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2.
Ann Nutr Metab ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524988

RESUMO

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is the bedrock for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Several different types of dietary approaches are used globally, and there is no consensus among the various professional groups as to what constitutes an ideal approach. The conventional approach of limiting carbohydrates at the cost of increasing energy from the fat source may not be most optimal. Instead, allowing higher levels of complex, low-to-medium glycaemic index carbohydrates and adequate fibre through higher consumption of vegetables and fruits seems more beneficial. No particular diet or dietary protocol is superior to another as shown in several comparative studies. However, in each of these studies, one thing was common - the intervention arm included more intensive diet counselling and more frequent visits to the dieticians. For MNT to work, it is imperative that diet advice and nutrition counselling is provided by a dietician, which is easy to understand and use and includes healthy food options, cooking methods, and practical guidance that empower and motivate to make changes towards a healthy eating pattern. Various simple tools to achieve these objectives are available, and in the absence of qualified dieticians, they can be used to train other health care professionals to provide nutrition counselling to women with GDM. Given the impact of GDM on the future health of the mother and offspring, dietary and lifestyle behaviour changes during pregnancy in women with GDM are not only relevant for immediate pregnancy outcomes, but continued adherence is also important for future health.

3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 614533, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343512

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the commonest medical complication of pregnancy. The association of GDM with immediate pregnancy complications including excess fetal growth and adiposity with subsequent risk of birth trauma and with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is well recognized. However, the associations with wide ranges of longer-term health outcomes for mother and baby, including the lifetime risks of obesity, pre-diabetes, and diabetes and cardiovascular disease have received less attention and few health systems address these important issues in a systematic way. This article reviews historical and recent data regarding prediction of GDM using demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters. We evaluate current and potential future diagnostic approaches designed to most effectively identify GDM and extend this analysis into a critical evaluation of lifestyle and nutritional/pharmacologic interventions designed to prevent the development of GDM. The general approach to management of GDM during pregnancy is then discussed and the major final focus of the article revolves around the importance of a GDM diagnosis as a future marker of the risk of non-communicable disease (NCD), in particular pre-diabetes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, both in mother and offspring.

4.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151 Suppl 1: 6-15, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894587

RESUMO

With the increase in obesity prevalence among women of reproductive age globally, the risks of type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, and other conditions are rising, with detrimental effects on maternal and newborn health. The period before pregnancy is increasingly recognized as crucial for addressing weight management and reducing malnutrition (both under- and overnutrition) in both parents to reduce the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in the mother as well as the passage of risk to her offspring. Healthcare practitioners, including obstetricians, gynecologists, midwives, and general practitioners, have an important role to play in supporting women in planning a pregnancy and achieving healthy nutrition and weight before pregnancy. In this position paper, the FIGO Pregnancy Obesity and Nutrition Initiative provides an overview of the evidence for preconception clinical guidelines to reduce the risk of NCDs in mothers and their offspring. It encourages healthcare practitioners to initiate a dialogue on women's health, nutrition, and weight management before conception. While acknowledging the fundamental importance of the wider social and environmental determinants of health, this paper focuses on a simple set of recommendations for clinical practice that can be used even in short consultations. The recommendations can be contextualized based on local cultural and dietary practices as part of a system-wide public health approach to influence the wider determinants as well as individual factors influencing preconception health.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Saúde da Mulher , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente/normas , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/normas , Gravidez
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354048

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes as well as increased risk of future type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In India, 10%-35% of pregnant women develop GDM. In this study, we investigated women's experiences with the dietary and pharmaceutical treatment for GDM in rural and urban Tamil Nadu, India. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 women diagnosed with GDM. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three overall aspects were discovered with several sub-aspects characterizing women's experiences: emotional challenges (fear and apprehension for the baby' health and struggling to accept a treatment seen as counterintuitive to being safe and healthy), interpersonal challenges (managing treatment in the near social relations and social support, and coordinating treatment with work and social life), and health system-related challenges (availability and cost of treatment, interaction with health care providers). Some aspects acted as barriers. However, social support and positive, high-quality interactions with health care providers could mitigate some of these barriers and facilitate the treatment process. Greater efforts at awareness creation in the social environment and systemic adjustments in care delivery targeting the individual, family, community and health system levels are needed in order to ensure that women with GDM have the opportunity to access treatment and are enabled and motivated to follow it as well.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Dieta , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Gravidez , Gestantes , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(2): 151-158, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401348

