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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(2): 290-296, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assesses differences in faculty rank between female and male infectious diseases (ID) faculty with academic appointments at US medical schools. METHODS: We analyzed a complete database of US physicians with medical school faculty appointments in 2014. This database consists of a linkage between the American Association of Medical Colleges faculty roster and a physician database from Doximity, and includes physician age, sex, years since residency completion, publications, National Institutes of Health grants, and registered clinical trials for all academic physicians by specialty. We used multivariable logistic regression models with medical school-specific fixed effects to assess sex differences in full professorship by specialty and the relationship between these factors and achieving the rank of full professor within ID. We compared this adjusted difference in ID to that of peer subspecialties. RESULTS: Among a total of 2016 academic ID physicians, there were 742 (37%) women who together accounted for 48.1% of assistant professors, 39.7% of associate professors, and 19.2% of full professors. Women faculty had fewer total (16.3 vs 28.3, P < .001) and first/last author publications (9.8 vs 20.4, P < .001). In adjusted models, the rate of full professorship (vs assistant or associate) among female compared to male ID physicians was large and significant (absolute adjusted difference, -8.0% [95% confidence interval, -11.9% to -4.1%]). This difference was greater in ID than in cardiology. CONCLUSIONS: Significant sex differences in achieving the rank of full professor exist in academic ID, after adjustment for multiple factors known to influence these outcomes. Greater efforts should be made to address equity in academic ID.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(6): 1697-1702.e1, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female physicians are significantly less likely than male physicians to be full professors, even after accounting for age, experience, specialty, and measures of research and clinical productivity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate sex differences in academic rank in the allergy and immunology workforce. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional physician data set containing the allergist's sex, age, years since residency, faculty appointment, authored publications, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, clinical trial investigation, and Medicare reimbursement to investigate sex differences in the academic allergy and immunology workforce using multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 507 academic allergists (9.3% of practicing US allergists in 2014), 323 (63.7%) were men, and 184 (36.3%) were women. Female allergists were younger (47.9 vs 56.9 years, P < .001), had fewer total (12.5 vs 28.7, P < .001) and first/last author (8.0 vs 21.5, P < .001) average publications, were less likely to have NIH funding (13.0% vs 23.5%, P = .004), were less frequently a clinical trial investigator (10.3% vs 16.1%, P = .07), and generated less average annual Medicare revenue ($44,000 vs $23,000, P = .10). Of 152 (30.0%) full professors, 126 (82.9%) were male, and 26 (17.0%) were female. After multivariable adjustment, rates of full professorship among female and male allergists were not significantly different (absolute adjusted difference for female vs male allergists, 6.0%; 95% CI, -8.3% to 20.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Among allergists with US medical school faculty appointments, men and women were similarly likely to be full professors after accounting for factors influencing promotion. Underlying differences in research productivity and NIH funding not explained by age differences alone warrant additional investigation.

