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1.
Allergy ; 77(3): 734-766, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536239

RESUMO

This update and revision of the international guideline for urticaria was developed following the methods recommended by Cochrane and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group. It is a joint initiative of the Dermatology Section of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA²LEN) and its Urticaria and Angioedema Centers of Reference and Excellence (UCAREs and ACAREs), the European Dermatology Forum (EDF; EuroGuiDerm), and the Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology with the participation of 64 delegates of 50 national and international societies and from 31 countries. The consensus conference was held on 3 December 2020. This guideline was acknowledged and accepted by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). Urticaria is a frequent, mast cell-driven disease that presents with wheals, angioedema, or both. The lifetime prevalence for acute urticaria is approximately 20%. Chronic spontaneous or inducible urticaria is disabling, impairs quality of life, and affects performance at work and school. This updated version of the international guideline for urticaria covers the definition and classification of urticaria and outlines expert-guided and evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the different subtypes of urticaria.


Assuntos
Angioedema , Asma , Urticária , Angioedema/diagnóstico , Angioedema/etiologia , Angioedema/terapia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Urticária/diagnóstico , Urticária/epidemiologia , Urticária/etiologia
2.
Allergy ; 77(3): 946-955, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of the underlying paroxysmal permeability disturbances in angioedema (AE) is not well understood. METHODS: To identify clinical and laboratory parameters specific for a certain AE subtype, 40 AE patients were prospectively enrolled: 15 hereditary (HAE), 13 ACE-inhibitor induced (ACE-AE), and 12 mast cell-mediated without wheals in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU-AE). Ten healthy subjects served as controls. Serum levels of markers indicating activation of the ficolin-lectin pathway, of endothelial cells, or those indicating impairment of vascular integrity or inflammation were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: New routine clinical diagnostic criteria could not be identified, not even for distinguishing bradykinin-mediated (BK-) AE (ie, HAE and ACE-AE) from mast cell-/histamine-mediated CSU-AE. However, FAP-α and tPA were significantly increased in all AE compared to controls. In HAE, FAP- α, tPA, uPAR, pentraxin-3, Tie-2, sE-selectin, and VE-cadherin were significantly increased compared to controls. In HAE compared to CSU-AE and ACE-AE, sE-Selectin, Tie-2, and VE-Cadherin were significantly increased, whereas for Ang-2 the difference was significant compared to CSU-AE only. Tie-2 correlated strongly negatively with C4, C1-INH activity, and C1-INH function. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to compare HAE, ACE-AE, and CSU-AE. Although significance is limited by small sample size, Tie-2 was identified as a new promising biomarker candidate for HAE. FAP- α and tPA might serve as a marker for AE in general, whereas sE-selectin and Ang-2 were increased in BK-AE only. Our results add information to the role of endothelial dysfunction and serine proteases in different AE subtypes.


Assuntos
Angioedema , Angioedemas Hereditários , Urticária Crônica , Angioedema/diagnóstico , Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1 , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Histamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Selectinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Children (Basel) ; 8(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063834

RESUMO

Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment are vital in order to preserve the affected gonad. Current surgical teaching emphasizes sudden, severe, persistent, unilateral scrotal pain as a cardinal symptom of testicular torsion. We present the case of unilateral testicular torsion in a 14-year-old patient who presented with the absence of severe pain. Despite a delayed presentation to the emergency department, the gonad could be salvaged successfully. Literature on the topic of testicular torsion presenting with minimal pain is limited. Nevertheless, pediatric surgeons might be faced with cases similar to the one we describe. Underestimating this phenomenon might lead to a delay of treatment. In such cases, ultrasound can be a beneficial addition in the diagnosis and accelerate definitive operative treatment. The presented case clearly demonstrates that, although we do not include testicular torsion without severe pain in our surgical teaching algorithms, we might encounter it in our clinical practice.

