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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 341: 9-12, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The significant interaction between major infection and 5-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for complex coronary artery disease (CAD) was observed previously. However, the very long-term outcomes beyond 5 years remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a subgroup analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the randomized SYNTAX trial comparing PCI versus CABG in patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) or left-main CAD (LMCAD). Out of 1517 patients enrolled in the SYNTAX trial with available survival status from 5 to 10 years, 140 patients had experienced major infections and survived at 5 years (major infection group). From 5 to 10 years, the mortality of major infection group was 19.8% whereas the mortality of no major infection group was 15.1% (p = 0.157). After the adjustment of other clinical factors, the risk of mortality from 5 to 10 years did not significantly differ between major infection and no major infection groups (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.62-1.96; p = 0.740). When stratified by the presence or absence of periprocedural major infections, defined as a major infection within 60 days after index procedure, there was also no significant difference in 10-year mortality between two groups (30.8% vs. 24.5%; p = 0.057). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the initial association between major infections and 5 years mortality, postprocedural major infection was not evident in the 10 years follow-up, suggesting that the impact of major infection on mortality subsided over time beyond 5 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAXES ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050 SYNTAX ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405232

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this article was to compare rates of all-cause death at 10 years following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with or without diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SYNTAXES study evaluated up to 10-year survival of 1800 patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) randomized to receive either PCI or CABG in the SYNTAX trial. Ten-year all-cause death according to diabetic status and revascularization strategy was examined. In diabetics (n = 452), the risk of mortality was numerically higher with PCI compared with CABG at 5 years [19.6% vs. 13.3%, hazard ratio (HR): 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96, 2.43, P = 0.075], with the opposite seen between 5 and 10 years (PCI vs. CABG: 20.8% vs. 24.4%, HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.27, P = 0.366). Irrespective of diabetic status, there was no significant difference in all-cause death at 10 years between patients receiving PCI or CABG, the absolute treatment difference was 1.9% in diabetics (PCI vs. CABG: 36.4% vs. 34.5%, difference: 1.9%, 95% CI: -7.6%, 11.1%, P = 0.551). Among insulin-treated patients (n = 182), all-cause death at 10 years was numerically higher with PCI (47.9% vs. 39.6%, difference: 8.2%, 95% CI: -6.5%, 22.5%, P = 0.227). CONCLUSIONS: The treatment effects of PCI vs. CABG on all-cause death at 10 years in patients with 3VD and/or LMCAD were similar irrespective of the presence of diabetes. There may, however, be a survival benefit with CABG in patients with insulin-treated diabetes. The association between revascularization strategy and very long-term ischaemic and safety outcomes for patients with diabetes needs further investigation in dedicated trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAX: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972 and SYNTAX Extended Survival: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405875

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to compare long-term all-cause mortality between patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using multiple (MAG) or single arterial grafting (SAG). METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study is a post hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival Study, which compared PCI with CABG in patients with three-vessel (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) and evaluated survival with ≥10 years of follow-up. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at maximum follow-up (median 11.9 years) assessed in the as-treated population. Of the 1743 patients, 901 (51.7%) underwent PCI, 532 (30.5%) received SAG, and 310 (17.8%) had MAG. At maximum follow-up, all-cause death occurred in 305 (33.9%), 175 (32.9%), and 70 (22.6%) patients in the PCI, SAG, and MAG groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Multiple arterial grafting [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.89], but not SAG (adjusted HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.67-1.03), was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality compared with PCI. In patients with 3VD, both MAG (adjusted HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37-0.81) and SAG (adjusted HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.91) were associated with significantly lower mortality than PCI, whereas in LMCAD patients, no significant differences between PCI and MAG (adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.56-1.46) or SAG (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.81-1.53) were observed. In patients with revascularization of all three major myocardial territories, a positive correlation was observed between the number of myocardial territories receiving arterial grafts and survival (Ptrend = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that MAG might be the more desirable configuration for CABG to achieve lower long-term all-cause mortality than PCI in patients with 3VD and/or LMCAD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on clinicaltrial.gov. SYNTAXES: NCT03417050 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03417050); SYNTAX: NCT00114972 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00114972).

