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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512575

RESUMO

Nordic twin studies have played a critical role in understanding cancer etiology and elucidating the nature of familial effects on site-specific cancers. The NorTwinCan consortium is a collaborative effort that capitalizes on unique research advantages made possible through the Nordic system of registries. It was constructed by linking the population-based twin registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to their country-specific national cancer and cause-of-death registries. These linkages enable the twins to be followed many decades for cancer incidence and mortality. To date, two major linkages have been conducted: NorTwinCan I in 2011-2012 and NorTwinCan II in 2018. Overall, there are 315,413 eligible twins, 57,236 incident cancer cases and 58 years of follow-up, on average. In the initial phases of our work, NorTwinCan established the world's most comprehensive twin database for studying cancer, developed novel analytical approaches tailored to address specific research considerations within the context of the Nordic data and leveraged these models and data in research publications that provide the most accurate estimates of heritability and familial risk of cancers reported in the literature to date. Our findings indicate an excess familial risk for nearly all cancers and demonstrate that the incidence of cancer among twins mirrors the rate in the general population. They also revealed that twin concordance for cancer most often manifests across, rather than within, cancer sites, and we are currently focusing on the analysis of these cross-cancer associations.

2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 130, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease results from a neurodegenerative process that starts well before the diagnosis can be made. New prognostic or diagnostic markers enabling early intervention into the disease process would be highly valuable. Environmental and lifestyle factors largely modulate the disease risk and may influence the pathogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. As environmental and lifestyle factors may affect multiple tissues of the body, we hypothesized that the disease-associated DNA methylation signatures are detectable in the peripheral blood of discordant twin pairs. RESULTS: Comparison of 23 disease discordant Finnish twin pairs with reduced representation bisulfite sequencing revealed peripheral blood DNA methylation differences in 11 genomic regions with at least 15.0% median methylation difference and FDR adjusted p value ≤ 0.05. Several of the affected genes are primarily associated with neuronal functions and pathologies and do not display disease-associated differences in gene expression in blood. The DNA methylation mark in ADARB2 gene was found to be differentially methylated also in the anterior hippocampus, including entorhinal cortex, of non-twin cases and controls. Targeted bisulfite pyrosequencing of the DNA methylation mark in ADARB2 gene in 62 Finnish and Swedish twin pairs revealed that, in addition to the disease status, DNA methylation of this region is influenced by gender, age, zygosity, APOE genotype, and smoking. Further analysis of 120 Swedish twin pairs indicated that this specific DNA methylation mark is not predictive for Alzheimer's disease and becomes differentially methylated after disease onset. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation differences can be detected in the peripheral blood of twin pairs discordant for Alzheimer's disease. These DNA methylation signatures may have value as disease markers and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. We found no evidence that the DNA methylation marks would be associated with gene expression in blood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential importance of the associated genes in neuronal functions and to validate the prognostic or diagnostic value of the individual marks or marker panels.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3933, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477693

RESUMO

It has remained unclear why schizophrenia typically manifests after adolescence and which neurobiological mechanisms are underlying the cascade leading to the actual onset of the illness. Here we show that the use of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons of monozygotic twins from pairs discordant for schizophrenia enhances disease-specific signal by minimizing genetic heterogeneity. In proteomic and pathway analyses, clinical illness is associated especially with altered glycosaminoglycan, GABAergic synapse, sialylation, and purine metabolism pathways. Although only 12% of all 19,462 genes are expressed differentially between healthy males and females, up to 61% of the illness-related genes are sex specific. These results on sex-specific genes are replicated in another dataset. This implies that the pathophysiology differs between males and females, and may explain why symptoms appear after adolescence when the expression of many sex-specific genes change, and suggests the need for sex-specific treatments.

4.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544729

RESUMO

The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) is a consortium of 18 twin studies from 5 different countries (Sweden, Denmark, Finland, United States, and Australia) established to explore the nature of gene-environment (GE) interplay in functioning across the adult lifespan. Fifteen of the studies are longitudinal, with follow-up as long as 59 years after baseline. The combined data from over 76,000 participants aged 14-103 at intake (including over 10,000 monozygotic and over 17,000 dizygotic twin pairs) support two primary research emphases: (1) investigation of models of GE interplay of early life adversity, and social factors at micro and macro environmental levels and with diverse outcomes, including mortality, physical functioning and psychological functioning; and (2) improved understanding of risk and protective factors for dementia by incorporating unmeasured and measured genetic factors with a wide range of exposures measured in young adulthood, midlife and later life.

