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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e010881, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311438

RESUMO

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.

3.
Biomolecules ; 9(5)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108918

RESUMO

(1) Background: Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the extremities of chromosomes that maintain genetic stability. Telomere biology is relevant to several human disorders and diseases, specifically cardiovascular disease. To better understand the link between cardiovascular disease and telomere length, we studied the effect of relative telomere length (RTL) on cardiovascular risk factors in a large population-based sample. (2) Methods: RTL was measured by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in subjects of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (n = 4944). We then performed an association study of RTL with known cardiovascular risk factors of smoking status as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. (3) Results: A significant correlation was shown for RTL, with age as a quality control in our study (effect = -0.004, p = 3.2 × 10-47). Analysis of the relation between RTL and cardiovascular risk factors showed a significant association of RTL in patients who were current smokers (effect = -0.016, p = 0.048). No significant associations with RTL were seen for cardiovascular risk factors of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.127), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.713), triglycerides (p = 0.359), smoking (p = 0.328), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.615), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.949), or BMI (p = 0.903). In a subsequent analysis, we calculated the tertiles of RTL. No significant difference across RTL tertiles was detectable for BMI, blood pressure, lipid levels, or smoking status. Finally, we studied the association of RTL and cardiovascular risk factors stratified by tertiles of age. We found a significant association of RTL and LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age (effect = 0.0004, p = 0.006). (4) Conclusions: We determined the association of relative telomere length and cardiovascular risk factors in a population setting. An association of telomere length with age, current smoking status, as well as with LDL cholesterol in the oldest tertile of age was found, whereas no associations were observed between telomere length and triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, or BMI.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) constitutes an unmet need in current daily clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels for 1-year mortality in patients with suspected AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: suPAR levels were determined in 1314 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. Patients were followed up for 12 months to assess all-cause mortality. Of 1314 patients included, 308 were diagnosed with AMI. Median suPAR levels did not differ between subjects with AMI compared to non-AMI (3.5 ng/ml vs. 3.2 ng/ml, p = 0.066). suPAR levels reliably predicted all-cause mortality after 1 year. Hazard ratio for 1-year mortality was 12.6 (p < 0.001) in the quartile with the highest suPAR levels compared to the first quartile. The prognostic value for 6-month mortality was comparable to an established risk prediction model, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, with an AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.72-0.86) for the GRACE score and 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.84) for suPAR. Addition of suPAR improved the GRACE score, as shown by integrated discrimination improvement statistics of 0.036 (p = 0.03) suggesting a further discrimination of events from non-events by the addition of suPAR. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR levels reliably predicted mortality in patients with suspected AMI. STUDY REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457).

6.
Biomolecules ; 9(3)2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889909

RESUMO

The soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a new marker for immune activation and inflammation and may provide diagnostic value on top of established biomarkers in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Here, we evaluate the diagnostic potential of suPAR levels on top of high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) in a cohort of patients with suspected AMI. A total of 1220 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI were included, of whom 245 were diagnosed with AMI. Median suPAR levels at admission were elevated in subjects with AMI compared to non-AMI (3.8 ng/mL vs 3.3 ng/mL, p = 0.001). In C-statistics, the area under the curve (AUC) regarding the diagnosis of AMI was low (0.57 at an optimized cut-off of 3.7 ng/mL). Moreover, baseline suPAR levels on top of troponin values at admission and hour 1 reduced the number of patients who were correctly ruled-out as non-AMI, and who were correctly ruled-in as AMI. Our study shows that circulating levels of suPAR on top of high-sensitivity troponin I do not improve the early diagnosis of AMI.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/análise , Troponina I/análise , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Solubilidade
8.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 20(1): 68, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work is to describe the objectives and design of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in the single center, prospective, population-based Hamburg City Health study (HCHS). The HCHS aims at improving risk stratification for coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). METHODS: The HCHS will finally include 45,000 inhabitants of the city of Hamburg (Germany) between 45 and 74 years who undergo an extensive cardiovascular evaluation and collection of biomaterials. Risk-scores for CAD, AF and HF are used to create enriched subpopulations who are invited for CMR. A total number of approximately 12,362 subjects will undergo CMR and incident CAD, AF and HF will be assessed after 6 years follow-up. The standard CMR protocol includes cine-CMR, T1 and T2 mapping, aortic/mitral valve flow measurements, Late gadolinium enhancement, angiographies and measurements of aortic distensibility. A stress-perfusion scan is added in individuals at risk for CAD. The workflow of CMR data acquisition and analyses was evaluated in a pilot cohort of 200 unselected subjects. RESULTS: The obtained CMR findings in the pilot cohort agree with current reference values and demonstrate the ability of the established workflow to accomplish the objectives of HCHS. CONCLUSIONS: CMR in HCHS promises novel insights into major cardiovascular diseases, their subclinical precursors and the prognostic value of novel imaging biomarkers. The HCHS database will facilitate combined analyses of imaging, clinical and molecular data ("Radiomics").