5.
Radiology ; 291(3): 700-707, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063082

RESUMO

Background Variation between radiologists when making recommendations for additional imaging and associated factors are, to the knowledge of the authors, unknown. Clear identification of factors that account for variation in follow-up recommendations might prevent unnecessary tests for incidental or ambiguous image findings. Purpose To determine incidence and identify factors associated with follow-up recommendations in radiology reports from multiple modalities, patient care settings, and imaging divisions. Materials and Methods This retrospective study analyzed 318 366 reports obtained from diagnostic imaging examinations performed at a large urban quaternary care hospital from January 1 to December 31, 2016, excluding breast and US reports. A subset of 1000 reports were randomly selected and manually annotated to train and validate a machine learning algorithm to predict whether a report included a follow-up imaging recommendation (training-and-validation set consisted of 850 reports and test set of 150 reports). The trained algorithm was used to classify 318 366 reports. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the likelihood of follow-up recommendation. Additional analysis by imaging subspecialty division was performed, and intradivision and interradiologist variability was quantified. Results The machine learning algorithm classified 38 745 of 318 366 (12.2%) reports as containing follow-up recommendations. Average patient age was 59 years ± 17 (standard deviation); 45.2% (143 767 of 318 366) of reports were from male patients. Among 65 radiologists, 57% (37 of 65) were men. At multivariable analysis, older patients had higher rates of follow-up recommendations (odds ratio [OR], 1.01 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.01, 1.01] for each additional year), male patients had lower rates of follow-up recommendations (OR, 0.9; 95% CI: 0.9, 1.0), and follow-up recommendations were most common among CT studies (OR, 4.2 [95% CI: 4.0, 4.4] compared with radiography). Radiologist sex (P = .54), presence of a trainee (P = .45), and years in practice (P = .49) were not significant predictors overall. A division-level analysis showed 2.8-fold to 6.7-fold interradiologist variation. Conclusion Substantial interradiologist variation exists in the probability of recommending a follow-up examination in a radiology report, after adjusting for patient, examination, and radiologist factors. © RSNA, 2019 See also the editorial by Russell in this issue.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Informática Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-5, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess radiologists' adoption of a closed-loop communication and tracking system, Result Alert and Development of Automated Resolution (RADAR), for incidental pulmonary nodules and to measure its effect on the completeness of radiologists' follow-up recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was performed at a tertiary academic center that performs more than 600,000 radiology examinations annually. Before RADAR, the institution's standard of care was for radiologists to generate alerts for newly discovered incidental pulmonary nodules using a previously described PACS-embedded software tool. RADAR is a new closed-loop communication tool embedded in the PACS and enterprise provider workflow that enables establishing a collaborative follow-up plan between a radiologist and referring provider and helps automate collaborative follow-up plan tracking and execution. We assessed RADAR adoption for incidental pulmonary nodules, the primary outcome, in our thoracic radiology division (study period March 9, 2018, through August 2, 2018). The secondary outcome was the completeness of follow-up recommendation for incidental pulmonary nodules, defined as explicit imaging modality and time frame for follow-up. RESULTS: After implementation, 106 of 183 (58%) incidental pulmonary nodules alerts were generated using RADAR. RADAR adoption increased by 75% during the study period (40% in the first 3 weeks vs 70% in the last 3 weeks; p < 0.001 test for trend). All RADAR alerts had explicit documentation of imaging modality and follow-up time frame, compared with 71% for non-RADAR alerts for incidental pulmonary nodules (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A closed-loop communication system that enables establishing and executing a collaborative follow-up plan for incidental pulmonary nodules can be adopted and improves the quality of radiologists' follow-up recommendations.

7.
Radiology ; 291(1): 102-109, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667330

RESUMO

Purpose To assess the impact of a patient experience improvement program on national ranking in patient experience in a large academic radiology department. Materials and Methods This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study was exempted from institutional review board approval. After initiating an electronic patient experience survey, 26 210 surveys and 22 213 comments were received from May 2017 to April 2018. During the study period, a multifaceted quality improvement initiative was instituted, focused on improving patient experience in the radiology department. The primary outcome was national percentile ranking as measured with the survey. Secondary outcome was the change in departmental percentile ranking compared with the overall hospital ranking for patient experience measured with a similar survey. Results The overall raw score for the department increased from 92.8 to 93.6 of 100 (P < .001), and the national ranking improved from the 35th to 50th percentile (P = .001). Improvements in raw scores related to personnel were primarily responsible for the increase in overall raw score and ranking. Of the 22 213 comments received, 3458 (15.6%) were negative. The percentage of negative comments was highly correlated with lower monthly percentile ranking (Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.69; P = .01). Conclusion It is feasible to develop a large-scale electronic survey to assess patient experience in the radiology department, to identify improvement opportunities, and to measurably improve patient experience. Changes in the percentage of negative comments were correlated with changes in a practice's national percentile rank in patient experience. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Kruskal and Sarwar in this issue.


