and etoposide have also been tested. Attempts to intensify therapy have included the addition of a third drug like paclitaxel, ifosfamide, tirapazamine, tamoxifen, and thalidomide. Maintenance therapy following induction with chemotherapy, vandetanib and interferon-alpha have also been attempted. Molecularly directed targeted therapies and immunotherapeutic agents are areas of active research. In this review, we discuss the various systemic therapy options in limited stage small cell lung carcinoma, from the historical regimens to the modern-day therapy and promising areas of research. We also discuss the role of growth factors, the optimal number of chemotherapy cycles, the use of prognostic and predictive factors, the optimal timing of chemotherapy and the treatment of special populations of patients including older patients, and patients with comorbidities.

13.
Cancer Med ; 9(23): 8747-8753, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited data on outcomes in cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from lower middle-income countries (LMICs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an observational study, conducted between 12 April and 10 June 2020 at Tata Memorial centre, Mumbai, in cancer patients undergoing systemic therapy with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. The objectives were to evaluate cumulative 30-day all-cause mortality, COVID-19 attributable mortality, factors predicting mortality, and time to viral negativity after initial diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 24 660 footfalls and 7043 patients evaluated, 230 patients on active systemic therapy with a median age of 42 (1-75) years were included. COVID-19 infection severity, as per WHO criteria, was mild, moderate, and severe in 195 (85%), 11 (5%), and 24 (11%) patients, respectively. Twenty-three patients (10%) expired during follow-up, with COVID-19 attributable mortality seen in 15 patients (6.5%). There were no mortalities in the pediatric cohort of 31 (14%) patients. Advanced stage cancer being treated with palliative intent vs others [30-day mortality 24%% vs 5%, odds ratio (OR) 5.6, 95% CI 2.28-13.78, P < .001], uncontrolled cancer status vs controlled cancer (30-day mortality37.5%% vs 4%%, OR 14, 95% CI 4.46-44.16, P < .001) and severe COVID-19 vs mild COVID-19 (30-day mortality 71% vs 3%, OR 92.29, 95% CI 26.43-322.21, P < .001) were significantly associated with mortality. The median time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity was 17 days [interquartile range (IQR)17-28) in the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rates in cancer patients with COVID-19 who are receiving systemic anti-cancer therapy in LMICSs are marginally higher than that reported in unselected COVID-19 cohorts with prolonged time to viral negativity in a substantial number of patients. The pediatric cancer patients tended to have favorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
14.
Acta Oncol ; 59(12): 1520-1527, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the role of chemotherapy in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and poor performance status (PS). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study in patients with SCLC and PS 3 or 4. We recorded the initial therapy, symptom improvement, response rate, overall survival (OS), and the impact of various factors on OS. RESULTS: From June 2010 to August 2019, we enrolled 234 patients; 185 (79%) with PS 3 and 49 (21%) PS 4. Initial therapy was best supportive care (BSC) in 49 patients (21%), standard full dose chemotherapy in 31 (13%), and attenuated chemotherapy in 154 (66%). In 89% patients treated with attenuated chemotherapy, symptom-relief occurred at a median of 3 days (IQR, 1-7). Grade 3 and higher toxicities developed in 60% patients treated with initial attenuated chemotherapy, commonly hyponatremia in 39%, neutropenia in 16%, anemia in 11%, and infection in 10%. Grade 3 and higher toxicities as a result of standard chemotherapy occurred in 89% patients treated with upfront standard full dose chemotherapy compared to 69% of patients who received initial attenuated chemotherapy with subsequent treatment escalation. Overall, there were 6 (2.6%) toxic deaths. The response rate to chemotherapy was 77%. The median OS of the patients who received any chemotherapy was significantly longer at 6 months (95% CI, 4.8-7.2) compared to 1 month (95% CI, 0.4-1.6 months) in patients who were managed with BSC, p < 0.001; hazard ratio, 0.39 (95% CI, 0.27-0.56). The disease stage, lactate dehydrogenase level, and receipt of chemotherapy significantly impacted survival. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy prolongs survival in patients with SCLC and poor PS. Administering an initial attenuated chemotherapy regimen followed by standard full-dose chemotherapy when the PS improves may lower toxicity and improve tolerance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34(9): e325-e329, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the care of hip fracture patients remains a clinical priority. Our study aims to investigate the 30-day mortality rate of hip fracture patients during the first 30 days of the pandemic in the United Kingdom. METHODS: A single-center, observational, prospective study of patients presenting with hip fractures. Data collection started from "day 0" of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom and continued for 30 days. We collected data on time to surgery, Clinical Frailty Scale score, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, COVID-19 infection status, 30-day mortality, and cause of death. For comparison, we collected retrospective data during the same 30-day period in 2018, 2019, and the previous 6 months (Control groups A, B, and C, respectively). RESULTS: Forty-three patients were included in the study. There was no difference in age or gender between the Study and Control groups. The 30-day mortality rate of the Study group was 16.3%, which was higher than Control groups A (P = 0.022), B (P = 0.003) and C (P = 0.001). The prevalence of COVID-19 infection in our Study group was 26%. Of the 7 mortalities recorded, 4 patients tested positive for COVID-19 infection. In our Study group, COVID-19 infection correlated significantly with 30-day mortality (P = 0.002, odds ratio 2.4). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a significant increase in 30-day mortality among hip fracture patients during the first 30 days of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. A positive COVID-19 test result in patients with hip fractures is associated with a 2.4-fold increase in risk of 30-day mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
16.
Oncologist ; 25(12): e1886-e1892, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717127