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(37): E8727-E8736, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166452

RESUMO

Increased adrenomedullin (ADM) levels are associated with various cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI). ADM is cleaved off from the full-length precursor protein proadrenomedullin (ProADM) during its posttranslational processing. To date, no biological effect of ProADM is reported, while ADM infusion leads to antiapoptotic effects and improved cardiac function. Using an MI mouse model, we found an induction of ProADM gene as well as protein expression during the early phase of MI. This was accompanied by apoptosis and increasing inflammation, which substantially influence the post-MI remodeling processes. Simulating ischemia in vitro, we demonstrate that ProADM expression was increased in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. Subsequently, we treated ischemic cardiomyocytes with either ProADM or ADM and found that both proteins increased survival. This effect was diminishable by blocking the ADM1 receptor. To investigate whether ProADM and ADM play a role in the regulation of cardiac inflammation, we analyzed chemokine expression after treatment of cells with both proteins. While ProADM induced an expression of proinflammatory cytokines, thus promoting inflammation, ADM reduced chemokine expression. On leukocytes, both proteins repressed chemokine expression, revealing antiinflammatory effects. However, ProADM but not ADM dampened concurrent activation of leukocytes. Our data show that the full-length precursor ProADM is biologically active by reducing apoptosis to a similar extent as ADM. We further assume that ProADM induces local inflammation in affected cardiac tissue but attenuates exaggerated inflammation, whereas ADM has low impact. Our data suggest that both proteins are beneficial during MI by influencing apoptosis and inflammation.


Assuntos
Adrenomedulina/genética , Inflamação/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Adrenomedulina/metabolismo , Adrenomedulina/farmacologia , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/farmacologia
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(8): 874-882, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognosis of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remains controversial due to scarcity of available data. Additionally, the effect of the triggering factors remains elusive. OBJECTIVES: This study compared prognosis between TTS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and investigated short- and long-term outcomes in TTS based on different triggers. METHODS: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. Long-term mortality of patients with TTS was compared to an age- and sex-matched cohort of patients with ACS. In addition, short- and long-term outcomes were compared between different groups according to triggering conditions. RESULTS: Overall, TTS patients had a comparable long-term mortality risk with ACS patients. Of 1,613 TTS patients, an emotional trigger was detected in 485 patients (30%). Of 630 patients (39%) related to physical triggers, 98 patients (6%) had acute neurologic disorders, while in the other 532 patients (33%), physical activities, medical conditions, or procedures were the triggering conditions. The remaining 498 patients (31%) had no identifiable trigger. TTS patients related to physical stress showed higher mortality rates than ACS patients during long-term follow-up, whereas patients related to emotional stress had better outcomes compared with ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, TTS patients had long-term outcomes comparable to age- and sex-matched ACS patients. Also, we demonstrated that TTS can either be benign or a life-threating condition depending on the inciting stress factor. We propose a new classification based on triggers, which can serve as a clinical tool to predict short- and long-term outcomes of TTS. (International Takotsubo Registry [InterTAK Registry]; NCT01947621).

