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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768484

RESUMO

Choices regarding coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak may imply the development as well as the severity of emotional disorders. The aim of this web-based cross-sectional study was to: (1) assess the coping strategies for stress in a population of Polish students and (2) evaluate the impact of those strategies on the severity of depression, stress, and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown. To evaluate emotional distress, we used the DASS-21 scale and coping strategies Brief-COPE Inventory. The study included 2172 respondents (73% female, 27% male) with a mean age of 22.1 ± 2.2. Students more frequently chose stress coping strategies belonging to the 'approach' coping strategies (M = 29.60 ± 6.89) compared to 'avoidant' coping strategies (M = 22.82 ± 5.78). The intensification of distress in women caused a turn to religion (p = 0.001), while men used substances (p < 0.001) and a sense of humor (p < 0.001). Medical students coped best with emotional distress, which is very encouraging for their future profession. The highest level of DASS total score was associated with the usage of avoidant coping strategies, prior use of psychiatric or psychological support, and loneliness. Planning interventions to prevent emotional disorders in students requires the identification of factors contributing to increased emotional distress.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575267

RESUMO

To allow better diagnosis and management of psychiatric illnesses, the use of easily accessible biomarkers are proposed. Therefore, recognition of some diseases by a set of related pathogenesis biomarkers is a promising approach. The study aims to assess the usefulness of examining oxidative stress (OS) in schizophrenia as a potential biomarker of illness using the commonly used data mining decision tree method. The study group was comprised of 147 participants: 98 patients with schizophrenia (SZ group), and the control group (n = 49; HC). The patients with schizophrenia were divided into two groups: first-episode schizophrenia (n = 49; FS) and chronic schizophrenia (n = 49; CS). The assessment included the following biomarkers in sera of patients: catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), dityrosine (DITYR), kynurenine (KYN), N-formylkynurenine (NFK), tryptophan (TRY), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO) and total protein. Maximum accuracy (89.36%) for distinguishing SZ from HC was attained with TOS and GPx (cut-off points: 392.70 and 15.33). For differentiating between FS and CS, the most promising were KYN, AOPP, TAC and NO (100%; cut-off points: 721.20, 0.55, 64.76 and 2.59). To distinguish FS from HC, maximum accuracy was found for GSH and TOS (100%; cut-off points: 859.96 and 0.31), and in order to distinguish CS from HC, the most promising were GSH and TOS (100%; cut-off points: 0.26 and 343.28). Using redox biomarkers would be the most promising approach for discriminating patients with schizophrenia from healthy individuals and, in the future, could be used as an add-on marker to diagnose and/or respond to treatment.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804368

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a significant impact on both physical and mental health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to (1) evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress levels among students from Polish universities during the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) assess the risk factors of the higher intensity of emotional distress. We conducted an online survey using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) to assess well-being. The study included 2172 respondents (73% female, 27% male) with a mean age of 22.1 ± 2.2. Moderate to extremely severe scores of depression, anxiety, and stress were reported by 43.4%, 27.3%, and 41.0% of the respondents, respectively. Higher scores of DASS-21 were related to female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 3.01), studying sciences (OR = 2.04), co-residence with the roommates (OR = 1.25), suffering from a mental disorder (OR = 5.88), loneliness (OR = 293.30), the usage of psychiatric support before pandemic (OR = 8.06), poor economic situation (OR = 13.49), and the lower scores were found for being currently employed (OR = 0.4). This study highlights an urgent need for (1) crisis-oriented psychological and psychiatric support for students during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) preparing appropriate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of students for a possible similar situation in the future.

4.
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 52(2): 476-488, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent studies have suggested that molecular targets for the anti-angiogenic therapy might constitute a basis for additional therapy in gastric cancer treatment. A vast number of molecules, receptors, pathways, specific interactions, and thus strategies that target gastric cancer angiogenesis specifically have been reported in numerous research articles and clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of molecularly targeted treatment strategies in gastric cancer on the following databases-PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus-on September 20, 2020. Multiple articles and evaluations were searched for studies reporting newly found and promising molecular anti-angiogenic therapy pathways. Eventually, 39 articles regarding the anti-angiogenic therapy in gastric cancer were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: As a consequence of the release of the pro-angiogenic molecules from the tumour cells, gastric cancer presents high angiogenic capability. Therefore, potential schemes for future treatment strategies include the decrease of the process ligands as well as the expression of their receptors. Moreover, the increase in the angiogenic inhibitor levels and direct aim for the inner walls of the endothelial cells appear as a promising therapeutic strategy. Beyond that, angiogenesis process inhibition seems to indirectly exaggerate the effects of chemotherapy in the considered patients. CONCLUSIONS: The anti-angiogenic treatment in gastric cancer patients evaluates its significance especially in the early stages of the malignancy. The studies conducted so far show that most of the meaningful angiogenic factors and receptors with the potential molecular pathways should be further evaluated since they could potentially play a substantial role in future therapies.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334078

RESUMO

The alterations in serum trace element levels are common phenomena observed in patients with different psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, or major depressive disorder. The fluctuations in the trace element concentrations might act as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many psychiatric and neurological disorders. This paper aimed to assess the alterations in serum trace element concentrations in patients with a diagnosed schizophrenia. The authors made a systematic review, extracting papers from the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Among 5009 articles identified through database searching, 59 of them were assessed for eligibility. Ultimately, 33 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. This review includes the analysis of serum levels of the following trace elements: iron, nickel, molybdenum, phosphorus, lead, chromium, antimony, uranium, magnesium, aluminum, zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, and manganese. Currently, there is no consistency regarding serum trace element levels in schizophrenic patients. Thus, it cannot be considered as a reliable prognostic or diagnostic marker of schizophrenia. However, it can be assumed that altered concentrations of those elements are crucial regarding the onset and exaggeration of either psychotic or negative symptoms or cognitive dysfunctions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
6.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570709

RESUMO

Macronutrients and trace elements are important components of living tissues that have different metabolic properties and functions. Trace elements participate in the regulation of immunity through humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle spasms, membrane potential regulation as well as mitochondrial activity and enzymatic reactions. Excessive alcohol consumption disrupts the concentrations of crucial trace elements, also increasing the risk of enhanced oxidative stress and alcohol-related liver diseases. In this review, we present the status of selected macroelements and trace elements in the serum and plasma of people chronically consuming alcohol. Such knowledge helps to understand the mechanisms of chronic alcohol-use disorder and to progress and prevent withdrawal effects, also improving treatment strategies.

7.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516940

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an epidemiological threat and a worldwide concern. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 210 countries worldwide and more than 6,500,000 confirmed cases and 384,643 deaths have been reported, while the number of both confirmed and fatal cases is continually increasing. COVID-19 is a viral disease that can affect every age group-from infants to the elderly-resulting in a wide spectrum of various clinical manifestations. COVID-19 might present different degrees of severity-from mild or even asymptomatic carriers, even to fatal cases. The most common complications include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fever, dry cough, muscle weakness, and chest pain are the most prevalent and typical symptoms of COVID-19. However, patients might also present atypical symptoms that can occur alone, which might indicate the possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize all of the findings regarding clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients, which include respiratory, neurological, olfactory and gustatory, gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, dermatological, cardiac, and rheumatologic manifestations, as well as specific symptoms in pediatric patients.

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