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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In the phase 3 CONCUR trial (NCT01584830), regorafenib improved overall survival (OS) versus placebo in Asian patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of Chinese patients in CONCUR. METHODS: Adults with mCRC progressing despite at least two prior treatment regimens and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 were randomized 2:1 to regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. Dose modifications were permitted. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, objective overall response, disease control rate, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 172 Chinese patients were randomized and treated (regorafenib n = 112, placebo n = 60). OS was significantly improved with regorafenib versus placebo (8.4 vs 6.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.39-0.80; one-sided P = 0.000632), as was progression-free survival (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.47; one-sided P < 0.000001). The most common drug-related grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs; regorafenib, placebo) were hand-foot skin reaction (19%, 0%), hypertension (13%, 3%), hypophosphatemia (7%, 0%), increased alanine aminotransferase (6%, 0%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (5%, 0%). In patients receiving regorafenib and placebo, respectively, TEAEs led to treatment discontinuation in 14% and 7%, dose reduction in 39% and 0%, and dose interruption in 64% and 20%. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis showed that regorafenib provided an OS benefit over placebo for Chinese patients with previously treated mCRC. TEAEs were consistent with the regorafenib safety profile and manageable with treatment modifications.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(24): 7370-7380, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558473

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The phase III DECISION trial (NCT00984282; EudraCT:2009-012007-25) established sorafenib efficacy in locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) refractory to radioactive iodine. We conducted a retrospective, exploratory biomarker analysis of patients from DECISION. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Candidate biomarkers [15 baseline plasma proteins, baseline and during-treatment serum thyroglobulin, and relevant tumor mutations (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS)] were analyzed for correlation with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Plasma biomarker and thyroglobulin data were available for 395 of 417 (94.7%) and 403 of 417 (96.6%) patients, respectively. Elevated baseline VEGFA was independently associated with poor prognosis for progression-free survival [PFS; HR = 1.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.38-2.44; P = 0.0007], overall survival (HR = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.37-3.36; P = 0.013), and disease-control rate (DCR; OR = 0.30; P = 0.009). Elevated baseline thyroglobulin was independently associated with poor PFS (HR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.52-2.71; P < 0.0001) and DCR (OR = 0.32; P = 0.01). Combined VEGFA/thyroglobulin signatures correlated with poor PFS (HR = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.57-2.87; P < 0.00001). Thyroglobulin decrease ≥30% from baseline was achieved by 76% and 14% of patients receiving sorafenib and placebo, respectively (P < 0.001). Patients with ≥30% thyroglobulin reduction had longer PFS than those without ≥30% reduction [HR (95% CI): sorafenib = 0.61 (0.40-0.94), P = 0.022; placebo = 0.49 (0.29-0.85), P = 0.009]. BRAF mutations were associated with better PFS; RAS mutations were associated with worse PFS, although neither was independently prognostic in multivariate models. No examined biomarker predicted sorafenib benefit. CONCLUSIONS: We identified biomarkers associated with poor prognosis in DTC, including elevated baseline VEGFA and thyroglobulin and the presence of RAS mutations. Serum thyroglobulin may be a biomarker of tumor response and progression.

3.