11.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096922

RESUMO

Intrinsic iron release is discussed to have favorable effects in coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of intrinsic iron release in patients with CAD. Intrinsic iron release was based on a definition including hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). In a cohort of 811 patients with angiographically documented CAD levels of hepcidin and sTfR were measured at baseline. Systemic body iron release was defined as low levels of hepcidin (<24 ng/mL) and high levels of sTfR (≥2 mg/L). A commercially available ELISA (DRG) was used for measurements of serum hepcidin. Serum sTfR was determined by using an automated immunoassay (). Cardiovascular mortality was the main outcome measure. The criteria of intrinsic iron release were fulfilled in 32.6% of all patients. Significantly lower cardiovascular mortality rates were observed in CAD patients with systemic iron release. After adjustment for body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, sex, and age, the hazard ratio for future cardiovascular death was 0.41. After an additional adjustment for surrogates of the size of myocardial necrosis (troponin I), anemia (hemoglobin), and cardiac function and heart failure severity (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide), this association did not change (Hazard ratio 0.37 (95% confidence interval 0.14⁻0.99), p = 0.047). In conclusion, significantly lower cardiovascular mortality rates were observed in CAD patients with intrinsic iron release shown during follow-up.

12.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127295

RESUMO

Smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has been implicated in the regulation of the G protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) by affecting CpG methylation. The G protein-coupled receptor 15 is involved in angiogenesis and inflammation. An effect on GPR15 gene regulation has been shown for the CpG site CpG3.98251294. We aimed to analyze the effect of smoking on GPR15 expression and methylation sites spanning the GPR15 locus. DNA methylation of nine GPR15 CpG sites was measured in leukocytes from 1291 population-based individuals using the EpiTYPER. Monocytic GPR15 expression was measured by qPCR at baseline and five-years follow up. GPR15 gene expression was upregulated in smokers (beta (ß) = -2.699, p-value (p) = 1.02 × 10-77) and strongly correlated with smoking exposure (ß = -0.063, p = 2.95 × 10-34). Smoking cessation within five years reduced GPR15 expression about 19% (p = 9.65 × 10-5) with decreasing GPR15 expression over time (ß = 0.031, p = 3.81 × 10-6). Additionally, three novel CpG sites within GPR15 affected by smoking were identified. For CpG3.98251047, DNA methylation increased steadily after smoking cessation (ß = 0.123, p = 1.67 × 10-3) and strongly correlated with changes in GPR15 expression (ß = 0.036, p = 4.86 × 10-5). Three novel GPR15 CpG sites were identified in relation to smoking and GPR15 expression. Our results provide novel insights in the regulation of GPR15, which possibly linked smoking to inflammation and disease progression.

13.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127326

RESUMO

Most studies reporting on the association of circulating testosterone levels with type 2 diabetes in men are of cross-sectional design. Reports on the relevance of altered testosterone levels in women are scarce. Here, we evaluate the role of low serum testosterone levels for incident diabetes in men and women in a population setting of 7706 subjects (3896 females). During a mean follow up time of 13.8 years, 7.8% developed type 2 diabetes. Significant correlations of testosterone with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (R = 0.21, p < 0.001), body-mass-index (R = -0.23, p < 0.001), and waist-to-hip-ratio (R = -0.21, p < 0.001) were found in men. No correlation was found with age in men; in women, the correlation was negligible (R = 0.04, p = 0.012). In men, low testosterone levels predicted high risk of type 2 diabetes, while in women this relationship was opposite. Men with low testosterone levels showed increased risk of future diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91⁻3.72, p < 0.001 in basic model; HR 1.56 95%, CI 1.10⁻2.21, p = 0.003). In women, low testosterone levels indicated lower risk with (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37⁻0.77, p = 0.003), while the association lost significance in the fully adjusted model (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.49⁻1.05, p = 0.09). Low levels of testosterone predicted future diabetes in men. A borderline opposite association was found in women.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(6): 620-632, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1-h algorithm for rapid rule-out and rule-in of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) has been questioned. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to validate the diagnostic performance of the 0/1-h algorithm in a large multicenter study. METHODS: The authors prospectively enrolled unselected patients in 6 countries presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of NSTEMI. Final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. Hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI blood concentrations were measured at presentation and after 1 h. Safety of rule-out was quantified by the negative predictive value (NPV) for NSTEMI, accuracy of rule-in by the positive predictive value (PPV), and overall efficacy by the proportion of patients triaged towards rule-out or rule-in within 1 h. RESULTS: Prevalence of NSTEMI was 17%. Among 4,368 patients with serial hs-cTnT measurements available, safety of rule-out (NPV 99.8%, 2,488 of 2,493), accuracy of rule-in (PPV 74.5%, 572 of 768), and overall efficacy were high by assigning three-fourths of patients either to rule-out (57%, 2,493 to 4,368) or rule-in (18%, 768 to 4,368). Similarly, among 3,500 patients with serial hs-cTnI measurements, safety of rule-out (NPV 99.7%, 1,528 of 1,533), accuracy of rule-in (PPV 62.3%, 498 of 800), and overall efficacy were high by assigning more than two-thirds of patients either to rule-out (44%, 1,533 of 3,500) or rule-in (23%, 800 of 3,500). Excellent safety was confirmed in multiple subgroup analyses including patients presenting early (≤3 h) after chest pain onset. CONCLUSIONS: The ESC 0/1-h algorithm using hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI is very safe and effective in triaging patients with suspected NSTEMI. (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE]; NCT00470587; and Biomarkers in Acute Cardiac Care [BACC]; NCT02355457).