5.
Epigenomics ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466478

RESUMO

Aim: Smoking strongly influences DNA methylation, with current and never smokers exhibiting different methylation profiles. Methods: To advance the practical applicability of the smoking-associated methylation signals, we used machine learning methodology to train a classifier for smoking status prediction. Results: We show the prediction performance of our classifier on three independent whole-blood datasets demonstrating its robustness and global applicability. Furthermore, we examine the reasons for biologically meaningful misclassifications through comprehensive phenotypic evaluation. Conclusion: The major contribution of our classifier is its global applicability without a need for users to determine a threshold value for each dataset to predict the smoking status. We provide an R package, EpiSmokEr (Epigenetic Smoking status Estimator), facilitating the use of our classifier to predict smoking status in future studies.

6.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity and academic performance are believed to be associated. Though both traits are partially heritable, it remains unclear whether these traits also share a genetic and/or environmental background in common. We aimed to examine to what extent leisure-time physical activity and academic performance share genetic and environmental effects from early adolescence to young adulthood. METHODS: Participants were Finnish twins (2543-2693 individuals/study wave) who reported their leisure-time physical activity at ages 12, 14, 17 and 24. Academic performance was assessed with teacher-reported grade point averages at ages 12 and 14 and by self-reported educational levels at ages 17 and 24. Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling at each age and between different ages was performed to decompose the trait correlation between academic performance and physical activity into genetic and environmental components. RESULTS: The trait correlations between leisure-time physical activity and academic performance were positive, but modest at most (rtrait=0.08-0.22 in males, and 0.07-0.18 in females). The genetic correlations between leisure-time physical activity and academic performance were higher than the trait correlations (rA=0.17-0.43 in males, and 0.15-0.25 in females). Common genetic influences explained 43-100% of the trait correlations. Environmental influences shared by co-twins between leisure-time physical activity and academic performance were also correlated (rC=0.27-0.54 in males, and 0.21-0.69 in females) explaining 41-100% of the trait correlations. Unique environmental influences were correlated only in females (rE=0.10-0.15). CONCLUSION: Both common genetic background and shared family environment (i.e., familial background) partially account for the associations observed between leisure-time physical activity and academic performance. However, the estimates vary in magnitude by age.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) is an efficient and cost-effective screening instrument of dementia, but there is less support for its utility in the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We undertook a comprehensive evaluation of the utility of different TICS-m versions with or without an education-adjusted scoring method to classify dementia and MCI in a large population-based sample. METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment of cognition (TICS-m), depressive symptoms (CES-D), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status was performed on 1772 older adults (aged 71-78 y, education 5-16 y, 50% female) from the population-based older Finnish Twin Cohort. TICS-m classification methods with and without education adjustment were used to classify individuals with normal cognition, MCI, or dementia. RESULTS: The prevalence of dementia and MCI varied between education-adjusted (dementia = 3.7%, MCI = 9.3%) and unadjusted classifications (dementia = 8.5%-11%, MCI = 22.3%-41.3%). APOE ε4 status was associated with dementia irrespective of education adjustment, but with MCI only when education adjustment was used. Regardless of the version, poorer continuous TICS-m scores were associated with higher age, lower education, more depressive symptoms, male sex, and being an APOE ε4 carrier. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that demographic factors, APOE ε4 status, and depressive symptoms were similarly related to continuous TICS-m scores and dementia classifications with different versions. However, education-adjusted classification resulted in a lower prevalence of dementia and MCI and in a higher proportion of APOE ε4 allele carriers among those identified as having MCI. Our results support the use of education-adjusted classification especially in the context of MCI.

8.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(4): 240-254, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462340

RESUMO

The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945-1957 in 2011-2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938-1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.

