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1.
Allergy ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is the main cause of the autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome (HIES). We previously reported the selective loss of group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC) number and function in a Dock8-deficient mouse model. In this study, we sought to test whether DOCK8 is required for the function and maintenance of ILC subsets in humans. METHODS: Peripheral blood ILC1-3 subsets of 16 DOCK8-deficient patients recruited at the pre-transplant stage, and seven patients with autosomal dominant (AD) HIES due to STAT3 mutations, were compared to those of healthy controls or post-transplant DOCK8-deficient patients (n=12) by flow cytometry and real time qPCR. Sorted total ILCs from DOCK8- or STAT3-mutant patients and healthy controls were assayed for survival, apoptosis, proliferation and activation by IL-7, IL-23, and IL-12 by cell culture, flow cytometry and phospho-flow assays. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient but not STAT3-mutant patients exhibited a profound depletion of ILC3s, and to a lesser extent ILC2s, in their peripheral blood. DOCK8-deficient ILC1-3 subsets had defective proliferation, expressed lower levels of IL-7R, responded less to IL-7, IL-12 or IL-23 cytokines and were more prone to apoptosis compared to those of healthy controls. CONCLUSION: DOCK8 regulates human ILC3 expansion and survival, and more globally ILC cytokine signaling and proliferation. DOCK8 deficiency leads to loss of ILC3 from peripheral blood. ILC3 deficiency may contribute to the susceptibility of DOCK8-deficient patients to infections.

2.
Blood ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501153

RESUMO

Dysregulated immune responses are essential underlying causes of a plethora of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity and immunodeficiency. We here investigated four patients from unrelated families presenting with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We identified four distinct homozygous mutations in TNFRSF9 encoding the Tumor Necrosis Factor superfamily member CD137/4-1BB, leading to reduced or loss of protein expression. Lymphocytic responses crucial for immune surveillance, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation, were impaired. Genetic reconstitution of CD137 reversed these defects. CD137 deficiency is a novel inborn error of human immunity characterized by lymphocytic defects with early-onset Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Our findings elucidate a functional role and relevance of CD137 in human immune homeostasis and antitumor responses.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033788

RESUMO

Gain of function mutations in the p110δ catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PIK3CD) classified as activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) are the cause of a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and lymphoproliferation. Previously, autoimmunity and Epstein-Barr virus-related B-cell lymphoma have been documented for patients with APDS; here, we present a case that extends the picture, as the patient shows the full diagnostic criteria of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis at 6 months of age. He experienced Hodgkin lymphoma as a 2.5-year-old baby. Next-generation sequencing returned a de novo heterozygous missense variant in PIK3CD (LRG_191t1: c.3061G>A; p.Glu1021Lys), confirming the primary immunodeficiency. After 2 courses of ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide combined with brentuximab, the patient successfully underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from his HLA full matched sister, and he has been well for 18 months after that. The hematologist treating Hodgkin lymphoma and/or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be vigilant about the possible underlying immune deficiency, and they should consider APDS in their differential diagnosis.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 391-400, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025232

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Interleukin-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) is an important mediator of T cell receptor signaling. Loss of function mutations in ITK results in hypogammaglobulinemia and CD4+ T cell loss in humans, and the patients often present with EBV-associated B cell lymphoproliferative syndrome. Itk-deficient mice show loss of T cell naivety, impaired cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells, and defects in CD4+ T cell lineage choice decisions. In mice, Itk mutations were shown to affect Th17-Treg lineage choice in favor of the latter. In this study, we explored whether human ITK reciprocally regulates Th17-Treg balance as its murine ortholog. METHODS: Whole Exome Sequencing was used to identify the mutation. ITK-deficient peripheral blood lymphocytes were characterized by FACSAria III-based flow cytometric assays with respect to proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) frequency. Sorted T cells from healthy donors were exposed to ibrutinib, an irreversible ITK inhibitor, to assess ITK's contribution to Th17 and Treg cell generation and functions. RESULTS: In this study, we report a child with a novel ITK mutation who showed impaired CD3/CD28 induced proliferation in T cells. ITK-mutant cells were more apoptotic irrespective of TCR activation. More importantly, T cells produced less Th17-associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-22, and GM-CSF. Conversely, Th1-associated IFN-γ production was increased. An irreversible inhibitor of ITK, ibrutinib, blocked ex vivo Th17 generation and IL-17A production, conversely augmented FOXP3 expression only at low doses in Treg cultures. Finally, we analyzed peripheral ILC populations and observed a relative decrease in ILC2 and ILC3 frequency in our ITK-deficient patient. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that both genetic and chemical inhibition of ITK result in reduced Th17 generation and function in humans. We also report, for the first time, a reduction in ILC2 and ILC3 populations in an ITK-deficient human patient.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 47(4): 578-584, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656483