15.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037035

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. While iron deficient heart failure patients are at increased risk of future cardiovascular events and see improvement with intravenous supplementation, the clinical relevance of iron deficiency in acute coronary syndrome remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of iron deficiency in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Levels of ferritin, iron, and transferrin were measured at baseline in 836 patients with ACS. A total of 29.1% was categorized as iron deficient. The prevalence of iron deficiency was clearly higher in women (42.8%), and in patients with anemia (42.5%). During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 111 subjects (13.3%) experienced non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular mortality as combined endpoint. Iron deficiency strongly predicted non-fatal MI and cardiovascular mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.26; p = 0.037) adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, body-mass-index (BMI) This association remained significant (HR 1.73 (95% CI 1.07⁻2.81; p = 0.026)) after an additional adjustment for surrogates of cardiac function and heart failure severity (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP), for the size of myocardial necrosis (troponin), and for anemia (hemoglobin). Survival analyses for cardiovascular mortality and MI provided further evidence for the prognostic relevance of iron deficiency (HR 1.50 (95% CI 1.02⁻2.20)). Our data showed that iron deficiency is strongly associated with adverse outcome in acute coronary syndrome.

16.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958400

RESUMO

Iron is essential in terms of oxygen utilization and mitochondrial function. The liver-derived peptide hepcidin has been recognized as a key regulator of iron homeostasis. Since iron metabolism is crucially linked to cardiovascular health, and low hepcidin was proposed as potential new marker of iron metabolism, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of hepcidin in a large cohort of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Serum levels of hepcidin were determined at baseline in patients with angiographically documented CHD. The main outcome measure was non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiovascular death. During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 10.3% experienced an endpoint. In Cox regression analyses for hepcidin the hazard ratio for future cardiovascular death or MI was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91⁻1.18, p = 0.63) after adjustment for sex and age. This association virtually did not change after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI), smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and surrogates of cardiac function (NT-proBNP), size of myocardial necrosis (troponin I), and anemia (hemoglobin). In this study, by far the largest evaluating the predictive value of hepcidin, hepcidin levels were not associated with future MI or cardiovascular death. This implicates a limited, if any, role for hepcidin in secondary cardiovascular risk prediction.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 275: 256-261, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Guidelines recommend a healthy diet as a cornerstone of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Although the Mediterranean diet (MD) is the best studied dietary pattern for CV outcomes, data on association between MD and severity of CAD are limited. Therefore, we analysed dietary data in association with the SYNTAX score in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients from the INTERCATH study. METHODS: The INTERCATH study is an observational study in patients undergoing coronary angiography at the University Heart Center Hamburg. Coronary morphology is assessed by the SYNTAX score. A lifestyle questionnaire collects dietary data with food frequency questions at baseline. Based on seven dietary characteristics, we calculated an established Mediterranean diet score (MDS) with a range of 0-28 points at which 28 points reflect maximal adherence to MD. To investigate the association of MD with severity of CAD, we performed logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Of 1121 patients, 27% were women. The median age was 70.7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 61.1,77.0). CV risk factors were distributed as expected for a CAD cohort (31.3% diabetes, 81.1% arterial hypertension, 34.0% smoking, median BMI 26.6 kg/m2 (IQR 24.1, 30.3), median LDL-C 87 mg/dL (IQR 65.0,116,6). Of all variables included, the strongest correlation with MDS was found for log (hs-CRP) (r = -0.21, p < 0.001). Adherence to MD represented by a higher MDS was significantly associated with a reduced probability for a medium/high risk SYNTAX score of ≥23 with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.923 per point increase of MDS (95% confidence interval 0.869-0.979; p = 0.0079). This association remained significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (OR 0.934, 95% CI 0.877-0.995, p = 0.035). After further adjustment for log (hs-CRP), the association remained no longer significant (OR 0.955 (0.893-1.022, p = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary data set, we found an independent association of adherence to MD with a less complex CAD. Hs-CRP correlated significantly with adherence to MD and may be a marker of the vasoprotective effects of MD. These results strengthen the evidence for the protective effect of an MD pattern in CVD prevention.