4.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(10): 1680-1691, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432113

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the impact of established cardiovascular disease (CVD) on 10-year all-cause death following coronary revascularization in patients with complex coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: The SYNTAXES study assessed vital status out to 10 years of patients with complex CAD enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. The relative efficacy of PCI versus CABG in terms of 10-year all-cause death was assessed according to co-existing CVD. RESULTS: Established CVD status was recorded in 1771 (98.3%) patients, of whom 827 (46.7%) had established CVD. Compared to those without CVD, patients with CVD had a significantly higher risk of 10-year all-cause death (31.4% vs. 21.7%; adjusted HR: 1.40; 95% CI 1.08-1.80, p = 0.010). In patients with CVD, PCI had a non-significant numerically higher risk of 10-year all-cause death compared with CABG (35.9% vs. 27.2%; adjusted HR: 1.14; 95% CI 0.83-1.58, p = 0.412). The relative treatment effects of PCI versus CABG on 10-year all-cause death in patients with complex CAD were similar irrespective of the presence of CVD (p-interaction = 0.986). Only those patients with CVD in ≥ 2 territories had a higher risk of 10-year all-cause death (adjusted HR: 2.99, 95% CI 2.11-4.23, p < 0.001) compared to those without CVD. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CVD involving more than one territory was associated with a significantly increased risk of 10-year all-cause death, which was non-significantly higher in complex CAD patients treated with PCI compared with CABG. Acceptable long-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that patients with established CVD should not be precluded from undergoing invasive angiography or revascularization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAX: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972. SYNTAX Extended Survival: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 27-38, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of optimal medical therapy (OMT) on 5-year outcomes in patients with 3-vessel disease and/or left main disease after percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was demonstrated in the randomized SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this analysis is to assess the impact of the status of OMT at 5 years on 10-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of the SYNTAXES (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Extended Survival) study, which evaluated for up to 10 years the vital status of patients who were originally enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. OMT was defined as the combination of 4 types of medications: at least 1 antiplatelet drug, statin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, and beta-blocker. After stratifying participants by the number of individual OMT agents at 5 years and randomized treatment, a landmark analysis was conducted to assess the association between treatment response and 10-year mortality. RESULTS: In 1,472 patients, patients on OMT at 5 years had a significantly lower mortality at 10 years compared with those on ≤2 types of medications (13.1% vs 19.9%; adjusted HR: 0.470; 95% CI: 0.292-0.757; P = 0.002) but had a mortality similar to those on 3 types of medications. Furthermore, patients undergoing CABG with the individual OMT agents, antiplatelet drug and statin, at 5 years had lower 10-year mortality than those without. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG, medication status at 5 years had a significant impact on 10-year mortality. Patients on OMT with guideline-recommended pharmacologic therapy at 5 years had a survival benefit. (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; Taxus Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EXCEL trial reported similar five-year rates of the primary composite outcome of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for treatment of obstructive left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). AIMS: We sought to determine whether these outcomes remained consistent regardless of geography of enrolment. METHODS: We performed a pre-specified subgroup analysis based on regional enrolment. RESULTS: Among 1,905 patients randomised to PCI (n=948) or CABG (n=957), 1,075 (56.4%) were recruited at 52 European Union (EU) centres, and 752 (39.5%) were recruited at 67 North American (NA) centres. EU versus NA patients varied according to numerous baseline demographics, anatomy, pharmacotherapy and procedural characteristics. Nonetheless, the relative rates of the primary endpoint after PCI versus CABG were consistent across EU versus NA centres at 30 days and 5 years. However, NA participants had substantially higher late rates of ischaemia-driven revascularisation (IDR) after PCI, driven predominantly by the need for greater target vessel and lesion revascularisation. This culminated in a significant difference in the relative risk of the secondary composite outcome of death, MI, stroke, or IDR at 5 years (pinteraction=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, the relative risks for the 30-day and five-year primary composite outcome of death, MI or stroke after PCI versus CABG were consistent irrespective of geography. However, five-year rates of IDR after PCI were significantly higher in NA centres, a finding the Heart Team and patients should consider when making treatment decisions. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01205776.