RESUMO

An integrated approach to population health, disease surveillance, and preventive care will dominate the health agenda in the post COVID-19 world. Because of their huge burden and the vulnerability imposed during a health crisis, prevention and care of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will need to be prioritized even further. Maternal and child health are inextricably linked with NCDs and their risk factors. The intergenerational impact of poor maternal nutrition and health conditions during pregnancy, particularly NCD-related pregnancy complications, can be considered as a multiplier of the ongoing pandemic of NCDs. The economic cost of poor maternal health and NCD-related pregnancy complications is likely very high, but is not adequately researched or documented in the context of long-term population health. Interventions to address NCDs in pregnancy have beneficial effects on short-term pregnancy outcomes; but even more importantly, identifying "at-risk" mothers and offspring opens up the opportunity for targeted early preventive action. Preventive actions to address obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases have a common lifestyle approach-identifying any one of these problems in pregnancy provides an opportunity to address them all. Cost-benefit analyses that only focus on the short-term and on one condition do not capture the full value of downstream, long-term benefits for population health. This requires urgent attention from FIGO.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Materna , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Investimentos em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 66-70, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309801

RESUMO

Abstract: Women with a history of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of future diabetes and related Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) as are their offspring. "Transgenerational transmission occurs". Independent of genetic risk, offspring of hyperglycaemic pregnancies are at increased risk of early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM) and obesity. Differences exist in offspring risk of diabetes and obesity based on time and type of diabetes exposure in utero. There is a risk gradient, wherein type 2 DM exposure confers greater risk and reduces time to development of type 2 DM in the offspring compared with exposure to GDM and no diabetes exposure. These data suggest, glucose dose dependence in risk transmission. Given that the age of onset of prediabetes and type 2 DM is declining many reproductive age women may have undiagnosed diabetes or dysglycaemia when they become pregnant. This has great public health significance and it has become imperative that all pregnant women should be screened for hyperglycemia even if they have no symptoms. Ministry of Health, Government of India has developed the national guidelines for testing, diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. These guidelines recommend early testing at booking, to be repeated again between 24-28 weeks if negative at first testing. The guideline also recommends that GDM can be diagnosed if the 2 hr PG is ≥140mg/dl after 75 gm of oral glucose administration without regard to the time of the last meal (i.e., fasting or non-fasting). This approach has also been endorsed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF), World Health Organization (WHO) and International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) for resource constrained settings.The aim should be to target new born baby's birth weight, appropriate for gestational age (2.5 to 3.5 kg) to prevent the offspring developing NCD in the future. For this to happen early diagnosis and tight maternal glucose control during pregnancy similar to glycaemic level in the normal pregnancy, (FPG between 80 and 90 mg, 2 hr. post prandial between 110 and 120 mg) is necessary.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Índia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218052, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the face of the rising burden of non-communicable diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa, where infectious diseases like Tuberculosis (TB) are still endemic, the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases appears to be increasing rapidly. However, the size of the problem and what is the proper health system approach to deal with the double burden is still unclear. The aim of this project was to estimate the double burden of DM hypertension and TB and to pilot the integration of the screening for DM and hypertension in the TB national programs in six TB centers in Luanda, Angola. METHODS: All newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) patients accessing six directly observed treatment (DOT) centers in Luanda were screened for diabetes and hypertension. TB diagnosis was made clinically and/or with sputum microscopy DM diagnosis was made through estimation of either fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (considered positive if ≥ 7∙0mmol/l) or random plasma glucose (considered positive if ≥ 11∙1mmol/l). Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥ 140 mm of Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of ≥ 90 mm of Hg, irrespective of use of antihypertensive drug. RESULTS: Between January 2015 and December 2016, a total of 7,205 newly diagnosed patients with PTB were included in the analysis; 3,598 (49∙9%) were males and 3,607 females. Among 7,205 PTB patients enrolled, blood pressure was measured in 6,954 and 1,352 (19∙4%) were found to have uncontrolled hypertension, more frequently in females (23%) compared to males (16%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis uncontrolled hypertension was associated with increasing age and BMI and ethnic group. The crude prevalence of DM among TB patients was close to 6%, slightly higher in males (6∙3%) compared to females (5∙7%). Age adjusted prevalence was 8%. Impaired fasting glucose (>6∙1 to <7∙0 mmol/L) was detected in 414 patients (7%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis DM prevalence was higher in males and increased with increasing age and BMI. INTERPRETATION: TB patients have a considerable hypertension and diabetes co-morbidity. It is possible to screen for these conditions within the DOTs centres. Integration of health services for both communicable and non-communicable diseases is desirable and recommended.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Tuberculose , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Angola , Glicemia , Comorbidade , Assistência à Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/enzimologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
13.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 48(3): 511-531, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345520