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: A structured teaching module including intensive prophylactic measures to alleviate hand-foot syndrome (HFS) during capecitabine therapy is feasible but ineffective at protecting patients from HFS. Pharmacologic therapeutic interventions should be investigated for the management of this complication. BACKGROUND: Capecitabine-induced hand-foot syndrome (HFS) has a detrimental effect on quality of life. The effect of a structured teaching module including intensive prophylactic measures was evaluated. METHODS: This non-crossover phase III double-blinded clinical trial randomized patients in a 1:1 ratio to either a control group or to a group administered a structured teaching model including intensive prophylactic measures on HFS administered by a trained oncology nurse at regular intervals (case) versus standard information on HFS care administered by treating clinician (control). The primary endpoint was comparison of fraction of patients in both arms developing at least grade 2 HFS. RESULTS: Between June 15, 2016, and April 4, 2018, 280 patients (140 to case and 140 to control) were enrolled. The median number of capecitabine chemotherapy cycles was eight; 269 patients (96%) were evaluable for HFS, of whom 89 patients (33.08%) developed at least grade 2 HFS (grade 2 HFS, 73 patients [26.1%]; grade 3 HFS, 16 patients (5.7%}). There was no difference in at least grade 2 HFS between evaluable case and control arms of the study (control group, 45/135 [33.3%]; case, 44/134 [32.8%]; p = .93). CONCLUSION: The use of a structured teaching module including intensive prophylactic measures was feasible, but this did not reduce the incidence and severity of capecitabine-induced HFS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Mão-Pé , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila , Síndrome Mão-Pé/epidemiologia , Síndrome Mão-Pé/etiologia , Síndrome Mão-Pé/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
17.
J Orthop Trauma ; 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the care of hip fracture patients remains a clinical priority. Our study aims to investigate the 30-day mortality rate of hip fracture patients during the first thirty days of the pandemic in the UK. METHODS: A single-center, observational, prospective study of patients presenting with hip fractures. Data collection started from 'day zero' of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK and continued for thirty days. We collected data on time-to-surgery, Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS), COVID-19 infection status, 30-day mortality and cause of death. For comparison, we collected retrospective data during the same thirty-day period in 2018, 2019 and the previous six months (Control groups A, B and C, respectively). RESULTS: 43 patients were included in the study. There was no difference in age or gender between the Study and Control groups. The 30-day mortality rate of the Study group was 16.3%, which was higher than Control groups A (P=0.022), B (P=0.003) and C (P=0.001). The prevalence of COVID-19 infection in our Study group was 26%. Of the seven mortalities recorded, four patients tested positive for COVID-19 infection. In our Study group, COVID-19 infection correlated significantly with 30-day mortality (P=0.002, odds ratio 2.4). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a significant increase in 30-day mortality amongst hip fracture patients during the first thirty days of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. A positive COVID-19 test result in patients with hip fractures is associated with a 2.4-fold increase in risk of 30-day mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

18.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 14: 1038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565891