7.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(8): E619-E627, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of using vascular closure devices (VCDs) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for left main coronary artery disease (LM-CAD). BACKGROUND: VCDs provide rapid hemostasis for patients undergoing PCI with transfemoral access (TFA); however, the safety and efficacy of VCDs continues to be debated. METHODS: We analyzed data from the EXCEL trial in patients with LM-CAD in whom PCI was performed via TFA with vs without VCD. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2-5 bleeding at 30 days was also assessed. Propensity-score matching analysis was used. RESULTS: Among 694 patients with LM-CAD undergoing TFA-PCI, 423 (61.0%) received VCDs (collagen plug, 320 [75.7%]; suture mediated, 55 [13.0%]; others, 48 [11.3%]). Patients with and without VCD use had similar 30-day rates of BARC type 2-5 bleeding (5.0% vs 6.7%, respectively; P=.30) and BARC type 3-5 bleeding (2.1% vs 3.7%, respectively; P=.20). There were no significant differences in the rates of death, MI, or stroke in patients with and without VCD use at 30 days (4.7% vs 4.1%, respectively; P=.74) or at 5 years (20.3% vs 24.2%, respectively; P=.16). These results were similar after adjustment. CONCLUSION: In the EXCEL trial, LM-CAD PCI via TFA using VCD was associated with similar 30-day rates of bleeding and comparable early and late major adverse cardiovascular events compared with manual compression.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(22): 2761-2773, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal revascularization strategy for the elderly with complex coronary artery disease remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate 10-year all-cause mortality, life expectancy, 5-year major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and 5-year quality of life (QOL) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in elderly individuals (>70 years old) with 3-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main disease (LMD). METHODS: In the present pre-specified analysis on age of the SYNTAX Extended Survival study, 10-year all-cause death and 5-year MACCE were compared with Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models among elderly or nonelderly patients. Life expectancy was estimated by restricted mean survival time within 10 years, and QOL status according to the Seattle Angina Questionnaire up to 5 years was assessed by linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Among 1,800 randomized patients, 575 patients (31.9%) were elderly. Ten-year mortality did not differ significantly between PCI and CABG in elderly (44.1% vs. 41.1%; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84 to 1.40) and nonelderly patients (21.1% vs. 16.6%; HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.69; pinteraction = 0.332). Among elderly patients, 5-year MACCE was comparable between PCI and CABG (39.4% vs. 35.1%; HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.56), whereas it was significantly higher in PCI over CABG among nonelderly patients (36.3% vs. 23.0%; HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.36 to 2.10; pinteraction = 0.043). There were no significant difference in life expectancy (mean difference: 0.2 years in favor of CABG; 95% CI: -0.4 to 0.7) and 5-year QOL status between PCI and CABG among elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with 3VD and/or LMD had comparable 10-year all-cause death, life expectancy, 5-year MACCE, and 5-year QOL status irrespective of revascularization mode. (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050) (SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).

10.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(3): E379-E387, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of total stent length (TSL) and average nominal stent diameter (ASD) on 10-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the SYNTAXES trial. BACKGROUND: TSL and ASD in patients treated with PCI are associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. However, the treatment effect of PCI with extensive and/or small stenting as compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for complex coronary artery disease has not been fully evaluated. METHODS: Impacts on mortality of extensive stenting defined as TSL >100 mm and small stenting as ASD <3 mm were analyzed in 893 PCI patients and were compared to 865 CABG patients. RESULTS: TSL as a continuous variable was significantly associated with 10-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.05 [1.01-1.09] per 10 mm increase). PCI patients with extensive stenting had a higher 10 year mortality than CABG patients (adjusted HR, 1.97 [1.41-2.74]) or not- extensive stenting PCI (adjusted HR, 1.94 [1.36-2.77]). Although ASD did not have a significant association with 10 year mortality (adjusted HR, 0.97 [0.85-1.11] per 0.25 mm increase), PCI with small stents was associated with a higher 10 year mortality, compared to CABG (adjusted HR, 1.66 [1.23-2.26]) and PCI performed with large stents (adjusted HR, 1.74 [1.19-2.53]). Patients treated with not-extensive and large stents had similar mortality rates (24.0 versus 23.8%) as those treated with CABG. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive and small stenting were associated with higher 10 year mortality, compared with CABG. When patients have to be treated with extensive or small stenting, revascularization with CABG should be preferred.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 151: 30-38, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049676