Assuntos
Satisfação do Paciente , Radiologia/normas , Assistência Ambulatorial/psicologia , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hospitais Urbanos/normas , Humanos , Serviço Hospitalar de Radiologia/normas , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
8.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was instituted in California in 2010. In the ensuing 6.5 years, 3 252 156 infants in the state had DNA from dried blood spots assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Abnormal TREC results were followed-up with liquid blood testing for T-cell abnormalities. We report the performance of the SCID screening program and the outcomes of infants who were identified. METHODS: Data that were reviewed and analyzed included demographics, nursery summaries, TREC and lymphocyte flow-cytometry values, and available follow-up, including clinical and genetic diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Infants with clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) were successfully identified at a rate of 1 in 15 300 births. Of these, 50 cases of SCID, or 1 in 65 000 births (95% confidence interval 1 in 51 000-1 in 90 000) were found. Prompt treatment led to 94% survival. Infants with non-SCID TCL were also identified, diagnosed and managed, including 4 with complete DiGeorge syndrome who received thymus transplants. Although no cases of typical SCID are known to have been missed, 2 infants with delayed-onset leaky SCID had normal neonatal TREC screens but came to clinical attention at 7 and 23 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based TREC testing, although unable to detect immune defects in which T cells are present at birth, is effective for identifying SCID and clinically important TCL with high sensitivity and specificity. The experience in California supports the rapid, widespread adoption of SCID newborn screening.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia
9.
Acad Emerg Med ; 26(3): 281-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to complete a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in faculty rank among U.S. emergency physicians that reflected all academic emergency physicians. METHODS: We assembled a comprehensive list of academic emergency medicine (EM) physicians with U.S. medical school faculty appointments from Doximity.com linked to detailed information on physician gender, age, years since residency completion, scientific authorship, National Institutes of Health (NIH) research funding, and participation in clinical trials. To estimate gender differences in faculty rank, multivariable logistic regression models were used that adjusted for these factors. RESULTS: Our study included 3,600 academic physicians (28%, or 1,016, female). Female emergency physicians were younger than their male colleagues (mean [±SD] age was 43.8 [±8.7] years for females and 47.4 [±9.9] years for males [p < 0.001]), had fewer years since residency completion (12.4 years vs. 15.6 years, p < 0.001), had fewer total and first/last author publications (4.7 vs. 8.6 total publications, p < 0.001; 4.3 vs. 7.1 first or last author publications, p < 0.001), and were less likely to be principal investigators on NIH grants (1.2% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.002) or clinical trials (1.8% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.001). In unadjusted analysis, male physicians were more likely than female physicians to hold the rank of associate or full professor versus assistant professor (13.7 percentage point difference, p < 0.001), a relationship that persisted after multivariable adjustment (5.5 percentage point difference, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Female academic EM physicians are less likely to hold the rank of associate or full professor compared to male physicians even after detailed adjustment for other factors that may influence faculty rank.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Docentes de Medicina/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos
10.
Acad Radiol ; 26(9): 1229-1234, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503390

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To quantify the use of Diagnostic Certainty Phrases (DCP) in radiology reports, including DCPs with good agreement (including "diagnostic of," "unlikely" and "represents") in connoting degree of certainty between providers based on previous studies; and to assess whether modality, presence of a trainee, radiologic subspecialty, and individual radiologists are associated with the usage of DCPs with good agreement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, IRB-approved study was conducted at an academic medical center. Radiology reports that contain DCPs were identified using information retrieval from all reports generated in 2016, excluding mammograms, obstetrical ultrasound, bone densitometry, and interventional studies. DCPs connoting good agreement were further noted. Of the reports that contained DCPs, a two-level hierarchical generalized linear model with attending as the level-two variable was performed comparing the use of DCP with good agreement while considering trainee involvement, modality, and subspecialty. RESULTS: A total of 159,151 reports out of 370,881 were found to have at least one DCP (43%). Reports of CT scans had the most number of DCP (68% of all CT reports). Breast and abdomen subspecialties were associated with use of DCP with good agreement. There was significant variation in use of DCP with good agreement between physicians that could not be explained by modality, trainee presence, and subspecialty. CONCLUSION: Phrases to convey diagnostic certainty were commonly used in radiology reports. There is wide variation in usage of DCP with good agreement. Future interventions to reduce variation in use of DCPs may reduce ambiguity and improve quality of radiology reports.