Oncologist ; 24(9): 1180-1187, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic effects that improves overall survival (OS) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) after failure of standard therapies. We investigated the efficacy and safety of regorafenib in antiangiogenic therapy-naïve chemotherapy-refractory advanced colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This single-center, single-arm, phase IIb study (NCT02465502) enrolled adults with mCRC whose disease had progressed on, or who were intolerant to, standard therapy, but who were antiangiogenic therapy-naïve. Patients received regorafenib 160 mg once daily for 3 weeks per 4-week cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) rate at week 8. RESULTS: Of 59 treated patients, almost half had received at least four prior lines of therapy. Patients received a median of 86% of the planned dose. The week 8 PFS rate was 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.1-64.3); median PFS was 3.5 months (95% CI, 1.8-3.6). Median OS was 7.4 months (95% CI, 5.3-8.9). Tumor response (RECIST version 1.1) was 2%, and metabolic response rate (criteria from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) was 41%. The most frequently reported regorafenib-related grade ≥3 adverse events were hypertension (36%), hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR, 25%), and hypophosphatemia (24%). There were no regorafenib-related deaths. An exploratory analysis showed that patients with grade ≥2 HFSR had longer OS (10.2 months) with regorafenib treatment versus those with grades 0-1 (5.4 months). CONCLUSION: These findings support the antitumor activity of regorafenib in antiangiogenic-naïve patients with chemotherapy-refractory mCRC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib improved overall survival in the phase III CORRECT and CONCUR trials in heavily pretreated patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Exploratory subgroup analysis from CONCUR suggested that regorafenib treatment prior to targeted therapy (including bevacizumab) may improve outcomes. In this single-center, single-arm phase IIb study, regorafenib demonstrated antitumor activity in 59 antiangiogenic-naïve patients with chemotherapy-refractory mCRC. Further studies should assess the efficacy of regorafenib in this patient population, as well as explore the reasons behind improved outcomes among patients who had a metabolic response and those who developed hand-foot skin reaction.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1235-1246, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Darolutamide is a structurally unique androgen-receptor antagonist that is under development for the treatment of prostate cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of darolutamide for delaying metastasis and death in men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial involving men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer and a prostate-specific antigen doubling time of 10 months or less. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive darolutamide (600 mg [two 300-mg tablets] twice daily) or placebo while continuing androgen-deprivation therapy. The primary end point was metastasis-free survival, with the presence of metastasis determined by independent central review of radiographic imaging every 16 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 1509 patients underwent randomization (955 to the darolutamide group and 554 to the placebo group). In the planned primary analysis, which was performed after 437 primary end-point events had occurred, the median metastasis-free survival was 40.4 months with darolutamide, as compared with 18.4 months with placebo (hazard ratio for metastasis or death in the darolutamide group, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.50; P<0.001). Darolutamide was also associated with benefits with regard to all secondary end points, including overall survival, time to pain progression, time to cytotoxic chemotherapy, and time to a symptomatic skeletal event. The incidence of adverse events that occurred or worsened during the treatment period and had a frequency of 5% or more or were of grade 3 or higher was similar in the two groups; all such events except fatigue occurred in less than 10% of patients in either group. The percentage of patients who discontinued the assigned regimen because of adverse events was 8.9% in the darolutamide group and 8.7% in the placebo group. Darolutamide was not associated with a higher incidence of seizures, falls, fractures, cognitive disorder, or hypertension than placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Among men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, metastasis-free survival was significantly longer with darolutamide than with placebo. The incidence of adverse events was similar for darolutamide and placebo. (Funded by Bayer HealthCare and Orion Pharma; ARAMIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02200614.).


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Oncologist ; 24(2): 185-192, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase III CORRECT trial, regorafenib significantly improved survival in treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The CONSIGN study was designed to further characterize regorafenib safety and allow patients access to regorafenib before market authorization. METHODS: This prospective, single-arm study enrolled patients in 25 countries at 186 sites. Patients with treatment-refractory mCRC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≤1 received regorafenib 160 mg once daily for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. The primary endpoint was safety. Progression-free survival (PFS) per investigator assessment was the only efficacy evaluation. RESULTS: In total, 2,872 patients were assigned to treatment and 2,864 were treated. Median age was 62 years, ECOG PS 0/1 was 47%/53%, and 74% had received at least three prior regimens for metastatic disease. Median treatment duration was three cycles. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) led to dose reduction in 46% of patients. Regorafenib-related TEAEs led to treatment discontinuation in 9%. Grade 5 regorafenib-related TEAEs occurred in <1%. The most common grade ≥3 regorafenib-related TEAEs were hypertension (15%), hand-foot skin reaction (14%), fatigue (13%), diarrhea (5%), and hypophosphatemia (5%). Treatment-emergent grade 3-4 laboratory toxicities included alanine aminotransferase (6%), aspartate aminotransferase (7%), and bilirubin (13%). Ongoing monitoring identified one nonfatal case of regorafenib-related severe drug-induced liver injury per DILI Working Group criteria. Median PFS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 2.7 months (2.6-2.7). CONCLUSION: In CONSIGN, the frequency and severity of TEAEs were consistent with the known safety profile of regorafenib. PFS was similar to reports of phase III trials. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01538680. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who fail treatment with standard therapies, including chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor or epidermal growth factor receptor, have few treatment options. The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib was shown to improve survival in patients with treatment-refractory mCRC in the phase III CORRECT (N = 760) and CONCUR (N = 204) trials. However, safety data on regorafenib for mCRC in a larger number of patients were not available. The CONSIGN trial, carried out prospectively in more than 2,800 patients across 25 countries, confirmed the safety profile of regorafenib from the phase III trials and reinforced the importance of using treatment modifications to manage adverse events.