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia is common during pregnancy, involving multisystem adaptations. Pregnancy-induced metabolic changes increase insulin resistance. Pregnancy-induced insulin resistance adds to preexisting insulin resistance. Preexisting pancreatic ß-cell defect compromises the ability to enhance insulin secretion, leading to hyperglycemia. Women with type 2 DM have similar rates of major congenital malformations, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality, but an even higher risk of perinatal mortality. In utero type 2 DM exposure confers greater risk and reduces time to development of type 2 DM in offspring. Preconception care to improve metabolic control in women with type 2 diabetes is critical.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Anormalidades Congênitas/sangue , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez em Diabéticas/sangue , Gravidez em Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Gravidez em Diabéticas/terapia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle
14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 145 Suppl 1: 1-33, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111484

RESUMO

Pre­eclampsia (PE) is a multisystem disorder that typically affects 2%­5% of pregnant women and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially when the condition is of early onset. Globally, 76 000 women and 500 000 babies die each year from this disorder. Furthermore, women in low­resource countries are at a higher risk of developing PE compared with those in high­resource countries. Although a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of PE remains unclear, the current theory suggests a two­stage process. The first stage is caused by shallow invasion of the trophoblast, resulting in inadequate remodeling of the spiral arteries. This is presumed to lead to the second stage, which involves the maternal response to endothelial dysfunction and imbalance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, resulting in the clinical features of the disorder. Accurate prediction and uniform prevention continue to elude us. The quest to effectively predict PE in the first trimester of pregnancy is fueled by the desire to identify women who are at high risk of developing PE, so that necessary measures can be initiated early enough to improve placentation and thus prevent or at least reduce the frequency of its occurrence. Furthermore, identification of an "at risk" group will allow tailored prenatal surveillance to anticipate and recognize the onset of the clinical syndrome and manage it promptly. PE has been previously defined as the onset of hypertension accompanied by significant proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Recently, the definition of PE has been broadened. Now the internationally agreed definition of PE is the one proposed by the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP). According to the ISSHP, PE is defined as systolic blood pressure at ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure at ≥90 mm Hg on at least two occasions measured 4 hours apart in previously normotensive women and is accompanied by one or more of the following new­onset conditions at or after 20 weeks of gestation: 1.Proteinuria (i.e. ≥30 mg/mol protein:creatinine ratio; ≥300 mg/24 hour; or ≥2 + dipstick); 2.Evidence of other maternal organ dysfunction, including: acute kidney injury (creatinine ≥90 µmol/L; 1 mg/dL); liver involvement (elevated transaminases, e.g. alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase >40 IU/L) with or without right upper quadrant or epigastric abdominal pain; neurological complications (e.g. eclampsia, altered mental status, blindness, stroke, clonus, severe headaches, and persistent visual scotomata); or hematological complications (thrombocytopenia­platelet count <150 000/µL, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolysis); or 3.Uteroplacental dysfunction (such as fetal growth restriction, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveform analysis, or stillbirth). It is well established that a number of maternal risk factors are associated with the development of PE: advanced maternal age; nulliparity; previous history of PE; short and long interpregnancy interval; use of assisted reproductive technologies; family history of PE; obesity; Afro­Caribbean and South Asian racial origin; co­morbid medical conditions including hyperglycemia in pregnancy; pre­existing chronic hypertension; renal disease; and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. These risk factors have been described by various professional organizations for the identification of women at risk of PE; however, this approach to screening is inadequate for effective prediction of PE. PE can be subclassified into: 1.Early­onset PE (with delivery at <34+0 weeks of gestation); 2.Preterm PE (with delivery at <37+0 weeks of gestation); 3.Late­onset PE (with delivery at ≥34+0 weeks of gestation); 4.Term PE (with delivery at ≥37+0 weeks of gestation). These subclassifications are not mutually exclusive. Early­onset PE is associated with a much higher risk of short­ and long­term maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Obstetricians managing women with preterm PE are faced with the challenge of balancing the need to achieve fetal maturation in utero with the risks to the mother and fetus of continuing the pregnancy longer. These risks include progression to eclampsia, development of placental abruption and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, low platelet) syndrome. On the