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated a paradoxical association between higher baseline body mass index (BMI) and lower long-term mortality risk after coronary revascularization, known as the "obesity paradox", possibly relying on the single use of BMI. The current study is a post-hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the SYNTAX trial comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with left-main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) or three-vessel disease (3VD). Patients were stratified according to baseline BMI and/or waist circumference (WC). Out of 1,800 patients, 1,799 (99.9%) and 1,587 (88.2%) had available baseline BMI and WC data, respectively. Of those, 1,327 (73.8%) patients had High BMI (≥25 kg/m2), whereas 705 (44.4%) patients had High WC (>102 cm for men or >88 cm for women). When stratified by both BMI and WC, 10-year mortality risk was significantly higher in patients with Low BMI/Low WC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 to 2.51), Low BMI/ High WC (adjusted HR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.12 to 6.69), or High BMI/High WC (adjusted HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.27) compared to those with High BMI/Low WC. In conclusion, the "obesity paradox" following coronary revascularization would be driven by low long-term mortality risk of the High BMI/Low WC group. Body composition should be assessed by the combination of BMI and WC in the appropriate evaluation of the long-term risk of obesity in patients with LMCAD or 3VD.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
12.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have reported an association between elevated white blood cell count (WBCc) and worse clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We assessed the prognostic impact of WBCc in patients undergoing revascularization for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). METHODS: In Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization (EXCEL), 1905 patients with LMCAD and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG. The 1895 patients with baseline WBCc available were grouped in tertiles of WBCc (mean 5.6 ± 0.8, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 10.1 ± 1.6 × 109/L). RESULTS: Five-year rates of the primary endpoint (death, myocardial infarction or stroke) were similar across increasing WBCc tertiles (21.2, 18.9, and 21.6%; P = 0.46). Individual components of the primary endpoint, Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 3-5 bleeding, stent thrombosis or graft occlusion and ischemia-driven revascularization were all similar across WBCc tertiles. By multivariable analysis, WBCc as a continuous variable was not an independent predictor of adverse events (hazard radio per 1 × 109/L: 1.02; 95% CI, 0.97-1.08; P = 0.43). Results were consistent in the PCI and CABG arms individually. CONCLUSION: There was no association between baseline WBCc and 30-day or 5-year clinical outcomes after PCI or CABG. The absence of a clear incremental increase in events with increasing WBCc in the current analysis indicates that WBCc should not routinely be used as a prognostic marker or to guide revascularization decisions in patients with LMCAD.

13.
Circulation ; 144(2): 96-109, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ten-year all-cause death according to incomplete (IR) versus complete revascularization (CR) has not been fully investigated in patients with 3-vessel disease and left main coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: The SYNTAX Extended Survival study (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]) evaluated vital status up to 10 years in patients who were originally enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. In the present substudy, outcomes of the CABG CR group were compared with the CABG IR, PCI CR, and PCI IR groups. In addition, in the PCI cohort, the residual SYNTAX score (rSS) was used to quantify the extent of IR and to assess its association with fatal late outcome. The rSS of 0 suggests CR, whereas a rSS>0 identifies the degree of IR. RESULTS: IR was more frequently observed in patients with PCI versus CABG (56.6% versus 36.8%) and more common in those with 3-vessel disease than left main coronary artery disease in both the PCI arm (58.5% versus 53.8%) and the CABG arm (42.8% versus 27.5%). Patients undergoing PCI with CR had no significant difference in 10-year all-cause death compared with those undergoing CABG (22.2% for PCI with CR versus 24.3% for CABG with IR versus 23.8% for CABG with CR). In contrast, those with PCI and IR had a significantly higher risk of all-cause death at 10 years compared with CABG and CR (33.5% versus 23.7%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.15-1.91]). When patients with PCI were stratified according to the rSS, those with a rSS≤8 had no significant difference in all-cause death at 10 years as the other terciles (22.2% for rSS=0 versus 23.9% for rSS>0-4 versus 28.9% for rSS>4-8), whereas a rSS>8 had a significantly higher risk of 10-year all-cause death than those undergoing PCI with CR (50.1% versus 22.2%; adjusted hazard ratio, 3.40 [95% CI, 2.13-5.43]). CONCLUSIONS: IR is common after PCI, and the degree of incompleteness was associated with 10-year mortality. If it is unlikely that complete (or nearly complete; rSS<8) revascularization can be achieved with PCI in patients with 3-vessel disease, CABG should be considered. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00114972. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03417050.