6.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 22(6): 877-87, 2015 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26370187

RESUMO

Effective adverse event (AE) management is critical to maintaining patients on anticancer therapies. The DECISION trial was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trial which investigated sorafenib for treatment of progressive, advanced, or metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory, differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Four hundred and seventeen adult patients were randomized (1:1) to receive oral sorafenib (400 mg, twice daily) or placebo, until progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal. Progression-free survival, the primary endpoint of DECISION, was reported previously. To elucidate the patterns and management of AEs in sorafenib-treated patients in the DECISION trial, this report describes detailed, by-treatment-cycle analyses of the incidence, prevalence, and severity of hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR), rash/desquamation, hypertension, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, increased serum thyroid stimulating hormone, and hypocalcemia, as well as the interventions used to manage these AEs. By-cycle incidence of the above-selected AEs with sorafenib was generally highest in cycle 1 or 2 then decreased. AE prevalence generally increased over cycles 2-6 then stabilized or declined. Among these AEs, only weight loss tended to increase in severity (from grade 1 to 2) over time; severity of HFSR and rash/desquamation declined over time. AEs were mostly grade 1 or 2, and were generally managed with dose interruptions/reductions, and concomitant medications (e.g. antidiarrheals, antihypertensives, dermatologic preparations). Most dose interruptions/reductions occurred in early cycles. In conclusion, AEs with sorafenib in DECISION were typically grade 1 or 2, occurred early during the treatment course, and were manageable over time.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Papilar/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipocalcemia/induzido quimicamente , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/enzimologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/radioterapia , Adenoma Oxífilo/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoma Oxífilo/enzimologia , Adenoma Oxífilo/radioterapia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Papilar/enzimologia , Carcinoma Papilar/radioterapia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Erupção por Droga/tratamento farmacológico , Erupção por Droga/epidemiologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Dispneia/induzido quimicamente , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipocalcemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/induzido quimicamente , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Niacinamida/efeitos adversos , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Lancet Oncol ; 16(6): 619-29, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25981818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the international randomised phase 3 CORRECT trial (NCT01103323), regorafenib significantly improved overall survival versus placebo in patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Of the 760 patients in CORRECT, 111 were Asian (mostly Japanese). This phase 3 trial was done to assess regorafenib in a broader population of Asian patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer than was studied in CORRECT. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done in 25 hospitals in mainland China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam, we recruited Asian patients aged 18 years or older with progressive metastatic colorectal cancer who had received at least two previous treatment lines or were unable to tolerate standard treatments. Patients had to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, life expectancy of at least 3 months, and adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function, without other uncontrolled medical disorders. We randomly allocated patients (2:1; with a computer-generated unicentric randomisation list [prepared by the study funder] and interactive voice response system; block size of six; stratified by metastatic site [single vs multiple organs] and time from diagnosis of metastatic disease [<18 months vs ≥18 months]) to receive oral regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo on days 1-21 of each 28 day cycle; patients in both groups were also to receive best supportive care. Participants, investigators, and the study funder were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, and we analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01584830. FINDINGS: Between April 29, 2012, and Feb 6, 2013, we screened 243 patients and randomly assigned 204 patients to receive either regorafenib (136 [67%]) or placebo (68 [33%]). After a median follow-up of 7·4 months (IQR 4·3-12·2), overall survival was significantly better with regorafenib than it was with placebo (hazard ratio 0·55, 95% CI 0·40-0·77, one-sided p=0·00016; median overall survival 8·8 months [95% CI 7·3-9·8] in the regorafenib group vs 6·3 months [4·8-7·6] in the placebo