9.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(4): 220-228, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466550

RESUMO

We aimed to study the eating behavioral traits that associate with body mass index (BMI) among BMI-discordant twin pairs. This cross-sectional study examined self-reported eating behaviors in 134 healthy young adult twin pairs (57 monozygotic [MZ] and 77 same-sex dizygotic [DZ]), of whom 29 MZ and 46 DZ pairs were BMI discordant (BMI difference ≥ 3 kg/m2). In both MZ and DZ BMI-discordant pairs, the heavier co-twins reported being less capable of regulating their food intake optimally than their leaner co-twins, mainly due to 'frequent overeating'. Furthermore, the heavier co-twins reported augmented 'disinhibited eating', 'binge-eating scores' and 'body dissatisfaction'. The twins agreed more frequently that the heavier co-twins (rather than the leaner co-twins) ate more food in general, and more fatty food, in particular. No significant behavioral differences emerged in BMI-concordant twin pairs. Overeating - measured by 'frequent overeating', 'disinhibited eating' and 'binge-eating score' - was the main behavioral trait associated with higher BMI, independent of genotype and shared environment.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3503, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409809

RESUMO

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) affects 10-20% of the population and is associated with substantial functional deficits. Here, we identify 42 loci for self-reported daytime sleepiness in GWAS of 452,071 individuals from the UK Biobank, with enrichment for genes expressed in brain tissues and in neuronal transmission pathways. We confirm the aggregate effect of a genetic risk score of 42 SNPs on daytime sleepiness in independent Scandinavian cohorts and on other sleep disorders (restless legs syndrome, insomnia) and sleep traits (duration, chronotype, accelerometer-derived sleep efficiency and daytime naps or inactivity). However, individual daytime sleepiness signals vary in their associations with objective short vs long sleep, and with markers of sleep continuity. The 42 sleepiness variants primarily cluster into two predominant composite biological subtypes - sleep propensity and sleep fragmentation. Shared genetic links are also seen with obesity, coronary heart disease, psychiatric diseases, cognitive traits and reproductive ageing.

11.
J Phys Act Health ; 16(8): 637­643, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is said to be beneficial to many bodily functions. However, the effects of PA in the brain are still inadequately known. The authors aimed to uncover possible brain modulation linked with PA. Here, they combine 4 of their studies with monozygotic twins, who were within-pair discordant in PA for a minimum of 1 year. METHODS: The authors performed brain imaging, brain electrophysiology, and cardiovascular and body composition assessments, and collected questionnaire-based data. The present synopsis elucidates the differences associated with differing PA history in conditions without genetic variability. They present new structural and electrophysiological results. Participants, healthy, 45 male monozygotic twins (mean age 34.5 [1.5] y) differed in aerobic capacity and fat percentage (P < .001). RESULTS: More active co-twins showed larger gray matter volumes in striatal, prefrontal, and hippocampal regions, and smaller gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate area than less active co-twins. Functionally, visual and somatosensory automatic change detection processes differed between more and less active co-twins. CONCLUSIONS: In monozygotic twins, who differed in their PA history, differences were observed in identifiable anatomic brain locations involved with motor control and memory functions, as well as in electrophysiological measures detecting brain's automatic processes. Better aerobic capacity may modify brain morphology and sensory function.

12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: FTND (FagerstrÓ§m test for nicotine dependence) and TTFC (time to smoke first cigarette in the morning) are common measures of nicotine dependence (ND). However, genome-wide meta-analysis for these phenotypes has not been reported. METHODS: Genome-wide meta-analyses for FTND (N = 19,431) and TTFC (N = 18,567) phenotypes were conducted for adult smokers of European ancestry from 14 independent cohorts. RESULTS: We found that SORBS2 on 4q35 (p = 4.05 × 10-8), BG182718 on 11q22 (p = 1.02 × 10-8), and AA333164 on 14q21 (p = 4.11 × 10-9) were associated with TTFC phenotype. We attempted replication of leading candidates with independent samples (FTND, N = 7010 and TTFC, N = 10 061), however, due to limited power of the replication samples, the replication of these new loci did not reach significance. In gene-based analyses, COPB2 was found associated with FTND phenotype, and TFCP2L1, RELN, and INO80C were associated with TTFC phenotype. In pathway and network analyses, we found that the interconnected interactions among the endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, axon guidance, MAPK signaling, and chemokine signaling pathways were involved in ND. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified several promising candidates for both FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and further verification of these candidates was necessary. Candidates supported by both FTND and TTFC (CHRNA4, THSD7B, RBFOX1, and ZNF804A) were associated with addiction to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, and were associated with autism and schizophrenia. We also identified novel pathways involved in cigarette smoking. The pathway interactions highlighted the importance of receptor recycling and internalization in ND. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking and ND is critical to develop effective prevention and treatment. Our study identified novel candidates and biological pathways involved in FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and this will facilitate further investigation of these candidates and pathways.