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a significant health condition, whose frequency in childhood is increasing day by day. Although many factors are effective in development of the stroke, it has been showed that individuals having risk factors have a genetic predisposition. The aim of the study is to determine whether distinct genetic mutations are risk factors for children with history of ischemic stroke. Our sample data is taken from 58 patients (29 male and 29 female) who applied our hospital between 2012 and 2016 with diagnosis of acute or chronic arterial stroke and from 70 healthy children (32 male and 38 female) with similar particularities in the sense of age and sex, who have not any chronical disease. Blood samples are taken from each child participated in the study to conduct genetic analysis. It has been examined whether a mutation exists in gene locations of CDKN2B-AS1 (Rs2383206), HDAC9 (Rs11984041), NINJ2 (Rs12425791), NAA25 (Rs17696736). Moreover, whether there are significant difference between patient and control group has been investigated. In the genetic analysis of patients and control groups, no significant difference has been found for any of the genes. Mutations in gene locations of CDKN2B-AS1 (Rs2383206), HDAC9 (Rs11984041), NINJ2 (Rs12425791), NAA25 (Rs17696736) are not risk factors for ischemic stroke in childhood. However this study showed us, the patients who inherit CDKN2B-AS1 and HDCA9 gene mutations had poor prognosis. However, this study should be replicated for a wider sample of patient population.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Mutação , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal B/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(6): 699-710, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: RAS guanyl-releasing protein 1 (RASGRP1) deficiency has recently been shown to cause a primary immunodeficiency (PID) characterized by CD4+ T cell lymphopenia and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell lymphoma. Our report of three novel patients widens the scope of RASGRP1 deficiency by providing new clinical and immunological insights on autoimmunity, immune cell development, and predisposition to lymphoproliferative disease. METHODS: One patient of Turkish origin (P1) and two Palestinian patients (P2, P3) were evaluated for immunodeficiency. To decipher the molecular cause of disease, whole exome sequencing was conducted. Identified mutations were validated by immunological and biochemical assays. RESULTS: We report three patients presenting with similar clinical characteristics of immunodeficiency and EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. In addition, P2 and P3 exhibited overt autoimmune manifestations. Genetic screening identified two novel loss-of-function mutations in RASGRP1. Immunoblotting and active Ras pull-down assays confirmed perturbed ERK1/2 signaling and reduced Ras-GTPase activity in heterologous Jurkat cells with ectopic expression of RASGRP1 mutants. All three patients had CD4+ T cell lymphopenia. P2 and P3 showed decreased mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, reduced T cell receptor excision circles, abnormal T cell receptor (TCR) Vß repertoires, and increased frequencies of TCRγδ cells. TCR gamma repertoire diversity was significantly reduced with a remarkable clonal expansion. CONCLUSIONS: RASGRP1 deficiency is associated with life-threatening immune dysregulation, severe autoimmune manifestations, and susceptibility to EBV-induced B cell malignancies. Early diagnosis is critical and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered as curative treatment.