group). Drug-related adverse events occurred in 132 (97%) of 136 regorafenib recipients and 31 (46%) of 68 placebo recipients. The most frequent grade 3 or higher regorafenib-related adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction (22 [16%] of 136 patients in the regorafenib group vs none in the placebo group), hypertension (15 [11%] vs two [3%] of 68 patients in the placebo group), hyperbilirubinaemia (nine [7%] vs one [1%]), hypophosphataemia (nine [7%] vs none), alanine aminotransferase concentration increases (nine [7%] vs none), aspartate aminotransferase concentration increases (eight [6%] vs none), lipase concentration increases (six [4%] vs one [1%]), and maculopapular rash (six [4%] vs none). Drug-related serious adverse events occurred in 12 (9%) patients in the regorafenib group and three (4%) in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: This phase 3 trial is the second to show an overall survival benefit with regorafenib compared with placebo in patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer, substantiating the role of regorafenib as an important treatment option for patients whose disease has progressed after standard treatments. In this trial, preceding standard treatments did not necessarily include targeted treatments. Adverse events were generally consistent with the known safety profile of regorafenib in this setting. FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 20(23): 5976-85, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25294897

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is an unmet need for treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib is currently the only approved systemic treatment for HCC. Refametinib, an oral, allosteric MEK inhibitor, has demonstrated antitumor activity in combination with sorafenib in vitro and in vivo. A phase II study evaluated efficacy and safety of refametinib plus sorafenib in Asian patients with HCC (NCT01204177). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligible patients received twice-daily refametinib 50 mg plus twice-daily sorafenib 200 mg (morning)/400 mg (evening), with dose escalation to sorafenib 400 mg twice daily from cycle 2 if no grade ≥ 2 hand-foot skin reaction, fatigue, or gastrointestinal toxicity occurred. Primary efficacy endpoint: disease control rate. Secondary endpoints: time to progression, overall survival, pharmacokinetic assessment, biomarker analysis, safety, and tolerability. RESULTS: Of 95 enrolled patients, 70 received study treatment. Most patients had liver cirrhosis (82.9%) and hepatitis B viral infection (75.7%). Disease control rate was 44.8% (primary efficacy analysis; n = 58). Median time to progression was 122 days, median overall survival was 290 days (n = 70). Best clinical responders had RAS mutations; majority of poor responders had wild-type RAS. Most frequent drug-related adverse events were diarrhea, rash, aspartate aminotransferase elevation, vomiting, and nausea. Dose modifications due to adverse events were necessary in almost all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Refametinib plus sorafenib showed antitumor activity in patients with HCC and was tolerated at reduced doses by most patients. Frequent dose modifications due to grade 3 adverse events may have contributed to limited treatment effect. Patients with RAS mutations appear to benefit from refametinib/sorafenib combination.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Difenilamina/administração & dosagem , Difenilamina/análogos & derivados , Difenilamina/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Niacinamida/farmacocinética , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacocinética , Sorafenibe , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Lancet ; 384(9940): 319-28, 2014 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24768112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with radioactive iodine ((131)I)-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer have a poor prognosis because of the absence of effective treatment options. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of orally administered sorafenib in the treatment of patients with this type of cancer. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (DECISION), we investigated sorafenib (400 mg orally twice daily) in patients with radioactive iodine-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that had progressed within the past 14 months. Adult patients (≥18 years of age) with this type of cancer were enrolled from 77 centres in 18 countries. To be eligible for inclusion, participants had to have at least one measurable lesion by CT or MRI according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2; adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function; and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration lower than 0·5 mIU/L. An interactive voice response system was used to randomly allocate participants in a 1:1 ratio to either sorafenib or matching placebo. Patients, investigators, and the study sponsor were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed every 8 weeks by central independent review. Analysis was by intention to treat. Patients in the placebo group could cross over to open-label sorafenib upon disease progression. Archival tumour tissue was examined for BRAF and RAS mutations, and serum thyroglobulin was measured at baseline and at each visit. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00984282, and with the EU Clinical Trials Register, number EudraCT 2009-012007-25. FINDINGS: Patients were randomly allocated on a 1:1 basis to sorafenib or placebo. The intention-to-treat population comprised 417 patients (207 in the sorafenib group and 210 in the placebo group) and the safety population was 416 patients (207 in the sorafenib group and 209 in the placebo group). Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the sorafenib group (10·8 months) than in the placebo group (5·8 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0·59, 95% CI 0·45-0·76; p<0·0001). Progression-free survival improved in all prespecified clinical and genetic biomarker subgroups, irrespective of mutation status. Adverse events occurred in 204 of 207 (98·6%) patients receiving sorafenib during the double-blind period and in 183 of 209 (87·6%) patients receiving placebo. Most adverse events were grade 1 or 2. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events in the sorafenib group were hand-foot skin reaction (76·3%), diarrhoea (68·6%), alopecia (67·1%), and rash or desquamation (50·2%). INTERPRETATION: Sorafenib significantly improved progression-free survival compared with placebo in patients with progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sorafenib. These results suggest that sorafenib is a new treatment option for patients with progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Onyx Pharmaceuticals (an Amgen subsidiary).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lancet ; 381(9863): 295-302, 2013 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23177515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, only imatinib and sunitinib have proven clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), but almost all metastatic GIST eventually develop resistance to these agents, resulting in fatal disease progression. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with metastatic or unresectable GIST progressing after failure of at least imatinib and sunitinib. METHODS: We did this phase 3 trial at 57 hospitals in 17 countries. Patients with histologically confirmed, metastatic or unresectable GIST, with failure of at least previous imatinib and sunitinib were randomised in a 2:1 ratio (by computer-generated randomisation list and interactive voice response system; preallocated block design (block size 12); stratified by treatment line and geographical region) to receive either oral regorafenib 160 mg daily or placebo, plus best supportive care in both groups, for the first 3 weeks of each 4 week cycle. The study sponsor, participants, and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). At disease progression, patients assigned placebo could crossover to open-label regorafenib. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01271712. RESULTS: From Jan 4, to Aug 18, 2011, 240 patients were screened and 199 were randomised to receive regorafenib (n=133) or matching placebo (n=66). Data cutoff was Jan 26, 2012. Median PFS per independent blinded central review was 4·8 months (IQR 1·4-9·2) for regorafenib and 0·9 months (0·9-1·8) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·27, 95% CI 0·19-0·39; p<0·0001). After progression, 56 patients (85%) assigned placebo crossed over to regorafenib. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 130 (98%) patients assigned regorafenib and 45 (68%) patients assigned placebo. The most common regorafenib-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher were hypertension (31 of 132, 23%), hand-foot skin reaction (26 of 132, 20%), and diarrhoea (seven of 132, 5%). INTERPRETATION: The results of this study show that oral regorafenib can provide a significant improvement in progression-free survival compared with placebo in patients with metastatic GIST after progression on standard treatments. As far as we are aware, this is the first clinical trial to show benefit from a kinase inhibitor in this highly refractory population of patients. FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/secundário , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe , Taxa de Sobrevida , Falha de Tratamento
12.
BMC Cancer ; 11: 349, 2011 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21834960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory DTC. METHODS/DESIGN: DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles), whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle) for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS); patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate, response rate, duration of response, safety, and pharmacokinetic analysis. DISCUSSION: The DECISION study has been designed to test whether sorafenib improves PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00984282; EudraCT: 2009-012007-25.


Assuntos
Benzenossulfonatos/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzenossulfonatos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Sorafenibe , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
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