14.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(7): 1083-1095, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710385

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on 10-year all-cause death and the treatment effect of CABG versus PCI on 10-year all-cause death in patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) and COPD. METHODS: Patients were stratified according to COPD status and compared with regard to clinical outcomes. Ten-year all-cause death was examined according to the presence of COPD and the revascularization strategy. RESULTS: COPD status was available for all randomized 1800 patients, of whom, 154 had COPD (8.6%) at the time of randomization. Regardless of the revascularization strategy, patients with COPD had a higher risk of 10-year all-cause death, compared with those without COPD (43.1% vs. 24.9%; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.64; p < 0.001). Among patients with COPD, CABG appeared to have a slightly lower risk of 10-year all-cause death compared with PCI (42.3% vs. 43.9%; HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.59-1.56, p = 0.858), whereas among those without COPD, CABG had a significantly lower risk of 10-year all-cause death (22.7% vs. 27.1%; HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.99, p = 0.041). There was no significant differential treatment effect of CABG versus PCI on 10-year all-cause death between patients with and without COPD (p interaction = 0.544). CONCLUSIONS: COPD was associated with a higher risk of 10-year all-cause death after revascularization for complex coronary artery disease. The presence of COPD did not significantly modify the beneficial effect of CABG versus PCI on 10-year all-cause death. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAX: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972. SYNTAX Extended Survival: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(5): 529-540, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term clinical benefit after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with total occlusions (TOs) and complex coronary artery disease has not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this analysis was to assess 10-year all-cause mortality in patients with TOs undergoing PCI or CABG. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of patients with at least 1 TO in the SYNTAXES (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Extended Survival) study, which investigated 10-year all-cause mortality in the SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial, beyond its original 5-year follow-up. Patients with TOs were further stratified according to the status of TO recanalization or revascularization. RESULTS: Of 1,800 randomized patients to the PCI or CABG arm, 460 patients had at least 1 lesion of TO. In patients with TOs, the status of TO recanalization or revascularization was not associated with 10-year all-cause mortality, irrespective of the assigned treatment (PCI arm: 29.9% vs. 29.4%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.992; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.474 to 2.075; p = 0.982; and CABG arm: 28.0% vs. 21.4%; adjusted HR: 0.656; 95% CI: 0.281 to 1.533; p = 0.330). When TOs existed in left main and/or left anterior descending artery, the status of TO recanalization or revascularization did not have an impact on the mortality (34.5% vs. 26.9%; adjusted HR: 0.896; 95% CI: 0.314 to 2.555; p = 0.837). CONCLUSIONS: At 10-year follow-up, the status of TO recanalization or revascularization did not affect mortality, irrespective of the assigned treatment and location of TOs. The present study might support contemporary practice among high-volume chronic TO-PCI centers where recanalization is primarily offered to patients for the management of angina refractory to medical therapy when myocardial viability is confirmed. (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Previsões , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico , Oclusão Coronária/mortalidade , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(10): 1543-1553, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary bypass artery grafting (CABG) has a higher procedural risk of stroke than percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but may offer better long-term survival. The optimal revascularization strategy for patients with prior cerebrovascular disease (CEVD) remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SYNTAXES study assessed the vital status out to 10 year of patients with three-vessel disease and/or left main coronary artery disease enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. The relative efficacy of PCI vs. CABG in terms of 10 year all-cause death was assessed according to prior CEVD. The primary endpoint was 10 year all-cause death. The status of prior CEVD was available in 1791 (99.5%) patients, of whom 253 patients had prior CEVD. Patients with prior CEVD were older and had more comorbidities (medically treated diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes, metabolic syndrome, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, impaired renal function, and congestive heart failure), compared with those without prior CEVD. Prior CEVD was an independent predictor of 10 year all-cause death (adjusted HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.04-1.73; p = 0.021). Patients with prior CEVD had a significantly higher risk of 10 year all-cause death (41.1 vs. 24.1%; HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.54-2.40; p < 0.001). The risk of 10 year all-cause death was similar between patients receiving PCI or CABG irrespective of the presence of prior CEVD (p-interaction = 0.624). CONCLUSION: Prior CEVD was associated with a significantly increased risk of 10 year all-cause death which was similar in patients treated with PCI or CABG. These results do not support preferential referral for PCI rather than CABG in patients with prior CEVD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAX: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972. SYNTAX Extended Survival: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050.