10.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 29(4): 410-414, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708898

RESUMO

: The mixing test is used to evaluate whether prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is due to an inhibitor or a factor deficiency. The coagulation reaction is demonstrated with APTT derivative curves on the ACL TOP series. We aimed to determine the utility of APTT derivative curves in the mixing test process. The plasma of a patient was mixed with normal plasma in a 1 : 1 ratio and APTT assay was performed with SynthASil reagent. We observed roughness, biphasic and shoulder patterns in derivative curves during the mixing test. An extended laboratory investigation revealed a positive lupus anticoagulant, low factors XI and IX activities. Along with mixing test cut-off limits, we recommend analysing changes in APTT derivative curves to minimize erroneous interpretations of the mixing test. Derivative curves display either a normalizing pattern in factor deficiencies or an atypical pattern in the presence of lupus anticoagulant.


Assuntos
Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial/métodos , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/análise , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/métodos , Humanos , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/sangue , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial/normas
11.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 40(6): e369-e372, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare cerebrovascular disease that may be life-threatening, especially in children. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical presentation, radiologic imaging, underlying conditions, treatment, and outcomes of children with CSVT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 23 consecutive children aged between 1 month to 18 years with CSVT, who were followed-up in Erciyes University Children's Hospital, were retrospectively enrolled in the study from January 2000 to December 2016. RESULTS: The median age of the 23 children (13 female patients, 10 male patients) at initial diagnosis was 60 months (1 to 204 mo). The most common clinical manifestation was headache/irritability (n=9). The most common site of the CSVT was the transverse sinus (n=16). The most common prothrombotic risk factor was protein C deficiency (n=4). Underlying risk factors were detected in 15 patients. Genetic risk factors such as protein C deficiency, infections, trauma, malignancies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, neurometabolic disorders, asphyxia, and cardiac malformations were common risk factors. Six children died. Multiple sinus involvement and parenchymal hemorrhages were seen in 4 and in 3 of the 6 children who died, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Protein C deficiency seemed to be relatively high in the presented children. Multiple sinus involvement and additional parenchymal hemorrhages represent poor prognostic features.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683957

RESUMO

Different types of malignancies can be seen in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). Herein we present a rare combination of NF-1 and biliary rhabdomyosarcoma in a male infant. An 11-month-old boy, who was recently diagnosed with NF-1, presented to the outpatient clinic with a 3-month history of prolonged jaundice, and failure to thrive. Clinical examination showed >20 café au let spots distributed mainly over the abdominal trunk. Hepatomegaly (4 cm below the costal margin) was additionally observed. His father was diagnosed with NF-1. Radiologic imaging studies showed a 6×5×5 cm in diameter cystic mass with multiple septations in the segment 4A of the liver. Surgical excision of the left hepatic lobe followed by hepatojejunostomy was further performed. Histopathology examination showed embryonal type rhabdomyosarcoma originating from the biliary duct. Chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, actinomycin D, and vincristine, and radiotherapy were then initiated. This treatment led to a significant improvement in the patient's clinical status, and radiologic finding portrayed attainment of complete resolution. He is still in complete remission without any sequelae for 8 years.

13.
Med Mycol ; 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608706

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data from pediatric settings are scarce. To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of IFIs in a 180-day period post-transplantation, 408 pediatric patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT were retrospectively analyzed. The study included only proven and probable IFIs. The cumulative incidences of IFI were 2.7%, 5.0%, and 6.5% at 30, 100, and 180 days post-transplantation, respectively. According to the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with increased IFI risk in the 180-day period post-HSCT were previous HSCT history (hazard ratio [HR], 4.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42-14.71; P = .011), use of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (HR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.27-6.80; P = .012), grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) (HR, 2.91; 95% CI 1.24-6.80; P = .014) and late or no lymphocyte engraftment (HR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.30-5.62; P = .007). CMV reactivation was marginally associated with an increased risk of IFI development (HR, 1.91; 95% CI 0.97-3.74; P = .063). IFI-related mortality was 1.5%, and case fatality rate was 27.0%.The close monitoring of IFIs in pediatric patients with severe acute GVHD who receive ATG during conditioning is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality after allogeneic HSCT, particularly among those with prior HSCT and no or late lymphocyte engraftment.