18.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 25(11): 1133-1139, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808758

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common serious abnormal heart rhythm, and a frequent cause of ischaemic stroke. Recent experimental studies, mainly in orchiectomised rats, report a relationship between sex hormones and atrial electrophysiology and electroanatomy. We aimed to evaluate whether low testosterone levels are predictive for atrial fibrillation and/or ischaemic stroke in men and women. Design and methods The serum total testosterone levels were measured at baseline in a population cohort of 7892 subjects (3876 male, 4016 female), aged 25-74 years, using a commercially available immunoassay. The main outcome measure was atrial fibrillation or ischaemic stroke, whichever came first. Results During a median follow-up of 13.8 years, a total of 629 subjects (8.0%) suffered from incident atrial fibrillation ( n = 426) and/or ischemic stroke ( n = 276). Cox regression analyses, adjusted for age (used as time-scale), geographical region, total cholesterol (log), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (log), hypertension medication, known diabetes, smoking status, waist-hip-ratio, and time of blood drawn, documented differential predictive value of low sex-specific testosterone levels for atrial fibrillation and/or ischaemic stroke, in men and in women: Increasing levels were associated with lower risk in men (hazard ratio per one nmol/l increase 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.93-1.00); p = 0.049). On the other hand, increasing testosterone levels were associated with higher risk in women (hazard ratio per one nmol/l increase 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.36); p = 0.031). Conclusion Our study indicates that low testosterone levels are associated with increased risk of future atrial fibrillation and/or ischaemic stroke in men, while they are protective in women.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(6)2018 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The atypical presentation of women with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been related to delayed diagnosis and treatment, which may explain worse outcome compared with men. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed pooled data of 2520 patients of 2 prospective cohorts in terms of differences in presentation and management of women and men suggestive of ACS. Using logistic regression, we established 2 diagnostic models and tested their diagnostic performance in both sexes separately. Sex-specific differences in management of patients with ACS were ascertained and a 2-year follow-up was performed. Women were older than men (median 67 versus 61 years, P=0.001), had more often dyspnea (22% versus 18%, P=0.024), nausea or vomiting (26% versus 16%, P=0.001) and radiating chest pain (47% versus 40%, P=0.001). Classical risk factors (smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia or known coronary artery disease) were less frequent in women. Diagnostic models showed no significant sex-related differences in diagnostic performance in a "first contact" setting (medical history and symptoms) or after "complete triage" (including ECG and biomarkers). Women with ACS underwent coronary angiography (73.8% versus 84.3%, P<0.001) and revascularization (53.8% versus 70.1%, P<0.001) less frequently. Two-year incidence of myocardial infarction and death was similar in both sexes, but revascularization and cardiac rehospitalization were more frequent in men. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients with suspected ACS, sex differences in clinical presentation did not impair diagnostic accuracy. Two-year outcomes were comparable. Our findings suggest a benefit of chest pain units to minimize sex differences in ACS management and prognosis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT02355457 (BACC), NCT03227159 (stenoCardia).

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