6.
JAAD Case Rep ; 12: 67-69, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041335
9.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 19(1): 151-168, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491884

RESUMO

This guideline is an update from August 2020 the S2k-guideline "Atopic dermatitis" published in 2015. The reason for updating this chapter of the guideline were the current developments in the field of systemic therapy of atopic dermatitis. The agreed recommendations for systemic treatment in atopic dermatitis of the present guideline are based on current scientific data. Due to the approval of dupilumab for the treatment of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis, which cannot be treated sufficiently with topical drugs alone, this part of the guideline has now been adapted and newly consented. The indication for systemic therapy and the therapeutic response to topical and systemic treatment should be recorded and documented in a suitable form in clinic and practice. A standardized documentation of the indication for system therapy in atopic dermatitis can be recommended and is also part of the updated chapter of this guideline.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Administração Cutânea , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Eczema , Humanos
10.
Front Allergy ; 2: 754501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386966

RESUMO

Eosinophils are potent pro-inflammatory cells. Not only in allergic diseases but also in other diseases there is a need for treatment strategies to induce resolution of eosinophil-mediated inflammation. During the last years beneficial non-antibiotic activities of tetracyclines (TCNs) have been shown in different diseases in which eosinophils play a role, for example, asthma and bullous pemphigoid. The working mechanism of these effects remains to be clarified. Aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TCNs on eosinophils. Flow cytometry analysis of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases, intracellular H2O2 and calcium, surface expression of eosinophil activation markers was performed in highly purified peripheral blood eosinophils of non-atopic donors. Tetracycline hydrochloride, minocycline and doxycycline significantly induced eosinophil apoptosis. All TCNs were able to significantly overcome the strong survival enhancing effects of pro-eosinophilic cytokines and staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. Tetracycline hydrochloride induced eosinophil apoptosis was accompanied by intracellular production of hydrogen peroxide, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases. Moreover, tetracycline hydrochloride significantly down regulated eosinophil surface expression of CD9 and CD45, and of the activation markers CD11b and CD69, but not of CD54, CD63, or CD95. Our data, propably for the first time, point to a potent anti-inflammatory role of TCNs on eosinophils.

14.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 531, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733181

RESUMO

We measured indirect calorimetry and activity parameters, VO2 and VCO2 to extract respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and energy expenditure in both sexes of 30 inbred mouse strains of 6 genetic families at 9-13 weeks during one photophase and the subsequent scotophase. We observed a continuous distribution of all traits. While males had higher body weights than females, we observed no sex difference for food and water intake. All strains drank and fed more during the night even if they displayed no day-night difference in activity traits. Several strains showed absent or weak day-night variation in one or more activity traits and these included FVB and 129X1, males of 129S1, SWR, NZW, and SM, and females of SJL. In general females showed higher rearing and ambulatory activity with 6 and 9 strains, respectively, showing a sex difference. Fine motor movements, like grooming, showed less sex differences. RER underlied a strong day-night difference and no sex effect. Only FVB females and males of the RIIIS and SM strain had no day-night variation. Energy expenditure underlies a large day-night variation which was absent in SWR and in FVB females and RIIIS males. In general, female bodies had a tendency to higher energy expenditure values, which became a significant difference in C3H, MAMy, SM, DBA1, and BUB. Our data illustrate the diversity of these traits in male and female inbred mice and provide a resource in the selection of strains for future studies.

15.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(5): 321-333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224621

RESUMO

This update on chronic urticaria (CU) focuses on the prevalence and pathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), the expanding spectrum of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing CU disease activity, impact, and control, as well as future treatment options for CU. This update is needed, as several recently reported findings have led to significant advances in these areas. Some of these key discoveries were first presented at past meetings of the Collegium Internationale Allergologicum (CIA). New evidence shows that the prevalence of CSU is geographically heterogeneous, high in all age groups, and increasing. Several recent reports have helped to better characterize two endotypes of CSU: type I autoimmune (or autoallergic) CSU, driven by IgE to autoallergens, and type IIb autoimmune CSU, which is due to mast cell (MC)-targeted autoantibodies. The aim of treatment in CU is complete disease control with absence of signs and symptoms as well as normalization of quality of life (QoL). This is best monitored by the use of an expanding set of PROMs, to which the Angioedema Control Test, the Cholinergic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the Cholinergic Urticaria Activity Score have recently been added. Current treatment approaches for CU under development include drugs that inhibit the effects of signals that drive MC activation and accumulation, drugs that inhibit intracellular pathways of MC activation and degranulation, and drugs that silence MCs by binding to inhibitory receptors. The understanding, knowledge, and management of CU are rapidly increasing. The aim of this review is to provide physicians who treat CU patients with an update on where we stand and where we will go. Many questions and unmet needs remain to be addressed, such as the development of routine diagnostic tests for type I and type IIb autoimmune CSU, the global dissemination and consistent use of PROMs to assess disease activity, impact, and control, and the development of more effective and well-tolerated long-term treatments for all forms of CU.