13.
Behav Genet ; 49(5): 484, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263991

RESUMO

The article "Genetics of Perceived Family Interaction From 12 to 17 Years of Age", written by Karri Silventoinen, Jinni Su, Lea Pulkkinen, Peter Barr, Richard J. Rose, Danielle M. Dick, Jaakko Kaprio, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 24 May 2019 without open access.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9219, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239477

RESUMO

Benefit of physical activity in prevention of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is unclear. We aimed to clarify this by studying how different types of physical activity associate with SAH risk. By following 65 521 population-based FINRISK participants prospectively from medical and autopsy registries since 1972 until 2014, we detected 543 incident SAHs. At baseline, we measured leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA), and commuting physical activity (CPA) levels. The Cox model adjusted for all well-known SAH risk factors and for socioeconomic status, provided hazard ratios (HRs) for physical activity variables. Every 30-minute increase in weekly LTPA decreased SAH risk linearly in men and women HR = 0.95 (95% CI = 0.90-1.00). CPA reduced SAH risk as well, but the association diminished as participants retired. In contrast, individuals with moderate (1.41, 1.04-1.92) and high OPA (1.34, 0.99-1.81) had elevated SAH risk. Protective association of LTPA persisted in all age and hypertension groups, and was even greater in current smokers 0.88 (0.81-0.96) than non-smokers (p = 0.04 for difference). Commuting and leisure time physical activity seem to reduce SAH risk in men and women and is most beneficial for smokers. Future intervention studies should investigate whether physical activity can reduce the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms.

15.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

16.
Addiction ; 114(10): 1753-1762, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous twin research suggests relationship status can moderate underlying genetic liability towards alcohol misuse. This paper examined: (1) whether genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) for alcohol consumption are associated with alcohol misuse; (2) whether these GPS are moderated by romantic relationships (gene-environment interaction; G × E) and (3) whether G × E results are consistent across sex. DESIGN: Linear mixed-effects models were used to test associations between genome-wide polygenic scores, relationship status and alcohol use/misuse. SETTING: Finnish twins born between 1983 and 1987 identified through Finland's central population registry. PARTICIPANTS: An intensively studied subset of Finnish Twin Study (FinnTwin12) during the young adult phase (aged 20-26 years). The analytical sample includes those with complete interview and genetic data (n = 1201). MEASUREMENTS: Key measurements included involvement in a romantic partnership, drinking frequency, intoxication frequency and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) were created from available summary statistics from a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of drinks per week. RESULTS: GPS predicted drinking frequency [b = 0.109; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.050, 0.168], intoxication frequency (b = 0.111; 95% CI = 0.054, 0.168) and AD symptoms (b = 0.123; 95% CI = 0.064, 0.182). Having a romantic relationship negatively influenced the association between GPS and drinking frequency (b = -0.105; 95% CI = -0.211, -0.001), intoxication frequency (b = -0.118; 95% CI = -0.220, -0.016) and AD symptoms (b = -0.119; 95% CI = -0.229, -0.009). There was a three-way interaction between sex, relationship status and GPS for intoxication frequency (b = 0.223; 95% CI = 0.013, 0.433), such that the reduced association between GPS and intoxication frequency for those in a relationship was only apparent in males. We found no evidence of three-way interactions for drinking frequency or AD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Being in a romantic relationship reduced the association between genetic predisposition and drinking, high-risk drinking and alcohol problems. However, for high-risk drinking the protective effect was limited to males, mapping onto earlier findings suggesting that males benefit more from romantic partnerships.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138891

RESUMO

We have previously reported a replicable association between variants at the PDE4D gene and familial schizophrenia in a Finnish cohort. In order to identify the potential functional mutations underlying these previous findings, we sequenced 1.5 Mb of the PDE4D genomic locus in 20 families (consisting of 96 individuals and 79 independent chromosomes), followed by two stages of genotyping across 6668 individuals from multiple Finnish cohorts for major mental illnesses. We identified 4570 SNPs across the PDE4D gene, with 380 associated to schizophrenia (p ≤ 0.05). Importantly, two of these variants, rs35278 and rs165940, are located at transcription factor-binding sites, and displayed replicable association in the two-stage enlargement of the familial schizophrenia cohort (combined statistics for rs35278 p = 0.0012; OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.06-1.32; and rs165940 p = 0.0016; OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13-1.41). Further analysis using additional cohorts and endophenotypes revealed that rs165940 principally associates within the psychosis (p = 0.025, OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30) and cognitive domains of major mental illnesses (g-score p = 0.044, ß = -0.033). Specifically, the cognitive domains represented verbal learning and memory (p = 0.0091, ß = -0.044) and verbal working memory (p = 0.0062, ß = -0.036). Moreover, expression data from the GTEx database demonstrated that rs165940 significantly correlates with the mRNA expression levels of PDE4D in the cerebellum (p-value = 0.04; m-value = 0.9), demonstrating a potential functional consequence for this variant. Thus, rs165940 represents the most likely functional variant for major mental illness at the PDE4D locus in the Finnish population, increasing risk broadly to psychotic disorders.