11.
Cancer Nurs ; 42(6): 448-457, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at risk of adverse health outcomes due to their intense caregiver demands. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe adverse health outcomes in parents of children who survived an allogeneic HSCT done within the past 1 to 10 years. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted at a children's hospital in the western United States, enrolled English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children who survived allogeneic HSCT between 2005 and 2015. Outcome measures included Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories, Perceived Stress and Parent Stress Scales, Physical Symptom Inventory, and Short-Form 36 version 2. Parent scores were compared with normative means. Subsequently, the parent sample was stratified by the amount of time since their child's HSCT for comparison between groups. RESULTS: Fifty-four mothers and 7 fathers (n = 61) were enrolled. Global mental health scores were lower for parents in the sample compared with norms (P = .003). Parents in the sample reported moderate anxiety and depression (20% and 23%, respectively), yet reported less parenting stress and superior health outcomes compared with norms (P < .001). Social functioning and general health scores were lower for parents whose children survived an allogeneic HSCT done within the past 1 to 4.99 years (P = .012). CONCLUSION: Parents of survivors of allogeneic HSCT may concurrently experience posttraumatic growth and stress following their child's HSCT. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Health screening and psychological support for parents of children post-HSCT may help to identify parents at risk of adverse outcomes and allow for early, targeted interventions.

12.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 16(1): 45-63, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082906

RESUMO

In 2017, an autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy indicated for children and young adults with relapsed and/or refractory CD19+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia became the first gene therapy to be approved in the USA. This innovative form of cellular immunotherapy has been associated with remarkable response rates but is also associated with unique and often severe toxicities, which can lead to rapid cardiorespiratory and/or neurological deterioration. Multidisciplinary medical vigilance and the requisite health-care infrastructure are imperative to ensuring optimal patient outcomes, especially as these therapies transition from research protocols to standard care. Herein, authors representing the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) Subgroup and the MD Anderson Cancer Center CAR T Cell Therapy-Associated Toxicity (CARTOX) Program have collaborated to provide comprehensive consensus guidelines on the care of children receiving CAR T cell therapy.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(3): 488-495, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194027