Assuntos
Urticária Crônica , Humanos
16.
Allergy ; 75(9): 2229-2242, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2) is regarded as a mast cell-specific receptor mediating non-IgE-dependent activation. We aimed to investigate whether human basophils and eosinophils express functional MRGPRX2. METHODS: Flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and RT-PCR were performed in highly purified peripheral blood basophils and eosinophils of atopic and nonatopic donors. To assess functional activity, fluorescent avidin-based degranulation assay, calcium mobilization, cytokine production in supernatants, assessment of viability/apoptosis, and tricolor granulocyte activation test were used. RESULTS: MRGPRX2 was significantly expressed by basophils and eosinophils but not neutrophils. Functional capacity was shown by anti-MRGPRX2 mAb-induced calcium influx and concentration-dependent induction of degranulation. Sequential stimulation in the calcium mobilization assay gave no evidence for desensitization or receptor internalization. Anti-MRGPRX2 mAb significantly promoted survival. Inhibition of apoptosis could be due to released IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF found in supernatants. Short-term incubation with IL-3 dose-dependently upregulated MRGPRX2 expression in both, stimulation for 24 hours with anti-IgE, C5a, fMLP, and IL-3 in basophils and by IL-3, IL-5, and IL-33 in eosinophils. Among known mast cell MRGPRX2 agonists ciprofloxacin but not PMX-53 was functional on basophils and eosinophils. In basophils of allergic subjects, tricolor granulocyte activation test using grass pollen demonstrated MRGPRX2 upregulation associated with degranulation and CD63 expression. CONCLUSION: Unraveling the regulation and signaling mechanisms of MRGPRX2 on basophils and eosinophils might enable the development of new therapeutic strategies to prevent or inhibit allergic and nonallergic hypersensitivity. Moreover, addressing MRGPRX2 might have potential for diagnostic purposes in (drug) hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Basófilos , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Mastócitos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética
17.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(5): 577-584, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pruritus is a major symptom of atopic dermatitis (AD) and is transmitted by a subpopulation of non-myelinated C-type free nerve endings in the epidermis and upper dermis. Stimulation of these nerve terminals is affected by histamine, neurotrophins and physical factors. Eosinophils of patients with AD are a source of neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), levels of which correlate with disease severity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the anatomical localization of eosinophils in the skin of patients with AD with regard to peripheral nerves and to investigate whether eosinophils induce sprouting and neurite outgrowth in murine sensory neurons. METHODS: Cryosections of skin derived from AD and control (NA) patients were subjected to immunofluorescence analysis with markers for eosinophils, BDNF and neuronal cells. Stimulated eosinophil supernatants were used for the treatment of cultured peripheral mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons followed by morphometric analysis. RESULTS: Dermal axon density and the proximity of eosinophils to nerve fibres were significantly higher in AD patients vs NA. Both neuronal projections and eosinophils expressed BDNF. Furthermore, activated eosinophil supernatants induced BDNF-dependent mouse DRG neuron branching. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results indicate that BDNF-positive eosinophils are also localized in close proximity with nerve fibres in AD, suggesting a functional relationship between BDNF-expressing eosinophils and neuronal projections. These observations suggest that eosinophils may have considerable impact on pruritus by supporting sensory nerve branching.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica , Derme , Eosinófilos , Epiderme , Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Adolescente , Adulto , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Derme/imunologia , Derme/inervação , Derme/patologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Epiderme/imunologia , Epiderme/inervação , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/imunologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/patologia
20.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 98(8): 766-771, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693698

RESUMO

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is characterized by substantial skin and blood eosinophilia as well as intensive pruritus. Since the pruritogenic cytokine interleukin (IL)-31 is increased in inflammatory skin diseases the aim of this study was to determine whether IL-31 plays a role in BP. Using immunofluorescence, IL-31 expression was analysed in eosinophils derived from blister fluids and skin from patients with BP and IL-31 levels in blister fluids, serum and culture supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). High levels of IL-31 expression were observed in BP blister fluids, but they were only marginally elevated in BP serum compared with healthy controls. Eosinophils from either BP blister fluids or skin biopsies showed strong expression of IL-31. Furthermore, peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with BP, but not healthy controls, released high levels of IL-31, reflecting those in blister fluids. In conclusion, eosinophils are a major source of IL-31 in BP and this cytokine may contribute to itch in patients with BP.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/imunologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Urticária/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Eosinofilia/sangue , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Interleucinas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prurido/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/sangue , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/diagnóstico , Regulação para Cima , Urticária/sangue , Urticária/diagnóstico
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