other hand, preterm delivery is associated with higher infant mortality rates and increased morbidity resulting from small for gestational age (SGA), thrombocytopenia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, cerebral palsy, and an increased risk of various chronic diseases in adult life, particularly type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Women who have experienced PE may also face additional health problems in later life, as the condition is associated with an increased risk of death from future cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, renal impairment, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. The life expectancy of women who developed preterm PE is reduced on average by 10 years. There is also significant impact on the infants in the long term, such as increased risks of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and hypertension in infants born to pre­eclamptic women. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) brought together international experts to discuss and evaluate current knowledge on PE and develop a document to frame the issues and suggest key actions to address the health burden posed by PE. FIGO's objectives, as outlined in this document, are: (1) To raise awareness of the links between PE and poor maternal and perinatal outcomes, as well as to the future health risks to mother and offspring, and demand a clearly defined global health agenda to tackle this issue; and (2) To create a consensus document that provides guidance for the first­trimester screening and prevention of preterm PE, and to disseminate and encourage its use. Based on high­quality evidence, the document outlines current global standards for the first­trimester screening and prevention of preterm PE, which is in line with FIGO good clinical practice advice on first trimester screening and prevention of pre­eclampsia in singleton pregnancy.1 It provides both the best and the most pragmatic recommendations according to the level of acceptability, feasibility, and ease of implementation that have the potential to produce the most significant impact in different resource settings. Suggestions are provided for a variety of different regional and resource settings based on their financial, human, and infrastructure resources, as well as for research priorities to bridge the current knowledge and evidence gap. To deal with the issue of PE, FIGO recommends the following: Public health focus: There should be greater international attention given to PE and to the links between maternal health and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) on the Sustainable Developmental Goals agenda. Public health measures to increase awareness, access, affordability, and acceptance of preconception counselling, and prenatal and postnatal services for women of reproductive age should be prioritized. Greater efforts are required to raise awareness of the benefits of early prenatal visits targeted at reproductive­aged women, particularly in low­resource countries. Universal screening: All pregnant women should be screened for preterm PE during early pregnancy by the first­trimester combined test with maternal risk factors and biomarkers as a one­step procedure. The risk calculator is available free of charge at https://fetalmedicine.org/research/assess/preeclampsia. FIGO encourages all countries and its member associations to adopt and promote strategies to ensure this. The best combined test is one that includes maternal risk factors, measurements of mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum placental growth factor (PLGF), and uterine artery pulsatility index (UTPI). Where it is not possible to measure PLGF and/or UTPI, the baseline screening test should be a combination of maternal risk factors with MAP, and not maternal risk factors alone. If maternal serum pregnancy­associated plasma protein A (PAPP­A) is measured for routine first­trimester screening for fetal aneuploidies, the result can be included for PE risk assessment. Variations to the full combined test would lead to a reduction in the performance screening. A woman is considered high risk when the risk is 1 in 100 or more based on the first­trimester combined test with maternal risk factors, MAP, PLGF, and UTPI. Contingent screening: Where resources are limited, routine screening for preterm PE by maternal factors and MAP in all pregnancies and reserving measurements of PLGF and UTPI for a subgroup of the population (selected on the basis of the risk derived from screening by maternal factors and MAP) can be considered. Prophylactic measures: Following first­trimester screening for preterm PE, women identified at high risk should receive aspirin prophylaxis commencing at 11­14+6 weeks of gestation at a dose of ~150 mg to be taken every night until 36 weeks of gestation, when delivery occurs, or when PE is diagnosed. Low­dose aspirin should not be prescribed to all pregnant women. In women with low calcium intake (<800 mg/d), either calcium replacement (≤1 g elemental calcium/d) or calcium supplementation (1.5­2 g elemental calcium/d) may reduce the burden of both early­ and late­onset PE.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/classificação , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Artéria Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Uterina/fisiologia
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 220(6): 610-611, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807766
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(2): 109-116, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682358