RESUMO

We report on 499 patients with severe aplastic anemia aged ≥ 50years who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-matched sibling (n = 275, 55%) or HLA-matched (8/8) unrelated donors (n = 187, 37%) between 2005 and 2016. The median age at HCT was 57.8 years; 16% of patients were 65 to 77years old. Multivariable analysis confirmed higher mortality risks for patients with performance score less than 90% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.92; P = .03) and after unrelated donor transplantation (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1 to 2.16; P = .05). The 3-year probabilities of survival for patients with performance scores of 90 to 100 and less than 90 after HLA-matched sibling transplant were 66% (range, 57% to 75%) and 57% (range, 47% to 76%), respectively. The corresponding probabilities after HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation were 57% (range, 48% to 67%) and 48% (range, 36% to 59%). Age at transplantation was not associated with survival, but grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) risks were higher for patients aged 65years or older (subdistribution HR [sHR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 2.72; P = .026). Chronic GVHD was lower with the GVHD prophylaxis regimens calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) + methotrexate (sHR, .52; 95% CI, .33 to .81; P = .004) and CNI alone or with other agents (sHR, .27; 95% CI, .14 to .53; P < .001) compared with CNI + mycophenolate. Although donor availability is modifiable only to a limited extent, choice of GVHD prophylaxis and selection of patients with good performance scores are key for improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anemia Aplástica/mortalidade , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Medicação/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 48(5): 436-440, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trainees play an important role in the delivery of medical services in academic medical centers, yet the full extent of their contribution in radiology is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify trainee involvement in a single large academic radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study performed in a tertiary care academic medical center, we identified the proportion of radiology reports with trainee involvement (by means of report co-signature) between July 2015 and June 2016. For each exam, we documented the modality, whether a trainee co-signed the report, and the division/subspecialty of the attending radiologist. We computed the overall proportion of radiology reports that involved a trainee and compared this proportion between imaging modalities, type of patient setting (Emergency Department, inpatient, outpatient), and across subspecialty divisions using Chi-square tests. RESULTS: Overall, we analyzed 607,074 radiology reports, of which trainees co-signed 239,187 (39.4%) reports. Trainee involvement varied considerably by division, ranging from 7.1% (ultrasound division) to 99.2% (cardiovascular imaging division) of reports, P <0.001. Among diagnostic imaging modalities, trainee participation was highest in CT (67.0%) and MRI (60.9%) examinations, and lowest in ultrasound (15.3%), P < 0.001. Trainees were more involved in the emergency department (58.0%) and inpatient (43.4%) settings than in the outpatient setting (33.9%), P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Less than half of the imaging studies performed in an academic radiology department involved radiology trainees. Similar data and studies at other institutions may be useful to help define, monitor and improve optimal trainee education nationally.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Radiologia/educação , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine radiologist ability to accurately select the probability of recommendation of additional imaging (RAI) for themselves and colleagues when arrayed in a feedback report. METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved study, we analyzed 318,366 diagnostic imaging reports from examinations performed in the radiology department of a large quaternary teaching hospital during calendar year 2016. A validated machine learning algorithm identified reports containing RAI. A multivariable logistic regression model was then used to determine the probability of RAI. In 2018, an e-mailed survey asked radiologists to identify their own RAI probability and that of their colleagues from a report arrayed lowest to highest. Radiologists were grouped into quartiles based on their RAI probability. χ2 Analysis compared self-assessment and assessment of colleagues between quartiles. RESULTS: Forty-eight of 57 radiologists completed the survey (84.2%). Fourteen (29.2%) accurately self-identified their RAI probability (chose the correct quartile); 34 (70.8%) did not. There was no statistically significant difference between quartiles of radiologists and their ability to self-identify their RAI probability (ie, radiologists in the bottom or top quartile of RAI probabilities did not correctly predict their RAI probability). However, radiologists were better able to identify the RAI probability of their colleagues who were in the top and bottom quartiles. DISCUSSION: Radiologists were unable to estimate their own RAI probability but were better at predicting the RAI probability of colleagues. Given that radiologists, and physicians in general, may be poor evaluators of their own performance, objective assessment tools are likely needed to help reduce unwarranted variation.

17.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 25(12): 1651-1656, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517649