17.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(5): 766-773, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared the effect of bivalirudin or heparin and use or nonuse of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) on the outcome of left main coronary artery (LMCA) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the randomized EXCEL trial. BACKGROUND: The optimal antithrombotic regimen to support PCI of the LMCA remains controversial because of low representation of this subset in clinical trials. METHODS: The PCI cohort (n = 928) in EXCEL was divided according to bivalirudin versus heparin antithrombin treatment and compared for the primary composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke at 30 days and 5 years. RESULTS: Bivalirudin was used in 319 patients (34.4%). The composite endpoint at 30 days occurred in 7.2% versus 3.8% bivalirudin and heparin patients, respectively, p = .02; at 5 years, the composite endpoint occurred in 26.3% versus 19.9% bivalirudin and heparin patients, respectively, p = .02. Major bleeding was more frequent in bivalirudin patients (4.1% versus 1.3%, p = .008). There were no differences in stent thrombosis between the groups. Bivalirudin use was an independent predictor of the 30-day composite endpoint (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.28-6.48, p = .01) but not of the 5-year composite endpoint (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.84-2.02, p = .23). GPI use was infrequent (n = 67, 7.2%) and was not associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing LMCA PCI in the EXCEL trial, procedural use of bivalirudin was associated with greater rates of periprocedural MI and the 30-day composite endpoint without reducing bleeding complications. Five-year outcomes were similar. GPIs were used infrequently and were not associated with clinical outcomes.

19.
Am J Cardiol ; 143: 21-28, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359193

RESUMO

Prior studies in patients with noncomplex coronary artery disease have demonstrated the safety of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the outpatient setting. We sought to examine the outcomes of outpatient PCI in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). In the EXCEL trial, 1905 patients with LMCAD and site-assessed low or intermediate SYNTAX scores were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus coronary artery bypass grafting. The primary end point was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; the composite of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction). In this sub-analysis, outcomes at 30 days and 5 years were analyzed according to whether PCI was performed in the outpatient versus inpatient setting. Among 948 patients with LMCAD assigned to PCI, 935 patients underwent PCI as their first procedure, including 100 (10.7%) performed in the outpatient setting. Patients who underwent outpatient compared with inpatient PCI were less likely to have experienced recent myocardial infarction. Distal left main bifurcation disease involvement and SYNTAX scores were similar between the groups. Comparing outpatient to inpatient PCI, there were no significant differences in MACE at 30 days (4.0% vs 5.0% respectively, adjusted OR 0.52 95% CI 0.12 to 2.22; p = 0.38) or 5 years (20.6% vs 22.1% respectively, adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.29; p = 0.27). Similar results were observed in patients with distal left main bifurcation lesions. In conclusion, in the EXCEL trial, outpatient PCI of patients with LMCAD was not associated with an excess early or late hazard of MACE. These data suggest that outpatient PCI may be safely performed in select patients with LMCAD.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Hospitalização , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Idoso , Angina Estável/epidemiologia , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(14): 1609-1621, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varying definitions of procedural myocardial infarction (PMI) are in widespread use. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the rates and clinical relevance of PMI using different definitions in patients with left main coronary artery disease randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial. METHODS: The pre-specified protocol definition of PMI (PMIProt) required a large elevation of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), with identical threshold for both procedures. The Third Universal Definition of MI (types 4a and 5) (PMIUD) required lesser biomarker elevations but with supporting evidence of myocardial ischemia, different after PCI and CABG. For the PMIUD, troponins were used preferentially (available in 49.5% of patients), CK-MB otherwise. The multivariable relationship between each PMI type and 5-year mortality was determined. RESULTS: PMIProt occurred in 34 of 935 (3.6%) patients after PCI and 56 of 923 (6.1%) patients after CABG (difference -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.4% to -0.5%; p = 0.015). The corresponding rates of PMIUD were 37 (4.0%) and 20 (2.2%), respectively (difference 1.8%; 95% CI: 0.2% to 3.4%; p = 0.025). Both PMIProt and PMIUD were associated with 5-year cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.18 [95% CI: 1.13 to 4.23] and 2.87 [95% CI: 1.44 to 5.73], respectively). PMIProt was associated with a consistent hazard of cardiovascular mortality after both PCI and CABG (pinteraction = 0.86). Conversely, PMIUD was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality after CABG (adjusted HR: 11.94; 95% CI: 4.84 to 29.47) but not after PCI (adjusted HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.67) (pinteraction = 0.004). Results were similar for all-cause mortality and with varying PMIUD biomarker definitions. Only large biomarker elevations (CK-MB ≥10× upper reference limit and troponin ≥70× upper reference limit) were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of PMI after PCI and CABG vary greatly with different definitions. In the EXCEL trial, the pre-specified PMIProt was associated with similar hazard after PCI and CABG, whereas PMIUD was strongly associated with mortality after CABG but not after PCI. (EXCEL Clinical Trial [EXCEL]; NCT01205776).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/tendências , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica/efeitos adversos , Revascularização Miocárdica/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
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