15.
J Trop Pediatr ; 64(2): 118-125, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575484

RESUMO

Background: We prospectively compared restrictive and liberal transfusion strategies for critically ill children regarding hemodynamic and laboratory parameters. Methods: A total of 180 children requiring packed red blood cells (PRBCs) were randomized into two groups: the liberal transfusion strategy group (transfusion trigger < 10 g/dL, Group 1) and the restrictive transfusion strategy group (transfusion trigger ≤ 7 g/dL, Group 2). Basal variables including venous/arterial hemoglobin, hematocrit and lactate levels; stroke volume; and cardiac output were recorded at the beginning and end of the transfusion. Oxygen saturation, noninvasive total hemoglobin, noninvasive total oxygen content, perfusion index (PI), heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were assessed via the Radical-7 Pulse co-oximeter (Masimo, Irvine, CA, USA) with the Root monitor, initially and at 4 h. Results: In all, 160 children were eligible for final analysis. The baseline hemoglobin level for the PRBC transfusion was 7.38 ± 0.98 g/dL for all patients. At the end of the PRBC transfusion, cardiac output decreased by 9.9% in Group 1 and by 24% in Group 2 (p < 0.001); PI increased by 10% in Group 1 and by 45% in Group 2 (p < 0.001). Lactate decreased by 9.8% in Group 1 and by 31.68% in Group 2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Restrictive blood transfusion strategy is better than liberal transfusion strategy with regard to the hemodynamic and laboratory values during the early period. PI also provides valuable information regarding the efficacy of PRBC transfusion in clinical practice.

16.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(1): 85-96, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28571522

RESUMO

We examined outcomes of 62 pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (rr-NHL) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 65% and 48%, respectively. Survival rates for patients with chemosensitive disease at the time of HSCT were significantly higher than those of patients with chemoresistant disease (69% vs. 37%, p = .019 for OS; 54% vs. 12%, p < .001 for EFS; respectively). A chemoresistant disease at transplantation was the only factor that predicted a limited OS (hazard ratio = 10.00) and EFS (hazard ratio = 16.39) rates. Intensive chemotherapy followed by HSCT could be an effective strategy for treating children with rr-NHL and may offer improved survival for a significant group of pediatric patients, particularly those with chemosensitive disease at transplantation.


Assuntos
Linfoma não Hodgkin/mortalidade , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/epidemiologia
17.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 34(4): 655-661, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is rarely seen in children, but it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, there is a need for inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic methods for estimating the prognosis. Although the prognostic importance of hematological parameters in acute ischemic stroke were reported in adult studies, there is a lack in pediatric ages. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between hematological parameters and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke in children. METHODS: Retrospectively scanned in the study were 106 pediatric patients with acute ischemic stroke who managed at the Medical Faculty of Erciyes University, Kayseri, between the years of 2000 and 2014. White blood count (WBC); neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet count; mean platelet volume (MPV); platelet distribution width (PDW); neutrophil count/lymphocyte count (N/L) ratio values obtained from the measurements and initial symptoms; demographical features; risk factors; neurological examination; and clinical follow-up were recorded. Their hematological parameters were compared with those of 106 age and sex-matched healthy individuals. RESULTS: MPV and PDW values were found similar in patient and control groups, and the platelet count was found significantly low in the control group (p = 0,028). WBC, neutrophil count, and N/L ratio were found considerably high in the patient group (p < 0.001). Lymphocyte count, however, was found significantly low in the control group (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was detected in WBC, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, platelet count, N/L ratio, and MPV and PDW values between the group with sequelae and the one without sequelae. In addition, it was determined that WBC, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, platelet count, N/L ratio, and MPV and PDW values in the univariate Cox-regression analysis of the patient group had no effect on survival and disease-free survival. When receiver operating characteristic curve was applied, it was observed that the area below WBC, N/L ratio curve was important in the patient group in terms of predicting acute ischemic stroke. CONCLUSION: The values of WBC, neutrophil count, and N/L ratio differ significantly from those of the control group. The WBC and N/L ratio may help for an earlier diagnosis in children with acute ischemic stroke. WBC, thrombocyte count, MPV, PDW, and N/L ratio do not constitute a risk in overall survival, disease-free survival, and sequelae development.