RESUMO

Background: The use of antibiotics is known to alter the gut microbiome and it is hypothesised that the use of antibiotics may also alter the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). As data is limited from real-world settings, we performed a retrospective audit of patients who received ICI along with concomitant antibiotics. Patients and Methods: This study is a retrospective audit of a prospectively collected the database of patients who received ICI for advanced solid tumours in any line between August 2015 and November 2018 at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India. Antibiotic use was recorded from 2 weeks before the start of ICI and concomitantly with ICI. All statistical calculations were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software for windows version 20.0. Results: A total of 155 patients were identified as having received ICI during the study period, out of which 70 (44%) patients received antibiotics. Median PFS in patients who received antibiotics was 1.7 months (95% CI: 1.1-2.3) as against 3.6 months (95% CI: 2.3-4.8) for patients who did not receive antibiotics (p = 0.912). Median OS in the patients who received antibiotics was 3.9 months (95% CI: 1.8-11.4) as compared to 9.2 months (95% CI: 4.2-12.3) who did not receive antibiotics p = 0.053 (HR = 1.023; 95% CI: 1.00-1.04). Among the patients who received antibiotics, median OS for patients who received ≤10 days of antibiotics was 8.8 months (95% CI: 4.2-11.2) while for patients receiving >10 days of antibiotics, it was 2.8 months (95% CI: 1.2-4.4), p = 0.025 (HR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7). Thirty-three (21.2% of total) patients received antibiotics during the window of 2 weeks before the start of ICI to 2 months of starting ICI. Median OS in the patients who received antibiotics in this window was 2.8 months (95% CI: 1.2-4.5) as compared to 9.2 months (95% CI: 5.2-13.1) who did not receive antibiotics p = 0.008 (HR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-3.0). Conclusions: This study shows that the judicious use of antibiotics is required in patients on ICI or scheduled to be started on ICI.

19.
South Asian J Cancer ; 9(4): 245-249, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141686

RESUMO

Purpose The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of patients developing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after receiving chemotherapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, despite receiving antiemetic prophylaxis (AEP) as per the standard guidelines. Patients and Methods Between April 2019 and March 2020, all patients planned for chemotherapy were eligible for enrolment in the study. The primary endpoint of the study was the assessment of complete response (CR) rates. Results Overall, 1,276 consecutive patients were screened for this study, while 738 patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A total of 23.2% of the whole cohort failed to achieve CR. Also, 28.2, 16.9, and 16.6% of patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC), low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC), and high emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC), respectively, failed to achieve CR. The differences in failure to achieve CR was statistically significant between MEC and HEC ( p < 0.001) groups. Among MEC group, there was no difference between those who received oxaliplatin (27.8%) versus nonoxaliplatin regimens (25.8%) in terms of failure rates ( p = 0.613). Conclusion Approximately one-fourth of patients failed to achieve a complete response from CINV in GI cancers despite using guideline-based AEP. Patients receiving MEC had the highest failure rates suggesting a need to improve AEP in these patients.

20.
South Asian J Cancer ; 9(4): 240-244, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131576

RESUMO

Background Various predictive models have been developed which incorporates patient risk factors into the selection of optimal antiemetic therapy, one of which is chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) risk scoring system developed by Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC). Patients and Methods Consecutive patients with gastrointestinal malignancy who had not received previous chemotherapy were eligible for enrollment in the study if they were scheduled to receive at least one cycle of chemotherapy. The CINV risk assessment tool was used to collect the study data and to assess CINV risk score. Results Ninety-eight patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included in this study, out of which 57% were males, median age was 48 years (range: 28-77). Colorectal cancer (32.7%) was the most common diagnosis followed by gastric cancer (27.6%). Gemcitabine/cisplatin and CAPOX regimen were the most common regimen being administered in 19.4% each. As per MASCC guidelines, 19.4% patients received highly emetogenic chemotherapy, 69.4% moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, while 11.2% received regimen with low emetogenicity. CINV risk module characterized 52% patients to have high risk for CINV, while 48% to have low risk of CINV, thus, 52% had the discrepancy in risk assigned by two methods, and this was statistically significant ( p = 0.025). In subgroup analysis, although patient cohort with acute nausea had no statistically significant discrepancy ( p = 0.123), but statistically significant discrepancy was found in patient cohort with delayed nausea ( p = 0.001), acute ( p = 0.038), and delayed ( p < 0.001) vomiting. Conclusion A significant percentage of patients who receive chemotherapy continue to experience nausea and vomiting despite receiving antiemetic treatment as per standard guidelines. The study generates a hypothesis for future large randomized studies looking at change in antiemetic prophylaxis based on CINV risk tool, leading to improvement in complete response rates of acute and delayed CINV.

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