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus, the most frequent medical complication of pregnancy, affects 5-6% of women in the United States with the use of the currently predominant Carpenter-Coustan criteria, which still represent the preferred approach of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Alternative criteria proposed by the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups would likely increase gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence to 15-20%, because of both a 1-step testing policy and the requirement for only 1 elevated glucose value for diagnosis. Increasing gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence relates to older maternal age and the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity. This increased gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence is consistent with 29.3% prevalence of prediabetes and 4.5% prevalence of known diabetes outside pregnancy in US adults from 20-44 years of age. Gestational diabetes mellitus according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria is associated with almost twice the risk of large-for-gestational-age babies, increased fetal adiposity, neonatal hyperinsulinemia and preeclampsia, and a 50% higher risk of preterm delivery and shoulder dystocia. The recent publication of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Follow Up Study provides further evidence regarding the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus on long-term maternal and infant health. This study clearly demonstrates that hyperglycemia in pregnancy, untreated and identified post hoc by the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria, carries a 41.5% risk of maternal prediabetes (odds ratio, 3.72; 95% confidence interval, 3.09-4.47) and 10.7% risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio, 7.63; 95% confidence interval, 5.33-10.95) after 11.4 years of follow up. Gestational diabetes mellitus was also associated with higher rates of childhood overweight and obesity (prevalence 39.3% with maternal gestational diabetes mellitus; odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.44). This article places these findings in the context of other recent studies that have demonstrated that interventions that include lifestyle measures and/or metformin offer a >50% reduction in the risk of women with gestational diabetes mellitus experiencing the development of overt diabetes mellitus after their index gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy. Although prevention of obesity and prediabetes in offspring by pregnancy treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus has not been demonstrated to date, we argue that the immediate pregnancy benefits and opportunities for long-term improvements in maternal health justify a reevaluation of the current ambivalent approach taken by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis, which currently allow for a choice of alternative criteria. The Carpenter-Coustan or National Diabetes Data Group criteria, listed as preferred criteria by American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, markedly limit the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus in comparison with the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria and limit the opportunity for immediate and long-term follow up and treatment. We consider that new information from the Hyperglycemia and Pregnancy Outcome Follow Up Study and other recent publications on long-term maternal and offspring risk provides compelling arguments for a more comprehensive approach to the promotion of maternal and infant health through all the life cycle.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Aleitamento Materno , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas
19.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 145: 102-118, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684614

RESUMO

AIMS: An estimated 87.6% of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy cases are in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study is to review the evidence on barriers and facilitators to programmes and services addressing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in LMICs. METHODS: A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted based on searches in PubMed. A total of 23 qualitative and quantitative studies were included. RESULTS: Barriers and facilitators exist at the health system level, individual level and social and societal levels and are often interacting. At the health system level they relate to capacity in terms of human and material resources; availability of feasible and appropriate guidelines; organisational management and referral pathways. Individual level barriers and facilitators include knowledge; risk perception; illness beliefs; financial condition; work obligations; concerns for the baby and hardship associated with services. At the social and societal level important factors are: perceptions and norms related to women's roles, mobility and health; the knowledge and support of women's social network; and structural aspects. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous factors influence programmes and services addressing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in LMICs. Thus, several components are needed to ensure detection, treatment and follow-up of women with hyperglycaemia in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Gestantes/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/psicologia , Gravidez
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 145: 5-14, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596947

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HIP) is recognized as a major underlying cause of pregnancy complications and a contributing cause to health risks throughout the subsequent life of both mothers and babies, with amplification of the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. Although some aspects of these associations are well described, detailed understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms is lacking. Improved fundamental scientific knowledge must be developed to allow logical strategies for prevention and treatment. During pregnancy, much work is required to replace current empirical approaches to diagnosis and treatment of HIP with evidence based protocols, pragmatically adapted to differing health care and health economic contexts. Further, a life cycle approach to HIP, the risk of immediate pregnancy complications and later health risks to mother and baby must be developed and implemented across a wide range of health care environments. This document aims to outline key focus areas for further basic, epidemiologic, clinical and implementation research in this important area.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Hiperglicemia/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia
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