18.
Turk J Haematol ; 35(1): 27-34, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the status of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) patients in Turkey in terms of time of diagnosis, clinical characteristics, mutational studies, clinical course, and treatment strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data including clinical and laboratory characteristics and treatment strategies of JMML patients were collected retrospectively from pediatric hematology-oncology centers in Turkey. RESULTS: Sixty-five children with JMML diagnosed between 2002 and 2016 in 18 institutions throughout Turkey were enrolled in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 17 months (min-max: 2-117 months). Splenomegaly was present in 92% of patients at the time of diagnosis. The median white blood cell, monocyte, and platelet counts were 32.9x109/L, 5.4x109/L, and 58.3x109/L, respectively. Monosomy 7 was present in 18% of patients. JMML mutational analysis was performed in 32 of 65 patients (49%) and PTPN11 was the most common mutation. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) could only be performed in 28 patients (44%), the majority being after the year 2012. The most frequent reason for not performing HSCT was the inability to find a suitable donor. The median time from diagnosis to HSCT was 9 months (min-max: 2-63 months). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 33% and median estimated survival time was 30±17.4 months (95% CI: 0-64.1) for all patients. Survival time was significantly better in the HSCT group (log-rank p=0.019). Older age at diagnosis (>2 years), platelet count of less than 40x109/L, and PTPN11 mutation were the factors significantly associated with shorter survival time. CONCLUSION: Although there has recently been improvement in terms of definitive diagnosis and HSCT in JMML patients, the overall results are not satisfactory and it is necessary to put more effort into this issue in Turkey.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/epidemiologia , Biópsia , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/etiologia , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/terapia , Masculino , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Avaliação de Sintomas , Turquia/epidemiologia
19.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 29(3): 523-528, 2017 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076700

RESUMO

The orbital pathologies commonly detected during the childhood period substantially differ from the lesions that arise in adult orbit. The advance in imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might enable the radiologists and clinicians who would be involved in either medical or surgical care of orbital pathologies, to confidently establish a definite diagnosis prior to histopathologic examination. The purpose of this pictorial assay is to present relatively common paediatric orbital pathologies with regard to CT and MRI findings.

20.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 39(6): e321-e324, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a fatal disease affecting infants and very young children. Central nervous system involvement of HLH can cause catastrophic results. METHOD: We present a case with cranial involvement of familial HLH type 4 who showed diffuse infiltration of white matter complicated with intracranial thrombosis. A 5-year-old girl from a consanguineous couple presented with fever and pancytopenia, and was referred to our hematology unit. Examination revealed fever, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. Ultrasound examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly and free intra-abdominal fluid. HLH was revealed on bone marrow aspiration biopsy. Defective natural killer and T lymphocyte cytotoxicity using degranulation tests was determined. In the genetic analysis, syntaxin gene mutation was found. On T2-weighted and T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffuse hyperintense signal changes of cerebral white matter, indicating white matter demyelination, were observed. A second brain MRI showed an acute infarct involving the left temporooccipital region. Immunosuppressive therapy according to the HLH 2004 protocol was started. The infarct resolved but white matter lesions were stable on the brain MRI that was performed 1 month later. Brain MRI taken 4 months after the first examination showed stable cerebral white matter lesions, but hyperintense signal changes appeared in the cerebellar white matter and were regarded as progression. The patient died because of infection despite immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians managing patients with HLH must be vigilant about the possibility of central nervous system involvement including stroke.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Infarto/etiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Trombose Intracraniana/etiologia , Leucoencefalopatias/etiologia , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
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