RESUMO

Objective: Assess information integrity (concordance and completeness of documented exam indications from the electronic health record [EHR] imaging order requisition, compared to EHR provider notes), and assess potential impact of indication inaccuracies on exam planning and interpretation. Methods: This retrospective study, approved by the Institutional Review Board, was conducted at a tertiary academic medical center. There were 139 MRI lumbar spine (LS-MRI) and 176 CT abdomen/pelvis orders performed 4/1/2016-5/31/2016 randomly selected and reviewed by 4 radiologists for concordance and completeness of relevant exam indications in order requisitions compared to provider notes, and potential impact of indication inaccuracies on exam planning and interpretation. Forty each LS-MRI and CT abdomen/pelvis were re-reviewed to assess kappa agreement. Results: Requisition indications were more likely to be incomplete (256/315, 81%) than discordant (133/315, 42%) compared to provider notes (p < 0.0001). Potential impact of discrepancy between clinical information in requisitions and provider notes was higher for radiologist's interpretation than for exam planning (135/315, 43%, vs 25/315, 8%, p < 0.0001). Agreement among radiologists for concordance, completeness, and potential impact was moderate to strong (Kappa 0.66-0.89). Indications in EHR order requisitions are frequently incomplete or discordant compared to physician notes, potentially impacting imaging exam planning, interpretation and accurate diagnosis. Such inaccuracies could also diminish the relevance of clinical decision support alerts if based on information in order requisitions. Conclusions: Improved availability of relevant documented clinical information within EHR imaging requisition is necessary for optimal exam planning and interpretation.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Erros Médicos , Sistemas de Registro de Ordens Médicas , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Fluxo de Trabalho
19.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 25(11): 1507-1515, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124890

RESUMO

Objective: To assess information sources that may elucidate errors related to radiologic diagnostic imaging, quantify the incidence of potential safety events from each source, and quantify the number of steps involved from diagnostic imaging chain and socio-technical factors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study was conducted at the ambulatory healthcare facilities associated with a large academic hospital. Five information sources were evaluated: an electronic safety reporting system (ESRS), alert notification for critical result (ANCR) system, picture archive and communication system (PACS)-based quality assurance (QA) tool, imaging peer-review system, and an imaging computerized physician order entry (CPOE) and scheduling system. Data from these sources (January-December 2015 for ESRS, ANCR, QA tool, and the peer-review system; January-October 2016 for the imaging ordering system) were collected to quantify the incidence of potential safety events. Reviewers classified events by the step(s) in the diagnostic process they could elucidate, and their socio-technical factors contributors per the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) framework. Results: Potential safety events ranged from 0.5% to 62.1% of events collected from each source. Each of the information sources contributed to elucidating diagnostic process errors in various steps of the diagnostic imaging chain and contributing socio-technical factors, primarily Person, Tasks, and Tools and Technology. Discussion: Various information sources can differentially inform understanding diagnostic process errors related to radiologic diagnostic imaging. Conclusion: Information sources elucidate errors in various steps within the diagnostic imaging workflow and can provide insight into socio-technical factors that impact patient safety in the diagnostic process.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico , Sistemas de Informação , Radiografia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Sistemas de Registro de Ordens Médicas , Segurança do Paciente , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Blood ; 132(17): 1737-1749, 2018 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154114

RESUMO

The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) performed a retrospective analysis of 662 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) who received a hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as first-line treatment between 1982 and 2012 in 33 North American institutions. Overall survival was higher after HCT from matched-sibling donors (MSDs). Among recipients of non-MSD HCT, multivariate analysis showed that the SCID genotype strongly influenced survival and immune reconstitution. Overall survival was similar for patients with RAG, IL2RG, or JAK3 defects and was significantly better compared with patients with ADA or DCLRE1C mutations. Patients with RAG or DCLRE1C mutations had poorer immune reconstitution than other genotypes. Although survival did not correlate with the type of conditioning regimen, recipients of reduced-intensity or myeloablative conditioning had a lower incidence of treatment failure and better T- and B-cell reconstitution, but a higher risk for graft-versus-host disease, compared with those receiving no conditioning or immunosuppression only. Infection-free status and younger age at HCT were associated with improved survival. Typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome had similar outcomes. Landmark analysis identified CD4+ and CD4+CD45RA+ cell counts at 6 and 12 months post-HCT as biomarkers predictive of overall survival and long-term T-cell reconstitution. Our data emphasize the need for patient-tailored treatment strategies depending upon the underlying SCID genotype. The prognostic significance of CD4+ cell counts as early as 6 months after HCT emphasizes the importance of close follow-up of immune reconstitution to identify patients who may need additional intervention to prevent poor long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Reconstituição Imune/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/mortalidade , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Genótipo , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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