18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 200: 64-70, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies enhance understanding of the complex reciprocal relationship between smoking and depression from adolescence to young adulthood. Examining bi-directional associations between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms in a genetically informative twin design can help to understand whether the associations are independent of shared genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: We analyzed longitudinal data on smoking and depressive symptoms in twins participating in the adolescent (mean age 17.5) and young adult (mean age 21.9) surveys of the FinnTwin12 study (maximum N = 2,954 individuals; 1,154 twin pairs). At both waves, self-reported depressive symptoms, assessed with the 10-item version of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI), and smoking status were analyzed. The bi-directional associations were first studied among individuals and then within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. RESULTS: When adjusted for multiple covariates and baseline depressive symptoms, daily smokers at age 17 had higher depressive symptom scores at age 22 than never smokers (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.33). Similarly, when adjusted for covariates and baseline smoking, higher score in GBI at age 17 was associated with an increased likelihood of being a non-daily (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) or daily (RRR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10) smoker at age 22. No associations were found in within-pair analyses, suggesting that the individual-level association is explained by shared familial liabilities. CONCLUSION: During the developmental period from adolescence to adulthood, cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms are reciprocally associated. However, these associations are confounded by shared genetic and other familial liabilities.

19.
Behav Genet ; 49(4): 366-375, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127448

RESUMO

We analyzed how the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the perceptions of family interaction change from early to late adolescence. The data were collected by postal surveys on Finnish twins (N = 4808) at 12, 14 and 17 years of age and analyzed using genetic twin modeling. Additive genetic factors explained a modest share of the variation in perceived relational support (a2 = 0.30 in boys and 0.18 in girls) and relational tensions (a2 = 0.13 and 0.14, respectively) at 12 years of age, with the proportions becoming larger through 17 years of age (a2 = 0.53 in boys and 0.49 in girls for relational support; a2 = 0.35 in boys and 0.33 in girls for relational tensions). Simultaneously, the role of environment shared by co-twins decreased. These findings suggest that the associations between perceived family interaction and other factors in adulthood should be interpreted with caution, because they partly reflect genetic background, whereas in childhood, they may provide more reliable information on parental characteristics.

20.
Prev Sci ; 20(7): 1021-1030, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069603

RESUMO

Longitudinal, genetically informative studies of the association between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescents are limited. We examined the longitudinal association of cigarette smoking with subsequent depressive symptoms during adolescence in a Finnish twin cohort. We used prospective data from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (maximum N = 4152 individuals, 1910 twin pairs). Current smoking status and a number of lifetime cigarettes smoked were assessed at the age of 14 and depressive symptoms at the age of 17. Negative binomial regression was conducted to model the association between smoking behavior and subsequent depressive symptoms among individuals, and within-pair analyses were conducted to control for unmeasured familial confounding. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, school grades, drinking alcohol to intoxication, health status, family structure, parental education, and smoking, as well as for pre-existing depressiveness. The results of the individual-level analyses showed that cigarette smoking at the age of 14 predicted depressive symptoms at the age of 17. Compared to never smokers, those who had smoked over 50 cigarettes (incidence rate ratio, IRR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.28-1.60) and regular smokers (IRR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.32-1.62) had higher depression scores. The associations were attenuated when adjusted for measured covariates and further reduced in within-pair analyses. In the within-pair results, the estimates were lower within monozygotic (MZ) pairs compared to dizygotic (DZ) pairs, suggesting that shared genetic factors contribute to the associations observed in individual-based analyses. Thus, we conclude that cigarette smoking is associated with subsequent depressive symptoms during adolescence, but the association is not independent of measured confounding factors and shared genetic influences.

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